Primary Group

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“Primary group” means groups whose names are affection – frontal relationship and mutual support. These groups are primary in many ways, but mainly in the sense that  These are fundamental in constructing the social nature and ideals of the individual. “This definition makes it clear that the primary group is the group whose members have a close face-to-face relationship.  They know each other very well and work inspired by the spirit of cooperation among themselves.

 Lundberg defined the primary group.  According to them, “primary group” means.  There are two or more persons who deal with each other in a close, equal and personal manner.  “Special emphasis is placed on the limited size of the group here, as well as the need for intimacy, equality and personal relationship between them.

According to Bierstedt, “the primary group refers to that of the intimate, personal and direct and face-to-face groups in which we find friends and like-minded companions, members of our family, and colleagues of daily life.”  ”

 According to Fichter, “The primary group is comparatively an agile collection of such people.”  Between whom there is an equal face-to-face relationship, a sense of unity and a belief in common social values.  ”

It is clear from the above definitions that the primary group is a group in which individual and close relationships are found between the members, with a relatively limited size.

Example of Primary group – Cooley presented three examples clarifying primary group – Family, Sports – Group and neighborhood.  In the beginning, Cooley used the ‘primary group’ for these groups.  The family is the best example of a primary group.  There is a close and face-to-face relationship between the members in the family.  Relatively Its size is also smaller than other groups.  The person in the family learns social qualities.  A person in the family develops mutual support, sacrifice and affection etc., which become an important feature of his personality.  Then there is the sports group, which plays an important role in the development of children’s personality.  Sports companions and different types of sports also affect children a lot.  Cooley also described the neighborhood as important in social life.  In this way, Kule described family, play group and neighbor as the ideal example of primary group.  Farris (R. C. Farris) presented his view on the close-to-face relationship for the primary group.  According to Farris, the primary group does not necessarily have a close face-to-face relationship, as there are some groups whose members are not connected by face-to-face relationships, but there is a connection between them.  In those people we have a sense of belonging, then such group will be called primary group.

Such as the relationship between different connectors.  On the contrary, there is some group whose members have close relationship between each other, but we do not find our sense of them.  This type of group cannot be called primary group.  Just as there is a close face-to-face relationship between a judge, a lawyer and a criminal in the court, but they lack the spirit of us.  This shows that it is not necessary for the primary group to have a face-to-face relationship, but rather to have BM close ties and ‘sense of us’ among their members.  It is also necessary to have mutual support and sacrifice among them.

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Characteristics Of Primary Group


Some sociologists have clarified some of its characteristics based on detailed information of an elementary group:

 We feeling – We have a feeling in the primary group.  Each member of this group does not just think about itself, but each member of the group tries to achieve the goals keeping in mind the interests of the other members.  The spirit of Ham is the basis of the primary group.  Many small groups develop in large organizations.  Gradually, a sense of unity and hum develops among their members and they are called primary groups.

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 Relationship itself an end – Relationships of primary groups are not upper and visible.  The relationship between the members is the goal of the group itself.  This relationship is not related to any benefit.  A lot of intimacy is found in primary relationships.  Such relationships do not form in other groups.  They are formed in primary groups only.  Therefore, the relationship itself is a goal and goal in itself.


 Physical proximity– Physical proximity is the first feature of the primary group.  It is through physical proximity that a person-to-person relationship is formed.  Face-to-face relationship is an important basis of social organization.  Person by  Live together, interact, thoughts and feelings.  Exchange.  This creates close relationships between individuals.  In every circumstance of life, these people support each other.  This also creates a permanent relationship between them.  But here again, things are being reminded of Farris.  Ferris certified this |  Did that it is not mandatory for the primary group to have a face-to-face relationship.  There are also some groups whose members are different geographical.  Inhabited in places, there is no relationship between them.  But ‘Ham’s spirit’ is found in them.  They experience closeness to each other.


 Small size of the Group – Another feature of the primary group is its limited size.  Close to their members only when limited in size.  Relationship is possible.  Interaction and reciprocal exchange is open in less members.  All members do well to each other.  Get to know  It is also possible to have face-to-face relationship among less people.  is .  In a very large group, a face-to-face relationship between the members is not possible.  In relation to the primary group, Fair Child.  The idea is that it is found to be simple and ranges from 3 – 4 persons to 50 – 60 persons.  That is, it is relatively small.  It is also necessary to clarify here that all limited size groups cannot be called primary groups.


 Individual  existence ends in Primary group – In the primary group, the ego of the person becomes secondary.  The person becomes a part of the group.  A person does not think about his selfishness.  The relationships of members of the primary group are so close that Stability and continuity of relationships are created.  In relation to the primary group, the Fair Child (Fairchild) (the idea of ​​permanence and continuity is found to be simple and ranges from 3 – 4 persons to 50 – 60 ity).  That is, it is expected short (vi) is the normal letter.  It is also necessary to clarify here that all groups of limited size (common character) cannot be called primary groups.  Many small committees work together for a long period of time, mutual interaction and intimacy between them is also there but primary relationship between those members is not made.  Hence only.  With limited size no group can become a primary group.  Self-birth (spontaneous creation) – The primary group is born automatically.  Thinking takes place, but a lack of primary relationship is found in the same groups.  Primary  Relationships are formed as a result of a person’s desire and develop on their own.  No one can be pressurized for this type of relationship.  Such relationships develop unconsciously.  All members live together and solve their problems, inspired by the spirit of We feelings.

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 Common Responsibility – General responsibilities are found in primary groups.  These responsibilities do not belong to any one member, but to everyone and everyone.  Everyone in the group considers it their duty to perform each task.  Collective welfare is the ultimate goal of the primary group.  Inspired by this goal, working becomes the moral obligation of their members.  Take family for example.  The interests of all the members in the family are taken into consideration.  Parents raise their children and children also become parents’ support in old age.  Here responsibility is from both sides.  The obligations of all members of the primary group are unlimited.  This cannot be determined.

Permanency and Continuity – Relationships between members in primary groups are of a permanent nature.  By staying together or staying close, intimacy arises between the members.  Their relationship becomes permanent due to their close relationship.  There is always a medium of interaction between its members.  Due to this, the continuity of relationships also remains.  Primary groups are found in some form in every society.  It is mandatory for their members to have primary relationships.  Time has an effect on relationships.  The older the relationship becomes, the more intimate it becomes.  Thus, stability and continuity in relation to the members of these groups remain.


 Common Character – A sense of common purpose, general responsibility is found among the members of primary groups.  The interest of one member vests in the other.  No work is done for a specific purpose or person.  On the general basis of the group, all the members consider and fulfill it together.  Thus the primary group has a common character.


 Personal relationships The relationships of members of primary groups are personal.  The basis of this relationship is no temptation.  Rather it establishes a person-to-person relationship.  Fairness is not found in this type of relationship.  Person – does not hesitate in any way from person to person.  The person does not think that the other members were thek.  The person is not thinking what other members will think about him.  The relationship that one person has with another person is personal in itself.  That relationship cannot be established with other individuals.


 Overall Relationship (inclusive relationship) Primary relationship is not related to any one aspect or quality of a person’s life.  It is related to the whole personality, that is, in the primary group, they do not accept any one quality of the person but accept it completely.  In other groups, the relationship between members is related to any one initiative but is not found in the primary group.  The relationship between family members is not related to any one party.  Each member is related to the entire aspect of each other.  The relationship between husband and wife is a sign of completeness.  Husband – wife, happiness – sorrow are responsible for each other.  There is a physical, mental and cultural connection between them.  The relationship between people working in other offices and resources is related to one aspect.  For example, in schools and colleges, the relationship between teacher and student is related to education.

 Handwriting of relations is not possible (transfer of relationship is not possible) – Relationships established under primary groups are individual.  It cannot be attributed to another person.  In primary groups, a special relationship is established between individuals and this special relationship is limited to those people.  Handling of this relationship is not possible.  For example, parents’ relationship with children, other relationships with neighborhood.  These relationships cannot be appreciated to other persons.  Relationships that occur in other groups are possible.  The relationship between the teacher and the student or the people working in the offices can be hindered, because the relationship between it is guided by the rules of that group and their members have to work accordingly.



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Importance Of Primary Groups

In primary groups, close relationships are formed between individuals and many social qualities develop.  Socialization of a person takes place under these same conferences.  It is through the primary groups that the person learns the modalities, customs and ideals of society.  When a person is born, he is just a biological animal but gradually develops human accessible qualities in the primary groups (family, neighborhood, sports group) and becomes an active member of society.  In this way, the creation of human nature is very important to the primary group.  The physical and mental needs of the person are met in the family.  Some needs are met in the family, which is not possible by other groups.  The importance and function of the primary group can be understood as follows.

 Psychological Security – The primary group provides psychological protection to its members.  The members of the primary group interact together and exchange ideas and feelings.  In such an environment, the person feels more secure.  In these groups a person frees from his worries and experiences mental satisfaction.  A person in his family and friends tells about his problems.  He understands that in times of crisis he will be assisted by his family and friends.  In this way, he is free from stress and experiences personal safety and emotional security.

Helpful for old and orphans – In primary groups, the elderly and the helpless also get protection and support.  With old age, the body becomes relaxed and weak.  At such a time the person is unable to do all his work himself.  Living alone becomes difficult.  In such a situation the person has support in the family.  Orphans and helpless children and individuals also get protection in primary groups.  In other types of groups, these types of people have no place.


   Assistants in entertainment (entertainers or assistants in entertainment) – People of all ages are entertained in primary groups.  Through this group, an environment is created in which the person is entertained well.  Every member of the group interacts with each other, laughs and jokes etc., which makes them feel like.  They do not need to go elsewhere to make up their mind.  The relationship of people under the primary group is not clear.  Its members informally entertain themselves.  The primary group plays a very ambitious role in the person’s life as a center of entertainment.  …

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 Assistant in Socialization   The primary group plays the role of socialization.  Every society has its own methods and customs?  person.  He has to treat his pomegranate.  The individual is familiarized with the rules of society by primary groups and learns to behave ripe pomegranates.  Child birth in the family.  He then learns the game and groups in neighborhoods, and gradually learns Sara Chaza and becomes an active member of society.  Socialization of a person is also done by other groups, but these effects are not affected.


 Helpful in the development of Personality – Primary groups have a huge contribution in the formation of personality.  When a person is born, he is an effigy of flesh, but he is nourished and grown up in the family.  Gradually he goes to sports groups and neighborhood and learns social qualities.  Qualities of sympathy, kindness, sacrifice, love, tolerance and cooperation are developed in a person.  All these qualities arise due to primary relationships.  Due to these qualities, he starts being called a person of good personality.  It also helps in social adaptation.  Thus the most important function of primary groups is to develop personality.


 Helpful in Social Adjustment – Primary group also helps the individual to adapt with the society.  The primary group develops the thoughts and feelings of the individual according to social conditions and circumstances.  Through the primary groups, the person learns such qualities and rules so that he can harmonize well in the society.  A person learns the qualities of an ideal citizen and follows the rules of society and the state.  This greatly facilitates social adaptation.

Helpful in Social Control– Every society has its own ideals and rules.  Every person is expected to follow the ideals and rules of the society.  The person’s behavior should not be against them and  He should not serve his interests arbitrarily.  For this, society controls the behavior of its members.  Society controls the behavior of individuals by various means.



 Communication of culture (transmission of culture) -The introduction of cultural characteristics is done by primary groups only.  In primary groups, the person knows his religion, tradition, practice and ethics etc.  Through these groups, culture is hindered from generation to generation.

Highlighting the importance of the primary group, Kimble Young (Kimbleong) states that “the primary group is the most fundamental representation of human associations.”  Perhaps it is as ancient as human life.  Primary groups create communities in a simple way, which has always proved to be the most ambitious in meeting all the needs of the individual.]

 McIver & Page expressed their view of the primary group, stating that “The primary group fulfills the basic requirement of human, for human and for human society.”

Cooley called the primary group the “focal point” of the “social structure” and the “nourishment of human nature”.  The primary group plays a very ambitious role in making the person a social animal.  It is a great source of emotional security.  This is to say that the person gets complete security through the primary group and culture and social qualities are developed.


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