Louise Duomo

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Louise Duomo

French anthropologist and sociologist Louis Eumo (1911–1998) is considered a major proponent of Indo-Scholastic observation. Eumo taught at Oxford Universities for many years. But in 1955 AD. After that he came to France and here he did his teaching work. Iomum’s academic career began in 1930 AD. Under the direction of the well-known sociologist Marshall Moss. His studies were interrupted due to the prisoner of war, but he continued to study Sanskrit. Duomo had a special interest in the sociology of India.

 He studied Sanskrit to understand the history of Indian society. Therefore, he is considered one of the foremost scholars who emphasized the study of Indian tradition. Eumo is particularly known for his analysis of the Indian caste system and stratification as a founder of the journal Contributions to Indian Sociology. Apart from the Indian caste system, Iumo also had a special interest in the Indian social system. Imo covered many aspects of the Indian social system; For example, many articles and books have been written on kinship, religion, marriage etc.

He was born in 1911 AD. Duomo taught at Oxford Universities for many years. But after 1955, he came to France and here he did writing and teaching work. Duomo’s academic career began in the mid-1930s under the guidance of the well-known sociologist Marshall Moss. In World War II (1939-45) his studies were interrupted due to the war, but he continued to study Sanskrit. Duomo had a special interest in the sociology of India. Therefore, he is considered one of the foremost scholars who emphasized the study of Indian tradition. Eumo is particularly known for his analysis of the Indian caste system and stratification as a founder of the journal Contributions to Indian Sociology. Apart from the Indian caste system, Duomo had a special interest in the Indian social system as well. Duomo ascended to heaven in 1998.


Dymo covered many aspects of the Indian social system; For example, many articles and books have been written on kinship, religion, marriage etc. The main ones are as follows


(1) Hierarchy and Marriage Alliance in South India ( 1954 ) Hierarchy and Marriage Alliance in South Indian Kinship

( 2 ) Homo Hierarchicus 1970 ( Homo Hierarchicus 1970 )

(3) Religion, Politics and History in India : From Mandeville to Marx 1970 ( Religion Politics and History in India : From Mandeville to Marx 1970 )

 (4) Essays on Individualism 1986, and

( 5 ) L’ideologie Allemande 1994 ( L’ideologie Allemande 1994


 Duomo is considered a well-known scholar who analyzed the caste system in India from the Indological perspective. His book Homo Hierarchicus published in 1966 has been published in English in 1970 and in many other languages ​​of the world. This book has not yet been translated into any Indian language. In the analysis of caste system, Duomo has propounded many new perspectives of social structure. The concepts of ideology and tradition are an integral part of his design. He has also adopted structuralist method for the study of caste system.


The main four elements of his methodology are

(1) Ideology and Structure,

(2) Dialectical transformational relation and comparison,

(3) Indological and structuralist approach and

(4) Ethnic historical approach.


Duomo has tried to find the ideology of the caste system in the unity of Indology and Indian civilization. Stratification also plays an important role in Duomo’s analysis of the caste system. The version is related to the opposition of the holy and the profane and the dichotomy caused by it.




Although all of Duomo’s books are considered to be of great importance, his greatest fame came from the book Homo Hierarchics, published in the English language in 1970. This book was first published in French in 1967. The English translation of this book has been done by Mark Sainsbury. This book distinguished him as a leading sociologist in the international march.

This book is divided into 11 chapters in total. In the beginning of the book, under the introductory description, he has expressed the equitable ideology of modern man in the background of the hierarchy. The contents of the chapters of the book are as follows: Homohairarki – An Introduction,


(1) History of Ideas, in which he has discussed the definitions, trends and earlier studies of caste;


 (2) From the system to the structure and the sacred and the impure (From System to Structure: The Pure and the Impure), in which he has discussed the basic facts related to the sacred and unholy ideology.


(3) Stratification: The theory of Varna (Hierarchy: The Theory of the Varia), in which he, while discussing the theory of Varna, has highlighted the basis of the distribution of stratification or status order, power and hierarchy at the regional level.


(4) The Division of Labor, which

In this he has discussed division of labour, caste and occupation and jajmani system.


(5) The Regulation of Marriage: Separation and Hierarchy, in which he discusses the grounds governing marriage, the rules of endogamy and exogamy in the context of separation and stratification.


 (6) Rules Conerning Contact and Food, in which he has tried to explain the social cohabitation and the restrictions of eating and drinking and the inter-caste relations in the observation of Niya.


(7) Power and Territory, in which he has discussed the regional power structure on the basis of the sovereign caste and the economic practices of the caste:


( 8 ) Caste Government : Justice Authorit , in which he has discussed the relationship between caste based power and power and justice system on the basis of its practical aspects:


( 9 ) Concomitants and Implications . In which he has discussed the practical aspects of abandonment, stability, change and social mobility,


(10) Comparison: Are non-Hindus and outside India castes? ( Comparison : Are There Castes Among Non – Hindus and Outside India ? ) , in which he has questioned the existence of caste among non – Hindus : ie – Christians , Muslims (in India and outside India ) between Hindus and non – Hindus . communities have been compared, and


(11) Conclusion Based on Comparison Contemporary Trend (Comparison Concluded: The Contemporary Trend), in which he has compared the contemporary trends of stratification based societies and egalitarian societies in the context of recent changes in caste.

In this book, he has done a succinct analysis of the Indian caste system and its effects by combining Indological, anthropological and high sociological theories in a multi-skilled and scholarly manner. His idea was that the sociology of India should be at the confluence of sociology and Indology. Therefore, for the study of the values ​​of Indians, it is necessary to study the scriptures and for this knowledge of Sanskrit is also necessary. Duomo has analyzed the caste system on the basis of purity which is unique. In this book, Duomo also analyzed in detail topics such as the history of caste and theories of origin, social stratification, caste system, prohibition of food and drink. Thus, Duomo has not discussed the functions or non-functions of caste like other scholars, and has tried to find the basis which governs the various aspects of the entire Hindu social system. In other words, it can be said that according to him, to understand the caste system, it is necessary to understand the ideology contained in the Indian mythological texts about it. It is a part of his Indology.


Duomo has made the basis of his analysis the ideology that governs, regulates and controls the elements like Hindu marriage, social stratification, material contact, division of labour, jajmani system, distribution of power and authority etc.


Regarding the changes taking place in Indian society, Duomo has written that, “Change is taking place in the society but the society is not changing. “His approach to ‘village in caste terms’ and ‘caste from civilizational point of view’ is different from the perspectives of other people’s caste studies.


 Duomo has called for the use of both Indology and structural approaches to study the Indian caste system and the social structure of the Indian village. Although Dumo’s views on the subject of caste system were not fully accepted, but still Marxist, post-modernist, functionalist, structuralist and no matter what ideology the person is, he ignores Duomo’s ideas in his writings related to caste system. does not make . The idea of ​​Duomo that, “India is a religious society which is governed by the pure hierarchical system of caste system” is believed by any thinker or not, but it is a factually clear statement.


Apart from the caste system, Duomo has also worked on the kinship system prevalent in South India. In this context, he has done extensive work on the community named Parmali, Kallar in South India. The Duomo is also famous for a special discussion that started in 1957 by an article.


In his article ‘Sociology for India’, Duomo expressed his views about the nature, principles and concepts of Indian sociology and methodology. Later, many sociologists like Yogendra Singh, Oberoi, D. Narayan etc. participated in this discussion through books, articles and seminars. Indian and foreign sociologists reacted sharply to this article. He said that sociology is sociology, its principles, study approach, subject-matter etc. are same in all countries. If each country starts having its own sociology, then the nature of sociology will expand. Thus he opposed the views of Duomo. On the other hand the Duomo, Pocock and others

The sociologists strongly supported the idea that separate sociology should be possible for India. Its subject matter, origin, theory and approach etc., should be done on the basis of ancient history of India and epics, Puranas, Dharmashastras, etc., which is known as Indology.


According to Duomo the concepts of purity (purity) and impurity (impurity) are based on ideas. These concepts are like a large umbrella in which immediate physical objects; For example, from cleanliness, health, etc. to daily behavior and habits, various aspects of culture and civilization are included.


He has again divided the impurity into two parts, temporary impurity and permanent impurity. The first type of impurity is transient and after the stipulated period, it attains purity again. The impurity associated with menstruation, childbirth and death are examples of this category. Permanent impurity is that which is not changeable; For example, the profession of Dom who performs the death rites.


Values ​​and ideas related to purity and impurity also determine the rules of social cohabitation and eating habits among different castes. He was of the view that the caste system in Indian society was made up of two opposing but mutually interdependent cultural elements of the sacred (Brahmin) and the impure (Shudra). These two opposing elements of the Indian structure are the lifeblood of the Indian caste system.


 According to Duomo, the brahmins and the untouchables are complementary to each other and both these elements are necessary for the whole creation, even if there is a disparity between them. According to Duomo, on the basis of social cohabitation, control and prohibitions on food and drinking water etc., religious superiority and subordination arise which over time determines the hierarchy of high and low in economic relations. Duomo, in his speech on the occasion of the establishment of the Chair of Sociology of India at the University of The Hague in 1955, said that “Indian Sociology is such a specialized branch of knowledge that lies at the confluence of Indology and Sociology.” Duomo suggested to establish Indian sociology on the basis of Indo-Vidya on the one hand and to develop completely independently from Indo-Vidyashastra on the other. Duomo writes that, “The first condition for the sustainable development of sociology for India is the establishment of proper relations between it and classical Indology. “Dumo has also given the idea of ​​’descriptive sociology’ which was rejected by many sociologists. There have been many criticisms of Dumo’s ideas. His view that the roots of caste system are engraved in Brahmanical orthodoxy and their unity in diversity, social The ideas of organization, hierarchy, purity and impurity have also been criticized a lot in the context of social change taking place in India.


 Critics say that the Duomo made the mistake of considering a society based on inequality as an ideal society. It seems that Duomo’s theory has been politically inspired by which he wants to prove that equality and socialism is not possible in Indian society based on stratification. At the same time, the Duomo revived the conflict between East and West and ignored class and ethnic inequalities in Western societies. In this way Ghurye and Duomo have not only discussed the Indological perspective but have also expanded it.



social stratification 


Analysis of the Duomo The famous French social thinker Louis Dumon has presented a good analysis of the system of social stratification in his book Homie Harraquis. We can especially see Iuma’s ideas of social stratification in his book Homo hararakis. Although Eumo did not create any separate study on social stratification.

 Prof. Louis Euomo’s concept of social stratification can be understood on the basis of the following headings (1) Caste-system – A theory of hierarchy. (2) From system to structure (3) Hierarchy: Theory of Varna-system. (4) division of labor (5) caste and occupation (6) jajmani system (7) rules of marriage, separation and hierarchy (8) rules of contact and food


 Caste System – A Theory of Hierarchy


 According to Prof. Louis Duomo, ‘Caste provides a basic principle of Hierarchy’. Eumo says – Our first basic aim is to understand the ideology of the caste system. Pro . Louis Euomo presents the definition of the word caste in the first chapter of his book, which he calls the History of Ideas. Eumo accepts an early definition of caste to present his views on the caste system and for this he accepts the definition presented by C.Bougle in ‘Contributions to Indian Sociology’. According to Bogle, the caste system divides the whole society into several hereditary groups which are generally separate from each other but they are related to each other by three characteristics. These three characteristics are as follows –


 (a) Separation – in the form of marriage and contact.

(b) Division of Labor – Each group theory

They are pursuing a certain occupation as a tradition or as a tradition and the members of that group cannot go beyond these occupations except for certain limits.

(c) Hierarchy – Those who categorize the members of the group on the basis of superiority and inferiority to each other.


According to Louis Eumo, this definition of Bogle explains the basic features of the caste system. Origin of the word caste Iumon starts his discussion with the word ‘Caste’. They say that the word ‘cast’ is generally believed to be derived from the Portuguese and Spanish word ‘casta’, which generally means ‘species’ or ‘species distinction’. According to Eumo, its etymology should not be mixed with the Latin words ‘ Castus ‘ and ‘ Chaste ‘. The term has generally been used to refer to the species itself. It has been implemented by the Portuguese around the middle of the fifteenth century. In English it has been used as a species around 1555 and in the Indian sense the word caste has been used only in the first half of the seventeenth century. In the Franciscan language it was called ‘caste’ which has been found in sporadic form before 1800. Technically its use has started only after 1700. Great French thinkers like Abbu Dubay also used the word ‘caste’ to explain racial differences.


Theory of Origin of the Caste System and Analysis of the Duomo Louis Eumo also discusses some historical explanations of the caste system, in which he specifically mentions three types of theories –


(a) Indo-European and Dravidian theories.

 (b) Racial theory.

(c) Prasaravida theory. (a) Indo-European and Dravidian Theories: Prof. Louis Euomo says that in the 19th century the scholars who were engaged in the study work in India were first guided from the Indo-European side and most of the ancient period of Indian history was the arrival of Indo-European linguistic population in India. is of This is the population whose description is also available in the Vedas and other religious texts, so it is natural that there should be an Indo-European theory of caste which Senart presented in 1896. Senart, while focusing his attention on the restrictions related to food, marriage and social cohabitation within the caste system, expressed the view that the origin of the caste system is based on the difference between the worship of the totem and the food restrictions in the family. Explaining this, your statement is that after the Aryan invasion in India, due to the increase in the ethnic mix, the level of purity was divided into two parts – on the one hand there were those who claimed to be pure on the basis of their lineage. And Tusri and there were some people who called themselves pure on the basis of their traditional occupation.

Both these circumstances resulted in the formation of many groups. Groups that believed in one more different clan deities separated from each other and on the other hand, this separation increased further due to the difference of occupation. Senart says that the people who did the work of the priests were the most organized. Thus, by the pressure of his caste power, he attained the highest position among all these groups (or caste-system). Thus the society was divided into certain groups on the basis of religion itself and according to religious purity different groups got a special social status.


(b) Species Theory Similarly, according to Eumo, there was a lot of influence of the racial theory in the present day. In explaining the origin of the caste system, almost all scholars have accepted the racial basis in some form or the other. Herbert Risley’s name is particularly noteworthy among the strong supporters of the racial theory. According to Herbert Risley, three important factors have been responsible for the origin of the caste system, they are – (a) racial contact, (b) chromaticity resulting from this contact, and (c) the feeling of class distinction. According to Risley, the caste system in India did not exist from the beginning, but it was started by the branch of Aryans who came to India through Gilgit and Chiwal and defeated the original inhabitants of Dravid here. Risley says that wherever in the history of the world one group has attacked and defeated another group, the conquerors accepted the women of the defeated group as wives, but the women of their group were in contact with the losers. There are restrictions on going in. If the conqueror and the conqueror belong to the same species, then this notion of an anuloma marriage between them is quickly weakened and the two groups mix with each other, but if the species characteristics of these two groups differ from each other. Then Anulom or aristocratic marriage is given the form of a rule. effective in this situation or

Winners follow a policy of social distancing from other blood groups. This is where the condition of varnahybridity begins, because even then, irregular cohabitation between the men and women of the conquered and conquered group continues to be established. In this way, a feeling of high and low takes birth between different groups on the basis of purity and color hybridization of blood. Risley believes that there was a system of social division among the Aryans on the basis of purity.

It was already prevalent. When Jatna Aryans came to India, they started calling themselves higher and Dravidians as lower varnas on the basis of caste. In the course of time, due to the increase in racial contact, the Aryans themselves were divided into three main classes on the basis of scholarship of blood, while the Dravidians came to be called ‘Das’ or ‘Shudra’. After this, whenever the rule of Anulom was disregarded, that is, women of higher caste established marriage relations with men of lower caste, then the children born of such marriages were considered as varna hybrid and this varna hybrid group was seen as a new caste. Started to go On this basis, the number of castes continued to increase in case of violation of matrimonial rules and due to the feeling of class distinction, one caste could never meet with another caste. Thus, according to Risley, the caste conflict – the policy of anuloma marriage – the caste mixture, the formation of hybrid groups, the caste differences, etc. has been the real sequence of the origin of castes. Risley even concluded that in India, the social or caste status of a person can be known only from the structure of the person’s nose (which is a racial trait).

(c) Expansionism Theory: The third type of explanation, which is taken from cultural history and which was more prevalent in ethnography, is that of diffusionism. Eumo incorporates Hokart’s ideas in this. Hokart believes that the origin of the entire caste system is related to many religious activities or rituals. According to Hokart, various activities related to rituals are divided into several higher and lower levels on the basis of purity. Apart from this, the number of these actions is also so much that for each action some special persons are required, such as – priest for chanting, barber to invite, gardener to bring flowers, kahar for general service etc. Thus Hokart is of the opinion that ‘from the very beginning, the division of the four classes was mainly for the purpose of fulfilling these religious activities. The mention of the four colors of the four classes, ie white, red, yellow and black, actually determined their social status according to the sanctity of the religious activities performed by the different varnas, which were genetically transmitted from one generation to the next. The generation began to transfer.



From Arrangement to Structure


Eumo names the second chapter of his book Homo Herrak’s The Caste System and Its Implications From Stage to Structure. Here the Duomo refers to its structure from caste-stage. In this chapter, Prof. Louis Duomo discusses his ideology from the caste-system and especially his concept of purity and impurity. Iumo raises the question in the very beginning that how many castes are there in India? Can a list of some of these main species be made or their number can be counted. Eumo himself says as a response that such questions are as natural in the mind of the readers, but still we are not answering these questions because they are generally considered meaningless to count the number of castes or Listing them does not explain any aspect of our study. So we will not answer these questions. Louis Duomo says that as we shall see, every real caste system is more or less confined to a definite geographical area. According to you the place of Brahmin in the hierarchy system comes at the top in almost all the regions of India.

We can talk of Brahmin caste. According to Iumo, doing this as a category is called varna-system here, not caste. Exactly the same is the case with the untouchables, who fall at the bottom of this hierarchy. Many castes of these untouchables can be seen in only one geographical area or district. Iumo gives an example to say that barbers are found almost everywhere in India. Although their position is clearly visible separately in both northern India and southern India. According to Louis Eumo, a species which appears one from the outside, is divided in its inner form into many sects, that is, a species has many sub-castes and also in general a specific species is a complex group which is divided into different stages and levels. Different functions have been implemented with these different levels.


According to Eumo, in general terms, caste is a state of mind, i.e., a state of mind which is defined as caste in terms of the emergence of different groups in different circumstances, etc. Eumo looks at the definition presented by Hutton here, which he prepared on the basis of various definitions. According to Prof. Hutton, caste can be seen and understood as a social unit in the semi-organic system of society and it can be easily recognized throughout India. Prof. Hutton, who was the All India Commissioner and an undisputed author of the 19th and 21st Census of India, gave another definition of caste and wrote that caste is a system under which the whole society is many self-centred and independent from each other. It is divided into separate units (castes). The mutual relations of these units should be determined by tradition on the basis of high and low.

It is Though the ideas presented by Hutton are more balanced in the list of Western thinkers, but the sense in which Hutton has used the word ‘self-centred’ is basically related to casteism and not to caste-status. Hutton wrote that a characteristic of modern sciences is that no single element of the structure can be understood until its function is observed. Thus Hutton is considered a supporter of structural functional approach in sociology. Hutton insists that our first goal is to study the whole system and only then can we understand the whole caste better. Eumo further discusses the fact that what do we understand by caste system. According to Eumo, the word is commonly used in two different bases (a) empirically (b) ideologically (ideologically).

According to Eumo, those species that live in a definite geographical area. They can be seen as geographical conditions. According to him, there is sufficient reason to believe that the caste-system in ancient times viewed as such an abstract whole, on or basis, cannot be considered primary nor sufficient, but for its tangible whole, we can consider it on the basis of general principles. But must see. In this sense one can analyze the caste system as an Indian institution.


 Thus, at this level, the caste-system as a whole is a system of ideas and values, and in the intellectual sense, the caste-system is a formal, comprehensive and logical system. According to Louis Duomo, our first aim here is to see and understand this intellectual system of caste-stage. In other words, we have to see its ideology, so according to Iumo, the first and foremost fact for us is to see, understand and analyze caste in terms of the system of values.


But this stage does not have the ability to change the traditional situation in one night and we are related here with this traditional situation. Eumo went on to discuss in detail in his book how the concept of purity and impurity is related to the caste-system. Iumo considers the concept of purity and impurity as an important part of the caste-system and discusses them on this basis. Again Eumo divided the concept of ‘ impurity into two parts (a) temporary impurity, (b) permanent impurity. According to Duomo, in most parts of the world, events such as the birth, death, etc. of a person are considered important in almost all families and the notion of ‘temporary impurity is imposed on the persons affected by these events. As a result, contact with other people is prohibited for these temporary impure persons.

Dumo gives an example to illustrate that a new Catholic mother who has given birth to a child is only out of church for forty days. That is, for 40 days it is impurity for her to enter the church and after these forty days she meets the pastor on the porch of the church for the first time with a lit candle and regains her purity. According to Louis Duomo, making a place for this notion of impurity as it appears is the greatest way to allow this impurity to end. Louis Euomo says that this type of impurity has to be faced in India itself. He gives an example from the book ‘History of Dharmashastra’ by Prof.P.V.Kane that a person close relative and a good friend had to remain untouchable for a certain period of time because of these notions. Eumo has discussed the concept of impurity in detail by giving many examples from Indian tribal societies. Louis Duomo also takes the help of many historical facts in his study and tries to explain the concept of purity and impurity through these historical facts. He says that in normative literature, that is, in religious literature, purification (shuddhi) is understood as an important feature. Iumon has taken an example from Manu and discussed the fact that Manu discusses the external areas of impurity which is basically based on his values ​​such as silk is considered sacred than cotton cloth and gold is considered sacred than silver and copper. But according to Eumo, things are not considered to be impure by contact, but they are considered sacred and impure by the way they are used. But the Duomo also states that at present new ornaments etc. are worn by almost all persons. Eumo writes that, it has been observed that 136 of the individual’s own



Theory of Varna System

 Prof. Louis Eumo has presented the theory of hierarchy in his book, Louis Eumo, in this study, along with the general discussion of the hierarchy system, Varna system, caste and varna, hierarchy and power, regional Presents a prime example of status hierarchy and central India According to Prof. Louis Eumeon, the original meaning of hierarchy was initially from religious categories, but in the modern era, according to Eumo, the hierarchy system itself has changed in the form of ‘social stratification’. Went . They say that the hierarchical system where religious values ​​are completely

It is natural to see how this hierarchical system is related to power and how authority can be defined. According to Louis Eumo, the hierarchy theory was presented in opposition to the sacred and the profane, but here we cannot do this. But we can definitely say that this protest, which is purely religious, does not give us any information about the place of power in society. For this we have to look at the traditional Hindu doctrine which at least was not rooted in caste. In this way, according to Eumo, it can be understood on the basis of ‘Varna-system’.


According to Eumo, in no case can a person discuss caste without discussing Varna. Louis Eumo says that instead of caste, we have to study the varna system in ancient India and simultaneously see the relationship between varna and caste. This relation of varna and caste should be done especially from the point of view of relation between rank and power, only then we will be able to explain the varna system systematically and understand the concepts of hierarchical system and power and power in a systematic way. Thus we see that according to Iomum, not only speed but also varna plays an important role in the system of stratification and there is a close relationship between hierarchical system and varna. In this way, Louis Euomo considers the caste system as the central reason for his study. Iumon says that in India, in addition to the hierarchy of the sacred and the profane, a traditional hierarchy can be seen here in the form of four varnas. Here we will first discuss the general meaning of Varna.



Hierarchy and Power


After this, Louis Eumo has discussed the relationship between rank and power and Eumo believes that social stratification can be discussed only on the basis of the close relationship between these two. Power can be understood in both traditional and modern forms. Eumo also presenting an example of regional status, range and central India, Eumo has discussed the study done by ‘PS Mahar’ and ‘Mekim Marriott’ in Uttar Pradesh and western part. McKim Marriott is of the view that caste hierarchy is an essential part of social structure. They believe that caste is an organization of collective consensus in which certain ethnic groups are assigned a higher or lower position in relation to a whole. This hierarchy is generally built on the basis of priority and prestige. McKim Marriott had completed his studies in five regions of Kerala, Coromandel, High Ganges, Central Indus and Delta of Bengal. The caste hierarchy was more clearly seen in Kerala, while the linear hierarchy there led to the interaction and exchange of services according to religious groups. The caste hierarchy was found to be less clear in Coromandel, there was a dispute between the lower castes as to which caste was higher.

The permutation along the banks of the Ganges was found to be simple and horizontal and there was a lack of clear stratification between cultural and non-cultural interactions. The caste configuration was generally seen to be simple in the remaining two areas which were Muslim dominated. Louis Duomo says that the theory of hierarchy is a system of attribution and interaction as a category in which each is related to the whole. Thus Eumo believes that every unit of the system is related to the whole and for the study of this unit we must see it in the whole itself. Louis Duomo says that the concepts presented by Mackim Marriott cannot be said to be completely true because Mackim Marriott was originally related to caste categories. they 143

In his study, he could not clearly discuss the step hierarchy theory and its relation to the whole. Consequently, in the theory presented by Mackim Marriott, the social hierarchy and the aspects of the whole were neglected. Louis Euomo says that we agree that hierarchy and division of labor are closely related, but still they cannot be analyzed separately, but their relationship can be understood only when we discuss it thoroughly. do it in a proper way.

This principle also explains to some extent the separation which is the imposition of authority. Eumo believes that interaction cannot be superimposed on the place of complete ideological orientation. Thus we see that while Louis Eumo discusses the relation of rank hierarchy and caste in his theory of social stratification, he also considers the varna system as an essential traditional requirement of hierarchy and analyzes it. At the same time, Louis Eumo also considers the concept of ‘power’ important in the pedagogy and insists that this power should be seen and analyzed in the context of the whole. A discussion of power in the context of any one unit of the hierarchy would be meaningless and for this the Duma criticizes McKim Marriott who has only discussed the power relations with caste categories and did not analyze the hierarchy system and their relationship with the whole. Is . Along with this, Eumo has related the division of labor with the hierarchy system and analyzed the imposition and interaction with it.


 Caste and Occupation

Louis Eumo has written that there is definitely a close relationship between caste and occupation. It cannot be seen easily. Eumo presenting Blunt’s ideas in this regard, Blunt has tried to merge it with Rissey’s racial theory, considering the occupational basis as important in the origin of the caste-system. According to you, the origin of the caste system is related to the occurrence of occupational divisions in a class society. Clarifying this, Blunt thinks that Indian society from the very beginning has been divided into many ethnic groups, based on the degree of racial purity or racial admixture. At the same time, on the basis of business here many numbers? (Groups) were formed in which the people of all the groups started getting membership. These unions grew into powerful organizations and to preserve their professional knowledge, they adopted the policy of endogamy. The extent of these commercial associations was so widespread that many tribal groups also started joining them. Even after this, these tribal groups insisted on establishing marriage relations only within their own group. This is the reason that under the caste system, all the major castes and sub-castes are endogamous in themselves. Blunt is of the view that most tribes trace their origin to a particular ancestor.

This is the reason that under the caste system, although the dominant castes do not have a common ancestor, many sub-castes still claim their origin from a particular ancestor. Thus we see that Blunt holds that the caste-system was born out of occupational division in Indian society. On the basis of business, many business associations were formed here, whose membership could be obtained by any person in the beginning. Gradually they started getting organized and started trying to keep the professional knowledge safe to themselves. For this purpose, they followed the policy of endogamy and they started establishing matrimonial relations with the people of their own group. These groups were later converted into castes. Even today endogamy is an important feature of caste. Doctor . Yes . s . Ghurye says that along with this occupational bond which was being implemented in the early nineteenth century, there also existed the staunch belief that the majority of the castes each had their own traditional occupation and therefore the same was their .


The members had a hereditary occupation, which was to be abandoned in search of another occupation, if not sinful, then at least unfair. The various evaluations of the occupations prevalent in the society have not only been the hallmark of all societies, but have also been the hallmark of many tribal or unread societies. To this symptom of social development, Eumo has drawn attention to the appropriate places according to the appropriate demand of the subject, as a result it will be clear that even in modern societies like West’s Anglo and American, this evaluation is a symptom of their social formation and psychological tendency.

Even in the caste society of India in the nineteenth century, the almost unanimous plan of social seniority and hierarchical hierarchies of occupations or occupation groups, except for the miraculous but one-sided judgments implied in proverbs and hymns regarding the metaphorical conduct and social status of certain castes was present. Using this scheme, Herbert Risley arranged the castes of Bengal hierarchically according to social seniority at the end of the nineteenth century. In the Indian assessment of occupations, the characteristic of taking the work of non-corporeal labor higher than manual labor was present in the same way as was silently accepted in contemporary Britain and America, but caste and sacred theology were involved in the implementation of this principle.

The more important idea went beyond this. Another form of social evaluation of work, i.e. whether the work or its related substance is pure or impure, sacred or profane, corrupting or not, which was once so prominent in the society of the century or that it was considered to determine the social origin of a work or occupation. It can be considered a factor, but this assessment itself was so ingrained in the caste-system that it did not appear as a barrier in the conscious social view. Almost everywhere they were not corrupt to the occupational group, were generally considered to be open territory for the pure upper castes, and secular values ​​were centered around them. At least in India during the time of the Indo-Aryans, the upper castes themselves used to guide themselves in the choice of occupation, to the extent that it was practical in the mostly sedentary and rural society which was based on differences and characteristics of work and occupation. Been based for more than a thousand years and which is represented by such a statement. Among the occupations, “Agriculture is the best, while trade is the medium and employment is the worst. Certainly before the advent of British administration, there was very little scope for jobs, and the salary was very little. The actual condition of the job was also such that the developed self of the people was there. – did not match respect. Manu had declared long ago that job is the life of a dog. Along with this it existed the infamous fact that administrative officials at all levels were eighty and evil in nature. accountant and

For the members of the revenue staff, customs and other tax-collecting departments, this proverb is the same 


Jajmani System

 After this, Louis Neumo presents his views on the jajmani system. They say that social stratification cannot be discussed without understanding the jajmani system found in India for social stratification. William Wiser first mentioned the jajmani system in rural India, Oscar Lewis, while discussing the jajmani system, wrote that “in the jajmani system, each caste group in the villages is expected to give certain boundaries to the families of other castes as well.” He makes wooden things in the villages, the blacksmith makes iron tools, and the barber cuts the hair, but they do not provide their services to all the people, but they provide their services only to those families with whom their family relations are going on.

The father must have served the same families and his daka also works for those families.Thus this occupation and boundaries have been traditionally run on the basis of caste and the family that is served in jajmani praya is that family. Or the head of the family is called the jajman of the service person and the person providing the service is called ‘kamin’ or the worker. These words are used in North Western India. In other parts of India where this practice is found Other names for Kamen are also popular. The Jajmani system is called ‘Blute’ in Maharashtra, Madras in Madras and ‘Adde’ in Mysore. Wijn has written defining the jajmani system. Under this custom, a certain work of each caste continues from generation to generation. He has a monopoly on this task. In this, one caste fulfills the needs of another caste. Sri Reddy is of the view that in the jajmani stage, a member of one caste ancestrally provides his services to another caste on a traditional basis.

These service-relationships, which are governed in ancient times, are called ‘Jajman-Kamin relations’. In Webster’s dictionary it is written, ‘Jajman is a person who has hired Brahmins for religious services, thus he is a patron worker. The word ‘Jajman’ is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘Yajman’ which means one who performs a sacrifice. Gradually this word came to be used for all those who used to get any work done in the form of service. Thus the exchange of money is less in the jajmani system because it is not an open market economy, nor is the relation of the jajman’s kaman like a servitor and a servitor like in the capitalist system. The jajman pays his kameen in cash or grain from time to time, the kameen gets food, clothing, residence and facilities for using some tools and raw materials in return for the service. These features make this system robust. Today, even when the use of money has increased a lot, farmers still prefer to pay in food grains. When Visor wrote his book after studying Karimpur village in Mainchuri district, he did not know that this system is so widespread. 

It has been studied in detail in the village. Several studies in eastern Uttar Pradesh, parts of Malabar and Cochin, Mysore district, Tanjore, Hyderabad, Gujarat and Punjab suggest that the Jajamani system is widespread and varies on a local basis. In this way Iumo has discussed the study done by Visser giving an example which is related to village Karimpur. Karimpur, which is a village of 754 people between the rivers of Ganga and Jamuna and where Brahmins are found in the form of dominant caste and who have occupied a large part of the land. It is also the highest numerically. Out of 161 families, which are of about 24 castes, 41 families of Brahmins alone have been found. Louis Eumo says that ‘We can see here some features keeping in mind the jajmani system, which was traditionally an important basis of the division of labor in India.

According to Iumo, in short, two types of castes appear – first those who have land and secondly those who do not have land. Iumo believes that in almost every village there are one or a few castes that own the land and this can be considered as the Dominant Caste. These dominant castes are the owners of economic power and they also have ownership of land, subsistence goods and political power. The dominant caste also plays an important role in deciding the inter-caste relations. Thus, the dominant caste is the caste which is more numerically in the village or area, the higher the position in the caste hierarchy. The dominant caste dominates other castes because of its numerical power, economic prosperity and political dominance. She settles the disputes of other castes of the village and controls them. The dominant caste is more prosperous in the village. Most of the land in the village is owned by him, so economically other castes are dependent on the dominant caste. The people of the dominant caste are the most educated, they have relations with the administrative officials and they are the center of rural political power. It is the dominant caste that helps other castes in the governance and also gives them political protection.

The dominant caste uses its pressure on other castes to mobilize votes. Thus dominant caste also plays an important role in deciding inter-caste relations. Describing the importance of the concept of dominant caste, Eumo says that the concept of dominance or dominant caste represents a solid and fruitful achievement of studies in the field of social anthropology in India. Thus, Louis Euomo is of the view that numerical power is the result of dominance and not the basis of dominance. Eumo is of the view that the cultural status of the caste is based on the principle of gradation (purity and impurity). to be clearly distinguished from dominion 150

Shahi. Domination is the result of ownership of land. Many scholars have emphasized that dominion is the result of land ownership. Many scholars have emphasized that dominance should not be associated with caste as these two are different facts. Louis Dumon presented the theory of social stratification in the form of division of labor, in which he discusses the importance of caste and occupation, and Blunt Rao presents Ghurya’s ideas in this regard. Eumo believes that caste is necessarily related to occupation and that the hierarchical system of caste can be clearly understood on the basis of occupational division. Although in doing so we have to keep in mind the traditional form of the Indian caste system. Similarly, Iumo also accepts the Jajmani system as an important basis for a traditional division of labor in the hierarchical system and at the same time he discusses the concept of dominant caste. According to Eumo, in every village there is one or some castes which claim to be superior to the other castes of the village on many grounds, and possess no economic and political power, as well as have the means of subsistence. There is dominance. These castes mainly decide about the village and hold an important place in the power structure.


Rules of Marriage:


We can see the ideas related to separation and hierarchical social stratification in the rules of marriage presented by Duomo and the system of separation and hierarchies. According to Iumo, the importance of marriage, endogamy – its general approach and limitations, arrangement of marriage and hierarchies of similar units and some examples of anuloma and pratiloma marriage, along with the theory of marriage and varna can be seen in the Niyama related to marriage. Marriage is such a social institution that is found in almost every part of the world. Hindu marriage occupies a prominent place in Indian social institutions.

Manu has said that just as all living beings survive by the help of wind, similarly all ashrams derive their life from home. Through marriage, a person enters the householder’s ashram and tries to attain the four Purusharthas Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha. In this way some rules related to marriage are definitely found in every society, the rules found in Hindu society are different from the rules found in other societies. Here Duomo discusses some rules specially, which we can see under endogamy anulom and pratimoma marriage. Endogamy means to marry in one’s own varna, many castes and sub-castes are found in each varna, hence endogamy. Not related to varna but related to castes and sub-castes i.e. all people in their caste or sub-caste 151

It establishes marital relations.



Contact and Eating Rules


Similarly, Louis Eumo discusses in detail various rules in the laws of contact and eating, in which he presents in detail the relations of contact and untouchability, general forms of food and food and especially water in relation to caste. According to Eumo, food is also generally divided into two parts, raw and cooked. Generally, people of any two castes do not take raw food with each other. Brahmins generally do not take raw food with Kshatriyas and other castes. All the lower class people of the upper caste can take water here, but the people of the upper class can also take pucca food here only from the touchable castes, where water can be taken, but there are exceptions like Thakur Cheron. One can take water at the people’s place and Kalwar Telis’s place, not food. Lower castes and tribal castes share water with each other. Similarly, according to Duomo, there are also its own rules of contact. Ordinarily, untouchable persons of lower varna cannot touch persons of higher varna. These rules can also be seen in different forms at different places. Thus the social stratification of Louis Duomo can be seen in terms of hierarchy and caste system, varna system, hierarchy and power group, hierarchy and power, notions of purity and impurity, division of labour, rules of marriage and rules of contact and eating habits. can!


 Concept of Dominant Caste


 Caste system is the main basis of social stratification in Indian villages. These different castes have been economically dependent on each other through the jajmani system. Relation between low and those castes Landlord and tenant, owner and servant, moneylender, car and loan 153

taker, custodian

And are also found in the form of subordinates, etc. In order to understand the mutual relation and village unity of castes, it is necessary to understand the concept of dominant caste. The concept of this also contributes to understanding the political system, power and justice system and domination of the village. (Numerical power, (2) Economic and political dominance, (3) High social status in religious functions or caste system, (4) Modern education and new occupation, (5) Work for unity of village, justice and welfare. (1) Numerical Numerical Strength – The main basis of the Lord’s caste is its numerical strength. Prabhu caste has more number of Holi in the village or area than other castes. Being more in number, it dominates other castes. Minority castes. One has to bow before his power and sometimes the sovereign caste also oppresses them. Minority castes also oppose the sovereign caste in such situation. (2) Economic and Political Dominance – Region or In the village, the dominant caste holds economic and political power. It has the maximum land in the village, on which work is done by the people of other castes.

Thus other castes are financially dependent on the lord caste. Economic dependence is the political dominance. give birth too She is At the time of election, the lord caste is able to get the votes of its dependents. Sometimes she also uses force and intimidation to get political power and position. Prabhu castes in the village act as vote banks in the elections to the state assembly and the Lok Sabha. (3) Higher Status in Caste Hierarchy In the system of caste hierarchy, it is necessary for a caste to hold a higher position in the caste system. No low caste has been found because purity and impurity of castes has also been an important aspect in the social hierarchy. Sometimes a lower caste, being more in numbers or being economically prosperous, could not take the place of the Lord caste in the village only because it was at a lower level in the caste hierarchy. (4) Modern Education and New Occupations – The dominant caste in the village is more educated than other castes. She is engaged in new businesses and jobs. Being educated, he has contact with government officials. All these things have an effect on the other castes and they consider the lordship of the caste. (5) Administration of Justice, Unity and Welfare for the whole community – Prabhava caste contributes in maintaining the unity of the village and does such work which will benefit the whole community. 

 It also does the work of settlement of disputes and justice in the whole village. The Lord caste equals the Niya of other castes. For resolving the disputes of other castes, the elders of the GOD caste are brought to the people: GOD caste is fair and neutral. Only those matters which are related to caste are taken to the elders of their caste living in nearby villages. Prabhu caste has an important role in public festivals and meetings. Describing the importance of the concept of sovereign caste, Iuma states that “the concept of lordship or sovereign caste represents the extent and fruitful achievement of studies in the field of social anthropology in India. Criticism: Iumo’s view is that numerical power dominates.”

It is the result of domination and not the basis of dominion. Eumo is of the view that the ritual status of a caste is based on the principle of gradation (purity and impurity). This should be clearly distinguished from dominion. Domination is that of land ownership. The result is. Many scholars have emphasized that domination should not be associated with caste as these two are different facts. Many times more than one caste is dominant in the village in terms of numbers, caste stratification and economic and political terms. In such a situation it is very difficult to decide which of them should be called the dominant caste. In such a situation we see the lord castes in place of the dominant castes. For example, Brahmins in Bharko village near Bhagalpur both yadav They were claiming dominance. A similar situation has been mentioned by Bailey in the Odia villages. At present, due to new changes, the traditional dominance caste has been challenged and other castes are taking the place of the lord caste, in which there are middle level castes also. Due to the abolition of the zamindari system and land reforms, the land ownership of the Prabhu caste has decreased. Panchayati Raj system, reservation in elections for the lower castes and adult franchise. Adi has weakened the power of the GOD caste.

In Chanukheda and Senapur and Madhopur villages of Uttar Pradesh, the power of the Rajput dominant caste has been challenged by the lower castes like Chamar, Noni, Kahar, etc. This process of change can be seen in other villages of India also. 11.16 Summary After studying this unit, you will be able to know the Personality and Creativity of Lewis Duomo Contribution of Lewis Eumeon to Sociology Eummon’s Indologist Perspectives Duomo’s development in the field of social stratification.



Structural – Functional Perspective



The structural-functional perspective is considered a major perspective used in anthropological and sociological studies. Its development has been mainly done as a result of efforts to overcome the limitations of evolutionary, historical and comparative perspectives and it has also been successful to a great extent.


In evolutionary and historical perspectives, hypothetical, unproven and unproven facts were increasingly used for historical reconstruction, because the studies of origin and development (which are mainly carried out by evolutionary and historical perspectives) in which phases or Facts about the levels were not available, only speculation was being resorted to about them. Similarly, in the comparative perspective in social anthropology, some scholars started using simple and superficial studies and imaginary facts. Sociologists started thinking that if we keep doing our studies with the help of imaginary facts, then we will never be able to make this subject (sociology) a science, so such a perspective of study and research was developed in which on imaginary facts. Efforts are made to find out the real facts rather than based studies. This perspective is known as structural-functional perspective or functionalism. From the structural-functional perspective, attention is paid to the present form of the unit of study rather than the aspects related to origin and development. Through this perspective, today a unit is analyzed on the basis of its structure and functions, that is, an attempt is made to know what are the different parts of a unit and what do they contribute in maintaining that whole unit?


Meaning of Structural – Functional Perspective

Today structural-functional perspective is considered a major principle in sociological studies. This perspective is based on the basic assumption that each part and unit of a society or social structure makes a definite contribution to the maintenance of the whole society or structure. Units are indispensable and essential because of their contribution in maintaining the integrity.


 It is also based on the belief that the social activities of the different parts of the whole are interrelated. This perspective has been developed as a result of efforts to overcome the limitations of evolutionary, historical and comparative methods used in early sociology and anthropology. An attempt is made to know the function of social unit (different parts of society, community, committee, institution etc.) by structural-functional perspective. Function is the result of a social unit that fulfills a need related to the continuation or existence of society. From this perspective, we try to know what contribution such a unit contributes in maintaining the existence of the whole system or society. The structural-functional perspective has been used in many ways. In fact, it represents many approaches, systems of definitions and philosophical perspectives. For example, Malinowski proposed Individualistic functionalism, Durkheim proposed social functionalism and Radcliffe-Brown proposed structural functionalism, Parsons proposed socio-structural and individualistic types. Tried to present the coordination of functionalism.

Davis has considered the structural-functional perspective as a theory and has tried to differentiate it from other methods and theories in sociology. Homans called the structural-functional perspective a method, while Inkeles considered it an approach. According to Inklis, the structural-functional perspective attempts to view society as interrelated units and not as individuals or groups. The main question that is asked in this is that how social life remains organized despite the change in the membership of the society due to the change of generations? The basic answer to this question is that ‘order is maintained in social life because societies find such means (structures) that fulfill the essential needs (functions) for the maintenance of organized social life. In other words, this perspective seeks to know how the various structures of society are intertwined to maintain society as a system. The names of Durkheim, Merton and Parsons among sociologists and Malinowski and Radcliffe-Brown among anthropologists are notable in the context of this approach. to study rural society

But most of the Indian sociologists have adopted this perspective. Among them S.C. Dubey (S.C. Dube) and M.N. Srinivas (M. N. Srinivas) are prominent.


Basic Assumptions of Structural – Functional Perspective


 Structural-functional perspective based on certain premise and prepositions which we can call its fundamental assumptions. Its basic assumptions are as follows


 (1) Structural-functional analysis gives more priority to the totality or arrangement than to the organs or elements. For structuralist functionalists the meaning of system is different organs.



Indian society is a composite formed by 165 kartas whose parts are related to each other and they make definite contribution to maintain that whole.


(2) The various parts or elements of the system are functionally interconnected. In order for an organ or element to perform its normal function properly and to maintain order, it is necessary that the other organ or element also perform its normal function properly.


(3) Each part of the system has a definite positive function to maintain order or oppose disintegration or change in a negative way. Therefore, through this, the essential functions and non-functions for existence are studied.


 (4) Every system is an integrated arrangement of organs or elements which constitute an organic whole.


 (5) Every society has a relatively stable structure and the instruments of self-control are found in it. Society should maintain its balance only by these instruments.

keeps .


(6) The proper functioning of the social system depends on the common goals and values ​​of the members in relation to those goals which are related to the basic needs of the society.


(7) The main condition of the society is stability and consensus, not the struggle based on pressure and opposition.


(8) Every system has to fulfill certain functional pre-requisites to maintain its existence. These pre-requisites may be related to membership, their basic needs, their functions and roles, their goals and means, socialization, control over behaviour, communication and protection from the environment.


Utility of Structural – Functional Perspective


 The structural-functional perspective is considered a popular perspective in sociological and anthropological research today. Its usefulness can be explained by its following properties


 (1) Real sociological perspective – Kingsley Davis has considered only structural-functionalism as a real sociological perspective because this perspective is more useful in the actual study of social phenomena than other perspectives.


 (2) Helpful in studying social unity and equilibrium – Structural-functional perspective is based on the assumption that each unit has its own specific role or function and that all units are related and holistic. contribute to maintaining it. Therefore, this perspective is very helpful in the study of social unity and balance found in the unit.


(3) Helpful in studying inter relationships between different parts – This perspective is helpful not only in studying the functions of social units but also in studying the functional relationships found between different social units. Also helpful. Because change in any one unit


Bhaa Pratima’s attitude is very important, it affects 166 other units and the whole system from the perspective of Indian society, so it is also helpful in the study of changes to some extent.


(4) Helpful in scientific studies – In structural functional perspective, because reality is studied without resorting to imaginary facts, so this method has helped in making sociology a science. The studies done by it are more scientific than the studies done by historical and comparative approaches. This method helps in making sociological analysis more scientific by accepting objective factors. The structural-functional perspective is also considered more useful because it is based on the tradition of field work. This makes it possible to understand social reality in terms of relevance. The conclusions of the studies done by this perspective are certainly completely different from the findings of those studies which were done by English and other Western scholars in the colonial period and were without context.


 Major Limitations of Structural – Functional Perspective


Structural-functional perspective, though useful in sociological studies, is not entirely fault-free. Its main limitations are as follows

are there


 (1) One-sided studies – Structural-functional perspective is one-sided because of its emphasis on the study of only one aspect of society i.e. unity and balance found in different parts. This theory downplays the importance of social conflict.


(2) Unsuitable for comparative studies Structural-functional perspective is not helpful in comparative studies because from this we can study only the interconnected parts of the social unit and their functions. Each social unit is uniquely related to other units which we do not know from functionalism. Comparative functionalism still remains a matter of debate.


 (3) Teleological Explanation: Many scholars have expressed the view that structural-functional perspective is not a method in the real sense, but only a utilitarian explanation, which presents every thing and phenomenon found in society as useful. Is .


(4) Unsuitable for studying change Structural-functional perspective is not very helpful in explaining social change because in this equilibrium is considered as normal phenomenon and change as abnormal phenomenon. Some critics do not even say that the study of change is beyond the scope of functionalism, but the essence bin to svi adh (M Gor seat Raj Bet (Md Pras).


 (5) Difficult to test hypotheses The structural-functional perspective is not much helpful in testing hypotheses. Therefore, its usefulness in social research is very limited.


(6) Conservative ideology – Many scholars have described the structural-functional perspective as a conservative ideology because in it every other because self-village



are related. Theoretical perspective of understanding Indian society 167 Organs are considered functional and indispensable for maintaining the existence of society. It is not proper to consider every organ and unit as functional and essential. In any case, functionalism is still considered an important perspective of sociology and anthropology. T.B.Bottomore (T.B.Bottomore) says that the most important thing about structural-functionalism is that it has been made very important and clear to a simple idea that in every particular society the different social actions are interrelated. But sometimes it is a matter of discovery that which functions of each society are related and how structural-functional perspective has been used by scholars like Durkheim, Merton and Parsons etc. Durkheim used the functional method scientifically in his studies of division of labor and religion.

According to them the task of division of labor is not to build civilization but to bring unity in the society by tying groups and individuals together and this unity between groups and individuals cannot come without division of labour. Similarly, considering religion as a social fact, he has described it as essential and indispensable for the society. Religion prepares individuals for social life by encouraging self-discipline. By bringing each other closer, it strengthens the relations found in them and thus promotes social unity. India is a country of villages. Therefore, sociologists who believe in structural-functional perspective believe that Indian society cannot be understood without understanding the structure of villages and its changing nature. If a realistic depiction of Indian society is to be made, then one has to go to the villages and study various aspects of Indian society. Accepting this belief, many Indian and foreign sociologists have studied the rural social structure and found its basic elements.

In this study of Rampura village in Mysore state by M. N. Srinivas, study of village Kumbapatai in Tanjore district of Tamil Nadu state by Kathleen Gough, done by S. C. Dube (S.C. Dube). Study of village Gaya Shamirpet, Study of Saduri village of Ranavati in Rajasthan by Baj Raj Chauhan, Study of Sripuram village in Tanjore district of Tamil Nadu by Andre Beteille and Uttar Pradesh by McKim Marriott In the study of Kishangarhi village of Aligarh district, on the basis of these studies, the Indian rural structure can be seen from two perspectives – first, considering this structure as a unit and as the interrelationship of its internal components and secondly, the social structure of a village. Structure as a relation with other structural units (such as other villages, districts, states or nations) externally. This second point of view is also important because the above studies have proved that Indian villages have never been a separate or neutral self-dependent entity, but they have been related to the external world. From both these perspectives, the rural structure can be understood in the following form.

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