Buddhism and Sikhism

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Buddhism and Sikhism


Buddhism and Sikhism are broadly part of Hinduism. When the larger brotherhood is discussed, it is clearly said that the wider Hindu religion includes Buddhism and Sikhism. Historically speaking, Sikhism and Buddhism parted ways with Hinduism when Hinduism developed the rigors of rituals, that is, rituals. Same is the condition of Jainism. Buddhism is widespread in contemporary Asia. It also has followers in the West. However, it is a minority religion in India, the country of its origin. Named after its founder, Gautama (c.563–483 BCE), the titular Buddha (enlightened one), Buddhism began as a rebellion against the pre-Vedic pre-occupation with the supernatural, consisting of beliefs as well as rituals. was rejected. them. The rejection rejected the authority of the Brahmins. Gautama himself belonged to the Kshatriya caste and was, in fact, the heir to a kingdom in the Bihar-Nepal region. Buddhism attracted subjects whom he taught the Four Noble Truths that form the core tenets of all schools of Buddhism.


  Buddhism: India and Beyond

Having originated in India, this great religion spread beyond its borders during the time of Ashoka and later penetrated into major parts of Southeast Asia, China and the Far East. Recently, its influence is growing rapidly not only in the East but also in the West. Today every fourth person in the world is a Buddhist. In fact, Buddhism is more of a spiritual philosophy than a religion. His approach towards life has been calm and matter of deeds and his path is practical. Its emphasis on ethics, humanism, compassion and wisdom has all that could make it a universal religion.

The scope of Buddhism is very wide. In time it covers more than 2500 years. In space, it covers the Theravada countries such as Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and Bangladesh and parts of India and Mahayana countries. Nepal, Bhutan, Tibet, Mongolia, Korea, Vietnam, Japan and China, although China is not strictly a Buddhist country as Taoism and Confucianism are equally important religions there. However, for many centuries Buddhism dominated the thought of China.

Wherever Buddhism spread, it influenced the indigenous culture of the country, be it China or Japan, Korea or Thailand. The art of China’s Tsang Dynasty is considered one of the finest in the world and is largely a Buddhist art form. Various pagodas, wats or temples and beautiful images of Buddha, stupas at Sanchi, caves at Ajanta, pillars of Ashoka with their capitals are evidence of the excellent art developed under the influence of Buddhism. At the same time, Buddhism has set standards of tolerance, gentleness and compassion towards lower forms of life that we find very few parallels in the religious history of the world.

Buddhism is the understanding of the teaching – for which the technical term is Sasana or Dhamma – of Gautama, the Buddha and the dharma and philosophy that developed around that teaching during the Master’s lifetime and the centuries following his great demise. Mahaparinirvana

Buddhism is sometimes wrongly presented as pessimistic. If this were true, we would not today find its followers in Burma, Thailand and other Theravada countries happy and blissful, perhaps the most fun-loving – as some observers have pointed out – people on earth.

The irony is that Buddhism is a religion without the concept of God. It can be included in the category of mystic religions because it strives for inner purity and an innate sense of the oneness of the universe.

Buddhism always fought against caste, color and other such distinctions. It supported the freedom of women and their right to reach higher spiritual realms. Its love for animals and nature is deeply reflected in the scriptures. An enemy is not conquered by hatred but by love, as the Dhammapada (verse 5) says,

In this world, enmity never ends with enmity but with non-violence. it’s the eternal law

Buddhism has always aimed at raising the quality of life, not the external standard of living. ‘Self’ is given very little importance in Buddhism. In contrast, in order to enter enlightenment the self must be abolished (see the Buddhist doctrine of aatman-anatta), attachment to the self or the idea of selfishness leads to various vices and desires that cause one to seek worldly pleasures. Is, now here, now there, caring little for the sorrows and sufferings of others.

The contribution of Buddhism in the field of mass communication is also no less important. It did not consider any language as sacred. some monks or monks, by birth

Despite the insistence of the Brahmins that the Buddha should preach in Vedic Sanskrit, he refused


sent to oblige and instructed his disciples to preach his doctrine in the people’s own language. His liberal attitude impressed the public and was one of the reasons for the popularity of Buddhism and its rapid growth.

The belief that Buddhism teaches transcendentalism and a life of renunciation and solitude is also baseless. The Buddha himself, after his enlightenment, Bodhi, engaged in an active public life. He traveled widely for forty-five years, establishing a sangha or order of Buddhist fraternities that included nuns, visiting many cities, towns and villages, meeting kings as well as common people. Not only the Guru but his group of selfless preachers also went from place to place to spread his doctrine.

The Buddha also introduced into the Sangha what we might call, in modern parlance, guided democracy. In formal meetings of the Sangh all official work was done according to democratic methods. Each member had one vote and the decision of the Sangh was taken by the votes of the members of the Sangh. The Buddha not only administered the Sangha in a democratic spirit during his lifetime, but even after his death he did not want to restrict the independence of the Sangha by appointing his successor. He declared before his mahaparinirvana or great death that the Dhamma or principles and the Vinaya or code of conduct would lead the Sangha after him.

Buddhist monks were not allowed to have personal or private property in order to encourage the qualities of renunciation and non-attachment. All the furniture and other items belonged to the Sangha for the use of the monks. Thus vested interests were discouraged. Monasteries or viharas became centers for the spread of Buddhist culture, some of them eventually developing into outstanding centers of learning such as Nalanda and Takshashila, Vikramashila and Odangpuri. They attracted students from abroad, as evidenced by the accounts of Chinese travelers such as Fa-hsin, I-tsing and Yan Ch’ang, who visited India for pilgrimage to Buddhist places.

Buddha’s message not only changed the course of Indian history but it also tremendously influenced our neighboring countries. Maurice Winternitz comments that it is only with Buddhist literature that we are gradually exposed to the wider light of history. A major part of Buddhist literature is universal literature.

The legend of Buddha even today retains its ever-young freshness and vitality. It has inspired poets, writers, intellectuals and even the common man. His life’ has been the subject of various epics and dramas and many poets have drawn inspiration from it. Edwin Arnold’s classic epic, The Light of Asia, saw over one hundred and fifty editions in the West.

Sects of Buddhism

After the Buddha passed away, a schism developed in the Buddhist Sangha. Now that the Guru was no more, his teachings were reversed and doctrinal differences began to increase. Various Buddhist councils were held to determine the meaning of the master’s words, and by the time of the Third Buddhist Council in the time of Ashoka, we are told, eighteen schools had been formed. The differences and controversies that arose between the Buddhist sects showed the dynamism of Buddhist thought that was influencing the currents of thought at that time. Buddhism looked ahead, advanced and crossed the borders of India and conquered new lands with its sublime message of love, compassion and wisdom without a single weapon.

The Buddhist population in India is estimated to be around three crores. Concentration of Buddhists is found in Maharashtra where the founder of the Neo-Buddhist movement and the architect of the Indian Constitution, late Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, along with a large number of his followers of the so-called ‘untouchables’, converted to Buddhism in a special ceremony in 1956. Thus, the oppressed and downtrodden people of previous centuries found in Buddhism a new means of advancement and psychological liberation. Neo-Buddhist movement has spread to other parts of the country and smaller areas, so Buddhist population can be found in UP, MP, Punjab, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka etc. Buddhists in India generally follow the tenets of Theravada Buddhism but in the Himalayan region, namely Ladakh, Sikkim, Lahaul-Spiti, Darjeeling and parts of Assam, Buddhist followers are mostly Mahayanaist.

The Himalayan Buddhists of Ladakh, Sikkim etc. are followers of what we can call Tibetan Buddhism’ which is basically a part of the Mahayana complex, though some aspects of Mahayana are emphasized, e.g. Tantra and esotericism, esotericism, etc. In fact, it is from Tibet that Buddhism was introduced to Ladakh and Sikkim, although it is ironic that these parts of India should not receive the religion directly from outside. But history has its quirks. However, some scholars believe that the credit for introducing Buddhism to the Himalayan region in the early period goes to him.


May be given to the missionaries sent by Ashoka.

Like Tibet, Ladakh and Sikkim also have a strong sense of region and a highly religious population. The people are simple and honest and have great faith in the Lamas. There are many monasteries and stupas and Ladakh and Sikkim and none of the traditional sects of Tibetan Buddhism, namely Kargud, Galuk

Neema and Sakya can get it.

The exile of the Dalai Lama and Tibetan refugees following the Chinese occupation of Tibet has been a blessing in disguise for the people of the Himalayan region as the presence of scholars from Tibet has encouraged studies in the Tibetan pattern of Buddhism and thus the entire Himalayan region. Enriched cultural and religious life. In fact, Indian Buddhism has been enriched by the availability of Tibetan scholarship and on our side the Buddhist Himalayas are still enriched by the treasures of Buddhist texts recently brought to our country by Tibetans.

Theravada Buddhism spread to Burma, Ceylon, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and in its Mahayana form to China, Japan, Vietnam and Mongolia. Wherever Buddhism spread, it absorbed local rites and customs. Along with the older doctrines, witchcraft and tantric cults are also found in Tibetan Buddhism. Japan also developed its ‘Pure Land’ Buddhism of liberation and grace, and ‘Zen Buddhism’, which holds that wisdom comes immediately and directly to the heart of man.

Sri Lanka received Buddhism in the 3rd century BCE through Ashoka’s son Mahindra and daughter Sanghamitra, while it originated in China in the 1st century CE when Emperor Minti invited two Indian monks to China to translate Indian Buddhist works. Did. It was introduced to Burma in the same century. Japan received it through Korea in the 67th century AD. In Thailand, following the example of Ashoka’s religious fervor and association with the Sangha, King Li-tai (c.1400 A.D.) acceded to the Sangha for a brief period and thus established a link between the royal house and the confederacy of Thailand. A close relationship began. To this day both the royalty and the consort are highly revered in Thailand. Thus, the Buddha’s message spread over a large part of Asia and Buddhism is one of the major religions of the world today.


principles of buddhism

Point Three: The fundamental teaching of the Buddha is that everything is impermanent or anicca, without substance or anatma and full of dukkha or dukkha. These are called Existential Notes or Lakkhan. These three were carried forward – and quite logically – to the mark of shunya or zero, which later became the fundamental doctrine of one of the most important schools of Buddhism, the Madhyamaka, founded by the great master Nagarjuna.

As succinctly explained in the famous and oft-quoted statement of Buddhism, everything that is born is subject to destruction. The text of early Buddhism repeatedly tells us that a disciple gains an insight into the Dhamma when he realizes this fact. In fact, everything is transitory and changeable, but it is because of our attachment born of ignorance that we fail to see the truth and continue to live in our imaginary world and think that things are eternal. Origin and cessation, creation and destruction, these two factors are never at rest. According to Buddhism, there is no ‘to be’, only ‘to become’. The universe is in a constant state of flux. According to the Buddha, the world is a wheel of existence or bhavachakra which goes on continuously. No one knows the beginning or the end of the world, the world is that which moves.

The doctrine of impermanence logically leads to the doctrine of immateriality or the absence of any permanent ‘self’, ‘soul’ or ‘ego’ or soul. Other religions have different theories about the permanence of the soul. Buddhism does not recognize any such entity and in this it is unique in the history of human thought.

In the Buddha’s view, this concept of soul, self, ego or I-ness is an illusion born of ignorance or avijja. Then what is man? The Buddha replies that a being is made of states of mind and matter that are always in flux. In the Milind-panha, the venerable Nagasena answers this question of King Milind (Menander). He gives the example of a chariot. There is no central element in the chariot. It is made up of yoke, saw, frame etc. Apart from these parts, there is no ‘Ratha’. Nevertheless, a ‘man’ exists and is made of states of mind and matter. And these five states are: (1) form or matter, (2) vadana or the feeling of pleasure, pain and indifference, (3) samjna or feeling, (4) samskara or synthetic mental states. or Karma-creation and (5) Vigyan or Consciousness.



four noble truths

In his first sermon at Sarnath after enlightenment, the Buddha enunciated the Four Noble Truths: (1) the noble truth of suffering; (2) the great truth of

the rise or community of suffering, craving or loneliness; (3) the great truth of cessation or

the cessation of suffering, or Nibbana; (4) The great truth or magga of the path that leads to the cessation of suffering, the great eightfold path.

great truth of sorrow

As stated above, suffering is inherent in the nature of things. It is omnipresent. Birth is misery and so are old age, disease, death, association with the unloved and separation from the dear. Sorrow is the non-attainment of desire, grief, lamentation, tribulation. In short, all five aggregates or segments are afflicted. Thus suffering is the truth, the truth of life. This is a realistic view of life. This is not pessimism, as some would say. Because, Buddha does not stop at declaring suffering, but he also showed the way out of it. Pessimists believe that the world is full of suffering and there is no way out of it. Buddha himself

Admitted that there are different forms of happiness but that they are all implementation, full of suffering and subject to change. It is our own experience that even the best pleasures in life are fleeting, fleeting and never lead to lasting or true satisfaction. Therefore, the Buddha is being realistic and objective when he says, ‘everything is suffering’.

The Great Truth of the Rise of Suffering: Trishna (Lonely)

According to the Buddha, the cause of suffering is not the wrath of the deities or God or the arbitrary will of unknown forces upon us. The cause of suffering is our craving, which, as the texts explain, leads to repeated rebirth and is accompanied by lust, which seeks pleasure. Craving is never satisfied and appears in many forms. Craving includes not only craving for sense-pleasure, power, wealth, position but also attachment to thoughts, ideas, opinions, principles and beliefs. According to the Buddha, all troubles arise from selfish desires, which are never satisfied. There is really no end to them. And clinging to these different cravings and trying to satisfy them brings temporary successes and failures, hopes and disappointments, but never satisfies itself. Therefore, if one wants to get rid of suffering, he has to give up all kinds of craving.

The Great Truth of the End of Suffering or Nirvana

Buddha not only teaches suffering but also shows the way to remove suffering.

To eliminate suffering, one has to eliminate its cause—desire, craving, thirst, whatever you call it, and nirvana is nothing but the extinction of craving. The state of desirelessness, the state of absence of craving is Nirvana, here and now. It is difficult to define nirvana, the most important term in Buddhism and also the ultimate goal. Its nature can never be defined in words, although we get various descriptions; For example, it is the calm state of the mind, the place of liberation, the end of suffering, the ultimate bliss, the state of unshakable liberation of the mind, the unconditioned state of peace ultimate, the nectar, the end of birth and death, etc.

The ideal of Theravada Buddhism is Nirvana and that of Mahayana is Bodhi. Nirvana is explained mainly in two ways (a) extinguishing the flame of desire or fire or attachment or lust, dosha or malice or malice and moha or illusion. In old texts, the analogy of wind that blows away the flame has been given. Buddhaghosa, the famous Pali commentator, derives the term nir+vana, a forest or forest or a state without craving or tanha, i.e. a place in which the jungle of craving is completely cleared, a state of peace of all cravings.

The literal meaning of Bodhi is ‘awakening’ in the extended sense it is ‘enlightenment’, ‘enlightenment possessed by the Buddha’. One who has attained Bodhi is a ‘Buddha’. Bodhi is also found in early texts as a synonym for nirvana. Nirvana is sometimes used interchangeably with Bodhi in later Buddhism (Mahayana). Generally, however, Nirvana is used to describe the state of Arhat and Bodhi the state of Buddhahood.

Arhats attain Nirvana and Buddhas attain Bodhi.

The Noble Truth of the Path to the End of Suffering: The Eightfold Path

Buddha has shown us the way to end suffering. This is the Arya Ashtangika Marga or Arya-Athangika Magga or Arya-Astangika Marga. The Eightfold Path is accepted as an excellent course of spiritual training, and has eight components or limbs:

right understanding

Right Thought or Samma Sankappa

right speech or samma waka

Right Action or Samma Kamant

Right livelihood or Samma Ajiva

right effort or samma vayama

Right Mindfulness or Samma Sati

right concentration or samma samadhi




Sikhism, which originated in Punjab in the teachings of Guru Nanak (1469–1539), is a monotheistic faith whose followers can currently be found throughout India and in many other parts of the world. Their estimated number is about twelve crores. Their main homeland is the Indian part of Punjab, but nearby states, such as Haryana, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir, also have significant Sikh populations.


Kashmir. Sikhs have settled in large numbers in the major cities of Uttar Pradesh, especially after the partition of India in 1947. Migrating from their homes in Pakistan, they went to and cultivated some areas of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, which are generally considered to be Difficult and dangerous too. The Sikhs have greatly increased agricultural production there, and are considered excellent agriculturists and farmers. In large cities, especially Bombay, Calcutta and Kanpur, large numbers of Sikhs are in various professions and occupations, and they run their own schools and colleges in addition to their places of worship and play a useful role in the civic and economic life of the areas. Let’s participate from in which they now live. In most places they also run charitable foundations, such as hospitals and free dining-houses for the poor. Sikhs make no distinction of caste or creed where charity is concerned, as one of the major tenets of their faith calls upon them to view all mankind with feelings of brotherhood and avoid narrow sectarianism. Abroad, the largest Sikh population is found in the United Kingdom (about one million), in which they maintain their special traditions of piety and charity for all.

What the world doesn’t know about Sikhs

What impressed him the most is his superb martial quality. They make excellent soldiers and officers in all branches of India’s defense services and because of their traditions of bravery, aptitude for discipline, and fearlessness on the battlefield, the armed forces of India are recruited in numbers disproportionate to their population. There are Will warrant His ardent patriotism is another great quality that has won universal admiration and respect for him.

Sikhs can be easily recognized by their distinctive physical appearance. They do not cut their hair and beard, and cover their heads with a turban. No other cap is allowed for them. He is remembered and addressed with the honorific of ‘Sardar’ or ‘Sirdar’, meaning a person of high status. All Sikh names end in ‘Singh’, which means ‘lion’. It is ordained by his last apostle, Guru Gobind Singh.

Most Sikhs come from various Hindu tribes and castes. There have also been conversions. A substantial number of Native Americans have embraced Sikhism, and its observance is observed with admirable loyalty. Sikhism, however, does not approve of the belief in the caste system, and considers all human beings equally deserving of divine grace, and equally entitled to receive the teachings of the religion.

As stated earlier, Sikhism is a monotheistic faith. the concept of

The Supreme Being takes on both the aspects envisioned in Indian philosophy—the disembodied, Nirguna, and the imputed Saguna, Sarguna. In its disembodied aspects, which are unknowable and inaccessible to the human mind, the Supreme Being is called Para-Brahman to emphasize its esoteric and mystical character. This Brahma is known as Brahman in the more orthodox Sanskrit terminology, and is distinct from the deity Brahma, the creative aspect of the Indian trinity. Guru Nanak spontaneously preferred to designate the Supreme Being by the word Omkar, written with the number 1 of the first Omkar, unbroken into a single syllable, akshara – syllable. An Onkar stands at the beginning of the recitation of the Granth Sahib, and is invoked on all occasions when divine blessings are sought and an atmosphere of sanctity is created. A pious Sikh inscribes this sacred syllable, an Omkar, at the top of any writing, including letters. It is equivalent to Par-Brahman or the unrestricted Supreme Being.

In its creative and virtuous aspect, an Omkar is visualized as Omkar. According to Sikh philosophers, Omkar is an Onkar in its aspect of acting through Maya. Maya is the creative principle in Sikh thought; It is he who is the subject of the senses and the intellect, which in Greek philosophy is called phenomenology. While an Omkar, being the Supreme Being, cannot be approached by the mind or intellect, but only in the mystic state or samadhi induced by divine grace. Maya and its manifestations are subject to the processes of cognition and intellect. Maya, being the principle of manifestation, is also seen as a veil that hides the essence, the eternal reality. That’s why Maya is considered

The source of evil tendencies in the nature of man, and all proceeding from the five evils known to Indian ethical thought as kama, or lust, anger, or wrath, violence, greed or miserliness, infatuation or delusion, attachment to material things The source of actions and ahamkara or ego. The effort of a person of God, called an aspirant in Indian thought and a God-faced person in the system of Sikhism, Gurmukh or Guru Nanak, is to transcend the lures and fetters of Maya. This is done through prayer, meditation and seva or selfless service to mankind. with all the actions of man towards

The embellishment and culmination of Maya, divine grace is still considered indispensable, as realization is a gift from above, which no conceit can achieve by his own efforts. The seeker, under the guidance of the Guru, should seek grace through prayer, humble service and meditation, and may the grace descend upon him. By divine grace he will be able to attain mukti, moksha or liberation, which in essence lies in transcending Maya and living in and with God. It is another name for cessation of all desires and attainment of the sublime state in which all passions and even the processes of the intellect fall away.

In order to speak to the common people so that they could understand, Guru Nanak also used popular present-day names of God taken from mythology and epics. Rama, Gopala, Murari, Narayana, Madho and such other names are employed by him in his hymns and poetical compositions. Virtuous names, therefore, also express the high qualities that human beings should strive for, such as Dayal, Karunamay, Dayanidhi, Ocean of Compassion, True, Holy, Eternal, Thakur, Swami, Swami and many others. Also from the Muslim tradition, which had become popular in some sections of society in the north, not only Allah and Khuda, but also attributive names such as Kareem, Merciful, Benevolent, Kahim, Merciful Parvardigar, Cherisher, Sahib, etc. God. This part of the Guru’s Glossary is specifically meant to promote harmony between Hindus and Muslims, so that all words of devotion may be found equally acceptable. No particular divine speech, divine language and no language can be considered impure.

Guru Nanak’s Sha

In the teachings, certain words are pronounced with particular color and emphasis given by them, and have become part of the Sikh tradition. These are the Guru, the divine guide, Kartar, the Creator, Akal, Immortal, Beyond Time, Satti-Nam, the Holy Name or Eternal Reality. A Sikh should decide his caste on these terms while considering spiritual truths. The specific Sikh term for the god Vahguru came about after the time of Guru Nanak during the development of Sikh spiritual thought.

In Sikhism, the path shown to the seeker is called Sahaj. Sahaj means that way which does not violate or force any principle of nature. Sikhism not only opposes the performance of miracles as a sign of spiritual superiority, but it also positively disapproves of the pursuit of such powers during the practice of various forms of yoga. Riddhi and Siddhi, which stand for the attainment of such powers and even more so the control of demonic power by sects associated with dark and unholy practices such as Kapalika, have all received strong condemnation in the teachings of the Gurus of Sikhism. Hatha yoga, which involves breath control to awaken occult and occult forces, as well as severe self-mortification, as is the case with many mendicant orders in India. The path of illusion has been told.

The path of Sahaj is prayer, meditation, concentration of the mind on the divine essence and the path of receiving grace. It does not include forced celibacy or leading a life as a sign of purity. On the contrary, following the example of Guru Nanak himself, the ideal seeker should perform such duties as are expected of him by his members of an ethically organized society. This may include hard, honest work for a living, raising a family, household and, if necessary, making sacrifices to uphold moral values, dharma. The steps on the path of Sahaj are those popularly called Guru Nanak, Suniyai, Mannai and Dhyana. These are reverent ‘hearing’ or assimilation of sacred truths and scriptures respectively, contemplation of these truths to develop faith, and concentration of the powers of the mind on realization of God. Another element on which Guru Nanak particularly emphasized, along with the three already mentioned, is bhakti or devotion.

Elevating and purifying life by conscious effort is the way of prayer, through forbearance, through the pursuit of enlightenment, through devotion and the practice of austerity and piety. Similarly the elements of Sahaj are expressed differently (Japuji, verse XXXVIII). In this discipline, like a goldsmith’s smithy, the pure metal of the individuality is forged, which is the mystic phrase Guru Nanak called the Shabad, literally the sound or sacred word, pure consciousness. This is also the state in which the divine vision of grace always remains on the seeker.

For grace, which is such an important key-concept in Guru Nanak’s thought, in addition to Prasad which comes from ancient Indian tradition, Muslim Sufi sources used some synonyms. Sufis were seekers of spiritual truth. From Indian sources, kirpa (kindness) and daya are also frequently employed, as well as some mixed formalisms—dayal, dayalu, kripalu. So Makerban, Karim is taken from Muslim sources.


During the five hundred years of its existence, Sikhism has played an important role as a liberating influence in the history of India, as briefly mentioned in the preceding pages. Its influence as a spiritual force has been no less remarkable. It raised human consciousness to the highest peak of spirituality by increasing devotion to the only Supreme Being (Ek Onkar) in a context going back to the foundation of India’s spiritual thought. Thus it became a binding force and led to the elimination of communalism. Between the two great traditions, Hinduism and Islam, it sought to build a bridge of understanding, tolerance and goodwill. Before modern humanistic thought entered India, it advocated the abolition of untouchability and caste distinctions of high and low by birth. It advocated better conditions for women. Even more important was its synthesis of spirituality and action. In this way, it brought the ancient knowledge of Gita to the masses. Thus it has made a great enlightening impact.

Finally its role in bringing spiritual light to the masses can be mentioned, in simple everyday language that they can follow. While scholars of various religions used classical languages which were sealed books for people to contradict each other, it was Guru Nanak and his successors who gave spirituality and sweetness to millions, thus providing them salvation. His message also helped inspire the masses to free themselves from the age-old yoke of tyrants.

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