Questionnaires 

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Questionnaires 

 

Questionnaire In the social research process, the place of questionnaire is very important among the methods that the researcher uses to collect data. Questionnaire is composed of many questions, in which questions are prepared in advance about various aspects related to the subject of study. The researcher sends this data to the respondents by post. Respondents themselves after reading it, understanding it and filling the answers to the questions asked in it, again send it to the researcher by post. In modern research, the purpose of questionnaire is to collect primary data related to the study subject. Questionnaire means that systematic table which helps in getting information about the subject. Questionnaires are considered to be the most important method for obtaining factual information in social, economic and political surveys. Generally made for obtaining information from persons related to any subject. A systematic list of questions is called a questionnaire. by Itec. Information is received by sending.

In the words of Goode and Hott, “in general,” the term “questionnaire” refers to a method of obtaining answers to questions in which the answer is filled in by itself. Form to go is used. “

In the words of Lundberg, “Basically, a questionnaire is a set of stimuli that are presented to educated people to observe their verbal behavior within those motivations.” In the words of Wilson-Gee “It (questionnaire) is a convenient method of obtaining limited amount of information from a large number of people or from a small selected group spread over a wide area.”

According to Bogardus, “A questionnaire is a table of questions given to different persons to be answered”.

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Characteristics of a Good Questionnaire

According to A. L. Bowley, the following are the characteristics of a good questionnaire
(1) The number of questions should be less.
(2) The questions should be such that can be answered with ‘yes’ or ‘no’.
(3) The structure of the questions should be such that personal bias does not enter.
(4) The questions should be simple, clear and meaningful.
(5) The questions should be confirming to each other.
(6) The nature of questions should be such that the intended information can be obtained directly.
(7) Questions should not be rude.

Reliability of Questionnaire Now the question arises that to what extent the information given by the respondents is reliable. Reliability is known only when most of the questions have been interpreted differently, in which case doubts arise. The problem of unreliability arises due to the following reasons

Wrong and Irrelevant Questions: When wrong and inconsistent questions are included in the questionnaire, the respondents also give their answers from their own point of view. In such a situation the information given by the respondents may not be reliable.

Biased Sample – If care is not taken while selecting the sample, then its results may not be reliable. If the researcher has been affected in the selection of the informants, then the information obtained certainly cannot be representative.

Controlled and Biased Responses – The answers obtained by the questionnaire system are often less correct. Some people hesitate to give confidential and personal information and are afraid to give it by hand writing. Hence, there is a sense of bias in their answers. Their answers will either get sharp criticism or complete consensus. Unable to get a balanced answer.

Test of Reliability – Answers given in questionnaires are often found to be less reliable, so they should be checked. Some of its methods are as follows

(i) Sending Questionnaire Again The questionnaires should be sent again to the respondents to check the reliability. If their answers match as before this time too, then the information received can be relied upon. This test can prove useful only when there has been no change in the social, economic or mental condition of Unardana.

(ii) Study of Similar Groups The same questionnaire should be sent to other similar groups to check the reliability. The information given can be relied upon if there is a similarity between the answers obtained and the answers given by the earlier sections. If there is a huge difference between the two then it cannot be believed.

(iii) Using a Sub-sample – This is also an important method of testing. The questionnaire can be tested by selecting one of the sub-samples from the main sample. If there is a significant difference between the information obtained from the sub sample and the information obtained from the main sample, the questionnaire will be considered unreliable.

 

If there is very little disparity between the two, it will be considered reliable.

(iv) Other methods (Miscellaneous Methods) – Interview, schedule and physical inspection can be included in the question methods. If the answers to the questions by these methods are almost the same, then the questionnaire will be considered reliable, otherwise not.

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Types of Questionnaires

Not all questions are of equal nature. In view of the nature of the study, the type of questions and the characteristics of the respondents, different types of questionnaires can be made. Lundberg has mentioned two main types of questionnaires – fact-related questionnaires, and opinion-related attitudes questionnaires. . First-class questionnaires are those which are used to collect facts related to social or economic conditions of a group. The purpose of the second category of questionnaire is to know the interests, thoughts or attitudes of the respondents on a particular subject.

According to Lundberg, there are two types of

(i) Questionnaire of fact is used to collect social facts.
(ii) Questionnaire of opinion and attitude –
It is used to obtain information related to the interest of the respondent. Mrs. Young has also told two types – – (i) Structured Questionnaire – It is prepared before starting the research. It is not made, but only in relation to the study subject, area etc. it is mentioned.
Apart from this, there are some other types of questionnaires –

(a) Open Questionnaire – The questionnaires in which the candidate has complete freedom to express his answer, it is called a blank questionnaire. He can answer of his own free will, there is no restriction on him.

(b) Pictorial Questionnaire – In a pictorial questionnaire, the answers to the questions are shown by pictures. There are different pictures in front of the respondent, next to which it is written whether you prefer small family or big family. In these pictures, the family is mentioned from the smallest to the largest, the respondent has to mark only in front of it. The votes of the people are later ascertained by this questionnaire. This system is especially useful for less educated people and children.

(c) Mixed Questionnaire – All types of questionnaires can be included in this. Some social facts are so complex that information about them cannot be obtained from a certain questionnaire, therefore, from the point of view of convenience and usefulness, various questionnaires are included.

P . v . Young has also mentioned two parts of questionnaire – Structured questionnaire and Unstructured questionnaire. In the present discussion, we will present a classification of all the common types of questionnaires that can be used in different situations.

(1) Structured Questionnaire: A structured questionnaire is a questionnaire used in social survey or research, which is prepared before the actual study begins and generally no changes are made later. P . v . Young wrote, “Structured questionnaires are those in which in addition to the definite and pre-determined questions, such additional questions are also included as are considered necessary to clarify insufficient answers or to obtain more detailed answers.” On this basis, Jahoda and Cook have named the structured questionnaire as ‘standard questionnaire’. I questionnaire is used to collect primary data from individuals spread over a wide study area and to re-examine the collected data. The questions included in the structured questionnaire are very definite, systematic and clear and are similar in nature to each respondent. As a result, it becomes easier to classify the answers obtained from such a questionnaire. Such questionnaires are generally used to study the socio-economic characteristics of a group or to know the suggestions of individuals for change at the administrative level.

(2) Unstructured Questionnaire: Cantt states that “Unstructured questions are those which involve certain subject areas and about which information has to be obtained during the interview itself, but in this system of questions The learner gets a lot of freedom in determining the nature and their sequence. This makes it clear that the effective questionnaire is not prepared even before the actual study. Under this, only those subjects are mentioned in relation to which the respondent is asked. Information has to be obtained.With the help of such a questionnaire, a researcher initially tries to find out what type of questions and a particular sequence of them.

Best information can be obtained. This is the reason why such questionnaire ‘Interview Guide’ is beneficial to us only when the field of study is limited and it is possible to establish contact with each and every respondent. Even after this, some scholars see the unstructured questionnaire as the basis for the interview method rather than as a type of questionnaire. The reason for this is that the process of interview has no place in the questionnaire. From this point of view, the types of questionnaires include P. v . It does not seem more appropriate to mention the effective questionnaire presented by Young.

(3) Closed Questionnaire This type of questionnaire is very important. Under this, many possible answers are given in front of each question and the respondent has to express his thoughts by choosing one of those answers. For example, if the nature of the question is as follows – On what basis did you cast your vote in the 1984 general election? Considering the party’s policies and programs, considering the merits of the candidate, who is voting for more people / no definite basis in view of the pressure of the neighbours; So we will call such question as ‘closed question’ and the questionnaire formed from such questions is called closed or restricted questionnaire. There can be many other examples of such questions – like under which leg category do you find it? 100 Rs. Monthly less than / 100 to 200 Rs. 200 to 300 Rs. up to / 300 to 400 Rs. upto / Rs.400 more than . It is clear that in order to answer closed questions, the respondent has to choose any one option out of several options. The main advantage of such a questionnaire is that the information obtained from it can be easily tabulated and classified.

(4) Open Questionnaire: In this type of questionnaire, questions are not given along with their possible answers, rather the respondent is expected to give any answer as per his wish. In this, some space is left blank in front of each question so that the respondent can write his answer in that blank space.

5) Pictorial Questionnaire: Generally, the questionnaire is used only for the educated group, but if a group is less educated and on the other hand it is considered difficult to establish direct contact with the people, then in such a situation, the graphical questionnaire It is used to collect facts. In such a questionnaire, each question is presented in a very simple way and instead of its possible answers, various pictures are displayed in such a way that the respondent can easily mark his answer on the basis of the pictures. For example, if the question is whether you would prefer to live in the village or in the city? And if a picture of the city and village is made in front of the question, then the respondent can easily express his choice by marking any one. Such questionnaires are also used to study the attitudes or interests of children.

6) Mixed Questionnaire As the name suggests, a mixed questionnaire is one in which the nature of questions is not limited to any one type but is related to many types of questions. Such a questionnaire generally includes all types of closed and open questions. The type of question that is considered most appropriate for obtaining a particular information or idea is included in such a questionnaire. The reality is that social facts are so complex and varied that it is very difficult to know them all by questions of a particular nature. Reliable facts can be obtained only by using a mixed questionnaire to make a comprehensive and in-depth study of the subject. This is the reason why mixed questionnaires are used the most in social survey and research. Precautions in the manufacture of gatavali

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Nature of Questionnaire

The nature and other aspects of the questionnaire should also be taken into account. Following are some suggestions in this regard –

1. Clarity of Units – The units that the researcher is using should be clearly defined so that different respondents do not interpret them from their own point of view.

2. Useful Questions – Questions should be useful. Respondent himself is troubled by unrestrained questions and the researcher’s own purpose is also not fulfilled, so such worthy questions should be asked so that the respondent can also answer them without any hesitation. (c) Avoidance of Specific Questions Questions should be avoided from questions related to personal life, feelings and mysterious life. No sarcastic questions should also be asked, as it may hurt the sentiments of the respondent. If such questions are not framed, then the very purpose of research will be defeated.

3. Size of Questions – The size of the questions should be large because the respondent gets distracted on seeing the large size, so smaller questionnaires can prove to be more useful.

4. Clarity of Language ( Clarity of Language) – The language of the questions should be so simple and clear that an ordinary respondent can understand their meaning and usage. Language should not be made complicated and idiomatic. As far as possible, as far as possible, there should not be space for any kind of terminological terms. The simpler the questions, the more clear their answers will be.

 

Reliability of Questionnaire 

Now the question arises that to what extent the information given by the respondents is reliable. Reliability is detected only when most of the questions are interpreted differently, in such a situation, the problem of unreliability arises due to the following reasons

1.Biased Sample – – If care is not taken while selecting the sample then its results may not be reliable. If research has been affected in the selection of informants, then certainly the information obtained cannot be representative.

2. Controlled and Biased Responses – The answers obtained by the questionnaire system are often less correct. They hesitate to give some confidential and personal information because they are afraid to give it by hand writing, hence there is a feeling of bias in their answers. Their answers will either get sharp criticism or complete consensus. Unable to get balanced answers.

3. Wrong and Irrelevant Questions – When wrong and inconsistent questions are included in the questionnaire, the respondents also give their answers from their own point of view. In such a situation the information given by the respondents may not be reliable.

4 Test of Reliability – Reliability is often found in the answers given in the questionnaire, so they should be checked. Some of its methods are leading –

(i) Sending Questionnaire Again The questionnaires should be returned to the respondents to check the reliability. If their answers this time also get the same as before, then the information received can be trusted. This test can prove useful only when there has been no change in the social, economic or mental condition of the respondent.
(ii) Study of Similar Groups – To check the reliability, the same questionnaire should be sent to another similar group, if there is a similarity between the answers obtained from them and the answers given by the earlier groups, then on the given information It can be believed, but if there is a big difference between the two then it cannot be believed.
(iii) Using a Sub-sample – This is also an important method of testing. The questionnaire can be tested by selecting one of the sub-samples from the main sample. If a significant difference is found between the information obtained from the subtest and the information obtained from the main sample, the questionnaire will be considered unreliable. If there is very little disparity between the two, it will be considered reliable.
(iv) Other Methods (Miscellaneous Methods) – Questionnaires may include interview, schedule and physical inspection. If the answers to the questions by these methods are almost the same, then the questionnaire will be considered reliable, otherwise not.

 

 Precautions in Constructing Questionnaire 

Questionnaires are an excellent means of obtaining primary facts. Its success depends on what precautions have been taken in its construction. Otherwise the entire purpose of the questionnaire will be defeated. Therefore, these precautions should be taken into account – – A thorough analysis of the subject There are often different aspects of the problem in which some are of more importance and some are of less importance. The researcher should take care that the questionnaire is balanced so that all the aspects are represented in the questionnaire. For this, he can use his experience, cooperation of friends, other literary sources etc. The questionnaire should be prepared only after proper analysis of all the aspects. Utility – Before placing the questions in the questionnaire, it should be seen whether they are useful in relation to the study or not. Useless questions should not be given space as this not only wastes time and money but also does not lead to attainment of Ushan.

Nature of the Questionnaire. Attention should also be paid to the nature of the questionnaire and other aspects. Following are some suggestions in this regard

(i) Size of Questions – The size of the questions should not be large because the respondent gets nervous on seeing the large size. So shorter questionnaires can prove to be more useful.

(ii) Clarity of Language – The language of the questionnaires should be so simple and clear that an ordinary respondent can understand their meaning and usage. Language should not be made complex or idiomatic. Any kind of terminology, multiple meaning words should not be given space as far as possible. The simpler the questions, the more clear their answers will be.

(ii) Clarity of Units – Studyer the units that T is using should be clearly defined so that different respondents do not interpret them from their own point of view.

(iv) Useful Questions – Questions should be useful. Respondent himself is troubled by unrestrained questions and the researcher’s own purpose is also not fulfilled. Therefore, such suitable questions should be asked so that the respondent can also answer them without any hesitation.

(1) Avoidance of specific questions (Aroidance of Specific Questions) Some questions are related to personal life, feelings and mystical life, so such questions should be avoided. No sarcastic questions should also be asked as it may hurt the sentiments of the respondent. If such questions are not avoided, the very purpose of research will be defeated.

 

 Merits of Questionnaires 

Questionnaire system is very important in obtaining primary facts. Due to its properties, facts can be collected easily. Some of the main features are
(i) Vast Study – By this method the study of a large population can be done successfully. In other systems, it costs more money, time and effort to study a large group and at the same time have to go to the informants. This system is saved from all these evils. Less Expenses – In this system there is no need to do field workers, hence expenditure is saved. There is only printing and postage charges.

ii) Convenient – The biggest feature of this system is that information is received within a short time. The questionnaires are sent to the respondents and within no time they are sent along with the respondents information. In systems like schedule, interview, etc. the learner himself has to personally visit and collect the information. Therefore, the questionnaire system is very convenient to avoid this dilemma.

(iv) Possibility of Repetitior – At different times the questionnaires are sent to ascertain the point of view of the respondents. Or there are some such research in which information has to be obtained many times after a certain time, then the questionnaire method is very useful for that.

( ) Free and Impartial Information Respondents have complete freedom in answering their own. In this method, the researcher is not considered personally before the respondent, so the respondent makes sure to give free and fair information without hesitation and hesitation. Therefore, the yield obtained by this method is more reliable.

 Demerits of Questionnaire 

This system is also not flawless. It has some limitations, which are as follows
(i) No Possibility of Representative Sampling – f that the questionnaire is used only to obtain data material from educated persons, hence representational samples cannot be selected.

(ii) Unsuitable for Deeper Study – Only rough facts are collected by questionnaire. The depth of the question cannot be reached. An in-depth study of a person’s feelings, tendencies, impulses and inner values ​​can be done through interview, whereas only helpful information can be obtained through questionnaire. In the words of Parton, “There is no doubt that a more thorough study can be done by the best interview than by the best questionnaire.”

(iii) Less Possibility of Complete Information – In relation to the questionnaire, it is a bitter experience that the respondents do not take much interest because firstly they do not have a direct relationship with the researcher and secondly they have no one of their own. The purpose was not solved. So they answer casually. Words are interpreted differently, as a result their answers are not reliable.

(iv) Problem of Response – Neither the answers to the questionnaires come on time nor their answers come only. Despite repeated reminders, they are not returned on time, so many times: the researcher gets upset and stops writing them. In such a situation the truth cannot be ascertained. Despite these drawbacks, there is a lot of convenience in collecting facts and material through questionnaire. Where the field of study is wide, it is more convenient to collect the facts through questionnaires. The information or material prepared by this method is free from unnecessary influences. About the researcher. Ignorance of this also proves to be a source of information in getting internal information. For this reason, it is being adopted more for collecting facts.

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