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Revolution is a kind of rapid change in which ancient traditions and social values ​​have no importance.  In a narrow sense, revolution is a fundamental change in any aspect of life.  But in sociology, the word revolution is used in a broad sense and is considered to be a process whose aim is to bring about a radical change in the social, economic or political system.  Major scholars have defined it as follows:


1.According to Kimbal Young: ‘Revolution transfers into political power sooner or later.  There is a sudden change in other states and forms of society.


  1. According to Crane Biton:’ Sociologically, social revolution means that under the current social structure, there is such a change in the attitudes and social values ​​of individuals that they start to see it from a new perspective.


3.According to Alfred Mensel:’ The word revolution conveys a kind of sudden and far-reaching change outside of the natural sciences, which brings a major turning point in the continuity of development.

  1. Ogburn and Nimkoff:’ Rapid change in revolution culture, which takes place in some detail, is called.  It is clear from the above definitions that revolution is a rapid change that occurs accidentally, ie it is sudden and usually changes the whole system.  The main causes of revolution have been revolutions from ancient times to modern times in some country of the world, but due to modern-day revolutions, due to the reasons of ancient times, a sufficient amount


5.Conditions and Directions vary.  The social and political structure of modern states, the nature of governance, the structure and nature of the ruling class, the position of political parties and pressure groups, and the changed basis of public participation in governance processes are not the reasons for revolution which in ancient times  Have been effective.  The ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, in his ‘Politics’, has given a detailed discussion of the causes of revolutions.  For Aristotle, even a slight change in the constitution would become a revolution, whereas even the major changes in the constitution are not given the name of revolution at the present time.  The nature of the revolution that took place in each country and the reason for its origin are specific because the revolution depends on the social and political situation of any country.  Aristotle has highlighted both the general and specific causes of revolutions.  The revolution of each country is bizarre and unique and this uniqueness of the revolution is related to the specific reasons of the revolution.


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  1. Causes of revolution in ancient times: In ancient times the Greek philosopher Aristotle has explained the reasons of revolution as follows Ma Aristotle has divided the causes of revolution into three parts
  2. Roots of revolution: The origin of revolution in Aristotle political system.  Reason assumes a feeling of inequality.  When a person is denied equal status compared to others in the matter of rights or wealth even after having the same qualifications, then the feeling of rebellion or dissatisfaction starts to take place in him and it results in revolution.


  1. Common causes of revolution: Aristotle has discussed the following common causes of revolution:

 (i) The feeling of nobility or superiority in a class of citizens. 

(ii) The aspiration to gain respect by immoral means. 

(iii) Feelings of selfishness of rulers. 

(iv) An atmosphere of hatred between the ruler and the ruled. 

 (v) The feelings of jealousy and malice inherent in the ruling class. 

 (vi) Caste and hereditary differences. 

(vii) An atmosphere of fear and terror prevailing in the state. 

(viii) Unbalanced development of any geographical region of the state. 

 (ix) Weak position of middle class in society. 

(x) Many evils related to election. 

(xi) A state of balance of power arises in the state. 

(xii) Work performed by the government inadvertently. 

 (xiii) Family disputes of the ruling class.

  (xiv) Seeing small changes in a neglected sense. 

(xv) Full faith in foreigners. 

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  1. Special causes of revolution in various governance systems: The specific causes of revolution in various governance systems are as follows: (i) Revolution takes place due to the excess of public leaders in democracy.


(ii) In the autocratic monarchy, there is a people’s revolution against the autocratic power of governance.  (iii) To invoke the revolution by other neglected classes due to limited rank and status in the elite.  II.  Causes of Revolution in the Middle Ages: According to Bodan, there are three main causes of revolution:


  1. Divine cause: These reasons are always invisible and unknown. 
  2. Natural Causes: The effect of constellations is important in natural causes. 
  3. Human reason: In a society, a person makes a revolution by being bound by many social, economic, political, religious and intellectual conditions. 


III.  Due to revolution in modern era: Due to change in country, time and circumstances, new values, norms and norms are established in society.  Therefore, there are no reasons for revolutions in present times which were once seen in ancient Greek states.  Along with the internal causes of modern revolutions, external causes have also become important and effective.  The following reasons can be included mainly in the cause of revolutions in modern times:


1.The collapse and break-up (disintegration) of the social, political and economic system prevailing in the present time.


  1. Due to the continuous disintegration of a large section of the population.
  2. On the sudden reversal of the economic social development sequence lasting for a long period.
  3. After the impact of the revolution that has taken place in a country abroad, the feelings of the revolution erupt.
  4. Because of the circumstances arising from the wars.
  5. Due to the feeling of deception and excessive degeneration in individuals.
  6. Due to inherent contradictions or class struggle in the capitalist system.
  7. Being inspired by the purpose of eliminating color discrimination, caste discrimination and class discrimination etc.
  8. In modern times, revolutions are done externally so that revolutions can be initiated in planned and planned ways.  In the present day, the ideological conflicts or conflicts of the great powers of the world (America, Russia, China, Britain, France etc.) have also played an important role in creating the role of revolutions, providing them full cooperation, providing technical and economic support.  Communist revolutions were carried out by sending troops to other countries of Europe (Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia etc.) by the Soviet Union.  In the military revolution of Fiji on May 14, 1987, the US intelligence agency CIA was accused of being involved.  The revolution that took place in Afghanistan was also conducted by Russia.  Revolutions in Asian, African and Latin American countries were uncontrolled in some form or the other due to external powers.  It is clear from the above discussion that revolutions can have many causes, some of which are circumstantial, while some others occur suddenly.  In countries where democratic traditions have become fully established and well-organized, the chances of revolutions are very weak Condition and direction have been done.  As a result of possible collapse of the system, there is no possibility of communist revolutions in the world now.  At the present time, the prospects of military revolutions in developing nations are becoming very strong.  In the modern world, the internal environment of the country seems to be inspired by the influence of external forces.  Therefore, in the end we can say that there are not one, but many due to revolutions and overall they are related to external and internal conditions.







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