Education, inequalities and Social justice:

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Education, inequalities and Social justice:


• Concept of Educational Equity
• Opportunities, Education and Inequalities:
• Caste, class, tribe, gender, rural-urban, education and social
• mobility

• Education for Equality-Disparities: Excerpts from Education Policy
• Education for women’s equality:
• Education of Scheduled Castes:
• Education of Scheduled Tribes:
• Other Educationally Backward Classes and Areas:
• Education and Social Mobility:
• Barriers to education and mobility:
• Women and Education:
• Education: A Social Right and a Development Essential
• Low educational status of women: Reasons
• Government of India schemes to encourage women’s education:
• Equality of Educational Opportunities
• Need for equalization of educational opportunities
• Role of education in equal opportunities
• Reasons for educational disparities

• Suggestions to remove inequality in educational opportunity in India

inequality in education

1. Inequality in education is one of the most dangerous social problems in contemporary times. Due to the plight and deteriorating quality of government schools, more and more parents are willing to send their children to private schools despite exorbitant tuition fees.

2. These schools generally generate better interest in learning due to smaller class sizes, higher academic standards, better teacher-student interaction and more discipline.
3. Despite various special positive programs by the government, a large section of SC and ST students have been unable to break out of the clutches of traditional occupation and the vicious cycle of poverty.

4. The socio-economic status of children not only determines their access to quality schools, but even when they are in the same schools, the cultural resources they bring to these schools greatly influence their performance. Thus, inequality perpetuates and even increases the existing social stratification system.
5. Social stratification based on caste, ethnicity and religion in India is also reflected in educational achievement with a large body of literature documenting the disparities. These disparities have been a cause of concern for both the government and civil society.
6. The government has put in place strong, affirmative action policies to redress many historical injustices.
a. The role of education in promoting social mobility is one of the central issues in contemporary sociological and political debate. In modern societies, education has become an increasingly important factor in determining what jobs people enter and in determining their social class status.
b. It is now widely believed that the provision of equality of education has become an absolute necessity to improve one’s social status. In modern society, it is possible to acquire competence and competence only through education.

c. Education plays an important role in leading individuals towards upward social mobility.

7. Due to the plight and deteriorating quality of government schools, more and more parents are willing to send their children to private schools despite exorbitant tuition fees. These schools generally generate better interest in learning due to smaller class sizes, higher academic standards, better teacher-student interaction and more discipline.

8. Family income is an important factor affecting access to education. Government schools in tribal and remote areas of India are almost non-functional, making it difficult for students from SC and ST communities and poor families to have equal access to quality education. This results in a lower literacy rate among SCs and STs than the national average.

9. Despite various special positive programs by the government, a large section of SC and ST students have been unable to break out of the clutches of traditional occupations and the vicious cycle of poverty.

10. Not only does the socio-economic status of children determine their access to quality schools, but even when they are in the same schools, the cultural resources they bring to these schools greatly influence their performance. Thus, inequality perpetuates and even increases the existing social stratification system.

11. Such stark inequalities in education figure prominently in the writings of Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of cultural production. He makes effective use of the term ‘cultural capital’, which refers to knowledge, skills, education and any advantage a person has that gives him a higher status.

12. In society. Parents provide children with the cultural capital, attitudes and knowledge that make the educational system a comfortable and familiar place in which they can succeed. Cultural reproduction highlights how prevalent disadvantages and inequalities are transmitted from one generation to the next.

13. This is exclusively due to the educational system. Capitalist societies depend on a stratified social system, where the working class receives education adapted to manual labor, and removing such inequalities would break down the system. Thus, schools in capitalist societies are always stratified.

The disparity in school performance of children from different social classes yields
‘Success at school’ is largely due to the cultural capital they bring to school, not the effects of their natural abilities

because of. Bourdieu’s work focused on how social classes, especially the ruling and intellectual classes, reproduced themselves even under the pretense that society promoted social mobility, particularly through education. According to him, the socio-cultural capital accumulated in the ranks of the upper classes gets multiplied through the education system, which instead of removing the differences, increases the inequalities of the stratified social system.

Similarly, Paulo Freire (1970), a Brazilian educator, talks about the way wealth differences stratify children through access to quality education and school achievement. He clearly mentions that the schools provide ‘pedagogy of the oppressed’. The oppressed is a social class unspecified by race, gender, ethnicity, language and culture. His work has inspired three decades of global dialogue on educational philosophy. Similarly, Ivan Illich, ‘Deschooling Society’ (1971) argues that students, especially those who are poor, are schooled by the educational system to confuse process and substance. disciple is like
‘Schoolboy’ for confusing teaching with learning, grades achy
Phenomenon with education, a diploma with merit, and fluency with the ability to say something new. Their imagination is ‘educated’ to accept service rather than value. Institutionalized system of education leads to physical pollution, social polarization and psychological impotence. According to Ilitch, “It should be clear that even with schools of similar quality, a poor child is rarely equal to a rich one. Even if they go to the same schools and start at the same age, So poor children lack most of the educational opportunities that are incidentally available to a middle-class child. These advantages range from conversation and books at home to vacation trips and more.

sense of self, and apply to the child who enjoys them, both in and out of school for advancement or learning. The poor need money to enable them to learn, not to be certified as cures for their perceived disproportionate deficiencies.

In a technologically advanced nation, education has become an important criterion of social stratification. In such a society, occupation is the determinant of income. It has also been found that in these societies recruitment to various occupations is determined by the education level of the individuals. Also status gradation is defined by vocational and academic levels of education. In sum, given the close relationship between education and occupation, and the extent to which occupation is an important, if not critical, measure of income and social status, education acquires importance as a determinant of social placement and social stratification. It is worth noting that the most prestigious jobs in industrial societies are not only those that offer the highest incomes but also those that require the longest education. The more education people have, the more likely they are to get good jobs and enjoy higher incomes.

It is often found that education and social stratification are intricately related. Although education acts as a generator of upward mobility, it often also acts as a deterrent for those who cannot afford or have access to education. In many countries, facilities for higher education are limited for professions such as medicine, astronomy, management, etc., while there are many aspiring for the same. Since the financial cost to enroll in such subjects is very high, many students are deprived and few students from the elite sections of the society get admission in such institutions. Hence, this class is the privileged section of the society which occupies the top position of the social ladder. Thus, education is forced to act as an agency of status retention, to act as an agency of stratification rather than to facilitate upward mobility. Such social stratification affects the low level of education especially in remote areas and villages. In many countries, the dropout rate among students is mainly found in the lower strata of the society.

India has made progress in increasing enrollment and school completion over the past decades. Enrollment in primary schools has increased from 19.2 million in 1950–51 to 113.6 million in 2001. Gross primary school enrollment is close to 100%. The overall enrollment of children at all stages of education in India has improved over the years. Such an increase in school participation

It is also associated with a significant jump in the literacy rate which increased from 18% in 1951 to 65% in 2001. On the one hand, the increase in enrollment has taken place in the backdrop of the introduction of various centrally sponsored educational interventions. Examples of such schemes include Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), Non-Formal Education Program (1979–90), Operation Blackboard for Small Rural Schools (1986), Total Literacy Campaign (1988), District Primary School Education Program (1994–2002) ) Are included. ) and more recently Mid Day Meal Schemes. Between 1950 and 1990, the number of schools more than tripled,

Which has left behind the growth of the school age population. School participation may have responded to these supply-side changes.

Social stratification based on caste, ethnicity and religion in India is also reflected in educational achievement, with a large amount of literature documenting the disparities. These disparities have been a cause of concern for both the government and civil society. The government has put in place strong, affirmative action policies to redress many historical injustices. Some of these have received strong public support, but others, particularly with regard to reservation of seats in colleges and universities; This has led to resentment and protests from the more privileged sections of the society. Nonetheless, more than 60 years after policies aimed at redressing this imbalance, and some decline in educational disparities, the gap is still wide.

India is particularly noteworthy because the traditional social inequalities based on notions of pollution and impurity that govern caste relations are increasingly being transformed into class inequalities through various educational attainments. While many studies describe various aspects of social distance and discrimination between different castes in different walks of life, economic inequalities are perhaps the most pernicious, resulting in a cycle of inequality across generations. While educational disparities are not the sole determinants of economic status, they play a significant role in generating disparities in earnings. Caste-based differences in education, income and other aspects of well-being have long been recognized. In recent years, similar religion-based imbalances have also been observed, where Muslims are particularly vulnerable compared to other religious groups such as Jains, Parsis, Hindus, etc.

Public policies attempt to address these inequalities in two ways:


(a) by providing scholarships and other incentives to reduce the financial strain on the family and increase motivation to continue education; And
(b) By providing preferential admission in colleges and advanced professional programs through reservation or quota. While there have been some attempts to set up special schools or hostels for children from disadvantaged communities, these have been relatively limited in scope. Policy interventions, especially in the case of highly controversial reservations or quotas in college admissions, come too late in the educational path of students.

Drawing on data from the India Human Development Survey (IHDS) conducted in 2004-05 by researchers from the University of Maryland and the National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER), the data shows the school/college dropout rate at a given education level. For boys from different social backgrounds. These data show that the largest gap between upper caste Hindus and disadvantaged groups such as Dalits, Adivasis and Muslims appears primarily at school entry and before the completion of class X. The difference narrows on moving up to the next level – the completion of class X. Most minority students who are able to overcome early hurdles have developed skills and may have greater intelligence, grit, and motivation than their more privileged peers, increasing their chances of success and reducing disparities in educational outcomes. It happens. They may also belong to more privileged sections of Dalit, Adivasi, Other Backward Classes (OBC) or Muslim communities and may be less likely to be subject to the prejudices and disadvantages faced by their less-privileged brothers and sisters Is. These observations are consistent with the finding of the international literature on comparative education, which also notes greater disparities in education in early childhood. Unfortunately public policies, when it comes to addressing educational inequities, tend to focus more on higher education rather than elementary education, possibly because they are easier to address.

The picture of educational inequalities in India is not consistently grim. There has been a significant decline in the basic literacy rate. Data on Basic Literacy Comes Naturally

Asking individuals or their family members if they can read and write a sentence. In this, like the Census of India and other surveys, the IHDS documents convergence among different social groups. Higher education groups, upper caste Hindus and smaller religious groups like Christians, Sikhs and Jains have reached near 100 percent literacy rate. More detailed studies also show that the gap is narrowing in some areas. Analysis of National Sample Survey data between 1983 and 2000 states:

[These results suggest that] holding other factors [household income, place of residence, and household size] at their mean values, for upper-caste Hindu and other [Sikh, Jain, and Christian] males, no time in school The probability of enrollment increased from .715 in 1983 to .858 in 1999–2000, an increase of about 14 percentage points. Over the same period, Dalit men’s chances of enrollment increased by 20 percentage points for their chances of enrollment, and for tribal men by 21 percentage points. It has helped reduce disparities between upper caste Hindus and Dalits/Adivasis… Among women, preference for upper caste Hindus

The same advantage in MIK enrollment is … 25 percentage points, compared to 33 percentage points for Dalits and 35 percentage points for Adivasis.

However, despite this limited success, inequalities in children’s educational experiences between social groups persist. shows difference in data
The experiences of children aged 6 to 14 from different social groups documented by It is important to note that these data refer to the period before the Right to Education (RTE) Act came into force and some parameters such as repeating or failing a class may be less relevant now. Furthermore, the performance of Dalit, Adivasi and Muslim children is far worse than that of upper caste Hindus and other religious groups on all the mentioned indicators, with OBCs falling somewhere in the middle. The disadvantage of Muslims is particularly noticeable because their economic status is often on par with that of OBCs, but when it comes to education they lag far behind OBCs and closer to Dalits and Adivasis.

Implications of Public Policy:

It is well recognized by demographers that the greatest improvements in life expectancy can be achieved by focusing on reducing infant mortality rather than reducing mortality in older age groups. Saving a child’s life adds about 70 years to his or her life, saving a 60-year-old’s life may only add 15 more. Similarly, reducing educational inequality at the primary education level can have long-lasting effects and be the most profitable investment a society can make. However, Indian public policies are heavily focused on reducing disparities in college education, possibly because it is difficult to identify and implement interventions at an early age. However, for substantial reduction in educational inequality, we must focus on primary education. To do this, four types of activities are required:

Ensuring that educational policies do not inadvertently exacerbate pre-existing inequities: It is important to ensure that RTE is implemented in a way that minimizes dependence on parental input or resources and supports schools in providing education. Increase in role In systems where a heavy reliance is placed on homework and/or private tutoring, children whose parents are unable to provide the necessary supervision are likely to be left behind. Some RTE provisions can have such unintended effects. First, RTE requires that newly enrolled children be placed in classes appropriate for their age, regardless of their skill level. Second, children cannot be placed in classes I-VIII. This puts a heavy burden on the teacher. When combined with the fact that children who start school late are often from Dalit, Adivasi or Muslim backgrounds, this may compound the skill development that starts later than their peers . Several studies have suggested that overambitious curricula without concomitant support from teachers lead to low levels of growth in learning outcomes and that inappropriate placement is likely to place a high burden on teachers. One way to address this challenge may be remedial training before or after school hours.


Special programs for children from disadvantaged groups:

Research shows that children often lose ground during the school holidays, especially if they come from families where reading materials are not available. Organizing special programs during summer vacations and other holidays for children who are at risk of falling behind or need remedial classes can help alleviate some of these problems. Rayat School is an interesting program in Maharashtra which has sub-schools attached to the normal school for children

Missed out or fell behind. Additionally, programs designed to keep girls in school, including cash payments to parents when they complete grade 12, could be extended to Dalit, tribal and Muslim children.


To identify the specific problems faced by disadvantaged children in school:

A number of studies are underway to identify the specific causes of low learning of disadvantaged children in school. Recent studies have shown that:
(i) teachers are indifferent to teaching these children and checking their class/homework;
(ii) in case of shortage and otherwise also these children do not get free books and uniform like other children;
(iii) other children in the class tease them and discourage them from going to school and teachers do not intervene most of the time; And
(iv) These children are often made to sit separately in the class, get water from a separate vessel or play in a separate place.

Such discriminatory and exclusionary practices are highly discouraging and discouraging to children and hence to identify and train teachers and staff to be not only more sensitive but also proactive to pay special attention to children from these groups need to.


Better monitoring of existing programs:
Many existing programs (such as the mid-day meal scheme) have failed to deliver the intended benefits and services. Meal delivery in separate utensils or with separate seating arrangements

ound to be discriminatory. Enhancing the participation of non-governmental organizations (NGOs)
A focus on Dalit, Adivasi or Muslim issues in monitoring the program can ensure that benefits are fairly distributed while raising the level of awareness in the community about its educational needs.


Research on school performance and teaching techniques:

Little attention has been paid to the classroom processes that put some students at a disadvantage, or to the effective teaching techniques that can narrow the gap. For example, we know very little about whether schools only for children from minority communities can solve

Educational inequality. Many innovative programs already exist. For example, schools have been set up by Navasarjan in Gujarat with a specially designed curriculum for Dalit children. Evaluating these curricula and monitoring outcomes can help inform major educational reforms.

The evidence suggests that there are a set of factors that are clearly specific to children from minority communities, which unless clearly understood, specified and made part of the educational reform process, this new initiative is likely to put children from these groups at risk. less effective in imparting education and bridging education. And finally, the income gap. Moreover, the timing and level/standard at which these specific interventions are to be made is also important and needs to be made a part of education reforms.

Education for Equality-Disparities: Excerpts from Education Policy

The new policy will lay special emphasis on removing disparities and equalizing educational opportunity keeping in view the specific needs of those who have been denied equality so far.




Education for Women’s Equality:

Education will be used as an agent of fundamental change in the status of women. There will be a deliberate edge in favor of women to neutralize the accumulated distortions of the past. The national education system will play a positive, interventionist role in the empowerment of women. It will promote the development of new values through redesigned curriculum, textbooks, training and orientation of teachers, decision-makers and administrators, and active participation of educational institutions. It would be an act of trust and social engineering. Women’s studies will be promoted as a part of various courses and educational institutions will be encouraged to take up active programs for the development of women. Removal of illiteracy among women and removal of barriers hindering their access and retention in primary education will be accorded topmost priority through provision of special support services, setting time targets and effective monitoring. Special emphasis will be laid on the participation of women in professional, technical and vocational education at various levels. A policy of non-discrimination will be strictly followed to eliminate gender stereotyping in business and professional sectors

To promote participation of women in vocational courses and non-traditional occupations as well as in existing and emerging technologies.


Education of Scheduled Castes:

The central focus in the educational development of Scheduled Castes is equality with the non-Scheduled Caste population at all levels and levels of education, in all sectors and across all four dimensions—rural male, rural female, urban male and urban female. Measures considered for this purpose include:

I. encouragement to poor families to send their children to school regularly till they reach the age of 14;
Second. Pre-matric scholarship scheme for children of families engaged in occupations like scavenging, skinning and tanning will be implemented from class 1 onwards. All children of such families, regardless of income, will be covered by the scheme and time-bound programs will be targeted at them;
Third. Continuous micro-planning and verification to ensure that enrolment, retention and successful completion of courses by SC students is not compromised at any stage, and introduction of remedial courses to improve their prospects for further education and employment provision.
iv. recruitment of scheduled caste teachers;
v. provision of facilities for SC students in student hostels at district headquarters as per a phased programme;
vi. School buildings, kindergartens and adult education centers should be located in such a way as to facilitate full participation of the Scheduled Castes;
Seventh. Utilization of Jawahar Rozgar Yojana resources so as to provide adequate educational facilities to the Scheduled Castes; And
Eighth. Continuous innovation in finding new ways to increase participation of Scheduled Castes in the educational process.
Education of Scheduled Tribes:
The following measures will be taken immediately to bring the Scheduled Tribes at par with others:-
I. Priority will be given to open primary schools in tribal areas. Under normal, school buildings will be constructed in these areas on priority basis.

funds for education, as well as under Jawahar Rozgar
Scheme, Tribal Welfare Schemes, etc.
Second. The socio-cultural milieu of the Scheduled Tribes has its own distinctive features, which in many cases include the languages spoken by them. this course
Underlines the need to develop and prepare instructional materials in tribal languages at the initial stages, with provision for switching to the regional language.
Third. iii) Educated and promising ST youth will be encouraged and trained to take up teaching in tribal areas.
iv. Residential schools including ashram schools will be established on a large scale.
v. Incentive schemes will be made for the Scheduled Tribes keeping in mind their special needs and lifestyle. Scholarships for higher education will focus on technical, professional and para-professional courses. Special remedial courses and other programs will be provided to overcome psycho-social barriers to improve their performance in various courses.
vi. Anganwadi, non-formal and adult education centers will be opened on priority basis in Scheduled Tribe dominated areas.
Seventh. The curriculum at all levels of education will be designed to create awareness about the rich cultural identity of the tribal people as well as their immense creative talent.







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