Emerging Trends in Education in India

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Emerging Trends in Education in India


1. School Education: Current Scenario
2. Higher Education in India
3. Governance of Higher Education: Institutional Programs
4. National Educational Policy, 1986

5. University Grants Commission
6. Inter-University Center
7. Association of Indian Universities (AIU)
8. Councils
9. Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA)

10. National Policy on Education
11. The essence and role of education
12. National System of Education
13. Restructuring Education into Different Stages of Early Childhood Care and Education
14. Open University and Distance Education
15. Rural University
16. Technical and Management Education
17. Reorienting the Content and Process of Education: Cultural Perspectives
18. Value Education
19. Languages
20. Media
21. Management of Education


1. The present day education system in India has come a long way and there has been a new change in the age old traditions.

2. The Government of India is making a lot of efforts in this field so that the goal of inclusive development can be achieved soon. A major achievement of the Government of India is the huge jump in the literacy rate from 18.3% in 1950–51 to 74.04% in 2010–11.
3. Since the inception of our Republic, the role of Universal Elementary Education (UEE) has been acknowledged in strengthening the social fabric of democracy through provision of equal opportunities for all.

4. With the creation of NPE, India launched a wide range of programs to achieve the goal of UEE through several planned and programmatic interventions.

5. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is being implemented as India’s main program for universalization of elementary education.
6. On the other hand, the higher education sector has seen tremendous growth in the number of universities/university level institutions and colleges since independence. The number of universities has increased 34 times from 20 in 1950 to 677 in 2014.
7. The National Policy of 1968 marked a significant step in the history of education in post-independence India. Its objective was to promote national progress, a sense of common citizenship and culture, and to strengthen national integration.

8. It emphasized the need for a radical reconstruction of the education system to improve its quality at all stages and gave much
9. Greater focus on science and technology, cultivation of moral values and closer relationship between education and people’s lives.

10. Since the adoption of the 1968 policy, there has been a substantial expansion of educational facilities at all levels throughout the country. More than 90 per cent of the country’s rural habitations now have schooling facilities within a kilometer radius.


11. The present education system in India has come a long way and there has been a new change in the age-old traditions. Government of India is making a lot of efforts in this field so that through this the goal of inclusive development can be achieved soon. A major achievement of the Government of India is the huge jump in the literacy rate from 18.3% in 1950–51 to 74.04% in 2010–11. Such achievement is the result of many efforts made by the Government of India in the field of education.

12. The government is improving the education status of the country to raise the standard of living of the people and achieve other goals like overcoming the problem of poverty and unemployment, social equality, equal income distribution etc.

13. Education contributes to the individual. Overall development of the country along with welfare. Education is not only a tool to enhance efficiency but it is also an effective tool to widen and enhance democratic participation and upgrade the overall quality of individual and social life. Therefore the importance of education cannot be denied.

14. There has been no fundamental change in the structure of secondary and higher education in India. If there has been any such change, only a few states have been affected. Since the nineties, particularly the last decade, growth has been observed in response to the demand created by the expansion of elementary education.

15. The primary as well as the higher education sector has seen a lot of attention from the Government of India. current paper made

16. Comparison of elementary education system of Haryana with neighboring states like Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Delhi. Key indicators showing achievements and failures in the field of education have been taken and the data has been analyzed on the basis of such factors.



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schooling in india

The role of Universal Elementary Education (UEE) in strengthening the social fabric of democracy through provision of equal opportunities to all has been recognized since the inception of our Republic. With the creation of NPE, India launched a wide range of programs to achieve the goal of UEE through several planned and programmatic interventions. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is being implemented as the main program of India for universalization of primary education. Its overall goals include universal access and retention, bridging the gender and social category gap in education, and increasing the learning levels of children. The SSA provides a variety of interventions, including, inter alia, building and construction of new schools, additional teachers, regular teacher in-service training, ensuring free textbooks,

ncludes educational resource support, uniforms and free support for improving learning outcomes. The Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act 2009 provides an equitable legal framework that entitles all children in the age group of 6-14 years to free and compulsory admission, attendance and completion of elementary education. It provides children with the right to equal quality education based on the principles of equality and non-discrimination. Most importantly, it entitles children to an education that is free from fear, stress and anxiety.


Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act 2009

The Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002 inserted Article 21-A in the Constitution of India to provide for free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years as a fundamental right by the State. may be prescribed by law. The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009, which represents the corollary legislation envisaged under Article 21-A, means that every child shall have access to full-time elementary education of satisfactory and equitable quality in a formal school. It is a right that meets certain essential norms and standards.

Article 21-A and the RTE Act came into force on 1 April 2010. The title of the RTE Act contains the words ‘free and compulsory’. ‘free education’ means any child, other than a child, who has been admitted by his parents in a school which is not supported by the appropriate Government without payment of any fee or charges or expenses; shall not be liable for any action which may prevent it. preventing him from pursuing and completing primary education. ‘Compulsory education’ imposes an obligation on the appropriate government and local authorities to ensure access, attendance and completion of primary education by all children aged 6-14.

With this, India has moved towards a rights-based framework, which places a legal obligation on the central and state governments to enforce this fundamental child right, as enshrined in Article 21A of the Company.

The RTE Act provides for the following:
• Right of children to free and compulsory education till completion of primary education in the neighborhood school.
• Clarifies that ‘compulsory education’ means the obligation of the appropriate government to provide free elementary education and ensure compulsory admission, attendance and completion of elementary education by every child in the age group of six to fourteen years. ‘Free’ means that no child shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses which may prevent him from pursuing and completing elementary education.
• It provides for admitting a non-admitted child to an age appropriate class.
• It specifies the duties and responsibilities of the appropriate governments, local authority and parents in providing free and compulsory education and sharing of financial and other responsibilities between the central and state governments.
• It lays down norms and standards relating to Pupil Teacher Ratio (PTR), buildings and infrastructure, school-working days, teacher-working hours, inter alia.
• Provides for rational deployment of teachers by ensuring that the specified student teacher ratio is maintained for each school and not just as an average for the state or district or block, thus ensuring that teachers There is no urban-rural imbalance in postings. There is also a provision

Prohibition on deployment of teachers for non-academic work, except for decennial census, elections to local authorities, state legislatures and parliament, and disaster relief.
• It provides for appointment of appropriately trained teachers, ie teachers with requisite entry and educational qualification.
• It prohibits (a) physical punishment and mental harassment; (b) screening procedures for admission of children; (c) per capita fee; (d) private tuition by teachers and (e) operation of schools without recognition,
• It provides for the development of curriculum in consonance with the values enshrined in the Constitution, and which shall ensure all round development of the child, build the knowledge, potential and talents of the child and shall be free from fear, trauma and child friendly and anxiety through a method of child centered learning.

Selected Programs at Elementary Education Level

a) District Education Programme:

Launched in 1994 in 42 districts, it is a centrally sponsored scheme aimed at providing access to primary education for all children, reducing the primary dropout rate below 10 per cent, improving learning achievement of primary school students by at least Raising the minimum to 25 percent and reducing gender and social groups to less than 5 percent.
b) National Program of Nutritional Support to Elementary Education (Mid-Day Meal): National Program of Nutritional Support to Elementary Education (NP-NSPE) to increase enrolment, retention and attendance as well as improve nutritional levels among children ) was launched. Launched on 15th August 1995 as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme. In 2001 the MDMS became a cooked mid-day meal scheme, providing 300 calories to each child in every government and government-aided primary school.

Mid-day meals prepared with minimum ingredients were to be served. Energy and 8-12 grams of protein per day for at least 200 days. The scheme was extended in 2002 to cover not only children studying in government, government-aided and local body schools, but also children studying in Education Guarantee Scheme (EGS) and Alternative and Innovative Education (AIE) centres. went.

The scheme was modified in September 2004 to provide central assistance for cooking cost at the rate of Re 1 per child per school day to cover the cost of pulses, vegetables, cooking oil, spices, fuel .

and wages and remuneration payable to the personnel or the amount payable to the agency responsible for the cooking. Transport subsidy was also increased to Rs.20 per quintal from the earlier maximum of Rs.50 per quintal.
Rs.100 per quintal for special category states and Rs.75 per quintal for other states. For the first time Central assistance at the rate of 2% of the cost of food grains, transport subsidy and cooking assistance was provided for the management, monitoring and evaluation of the scheme. Provision was also made to serve mid-day meals during summer vacation in drought-affected areas. The scheme was further modified in July 2006 to increase the cooking cost to Rs 1.80 per child/school day for states in the North Eastern region and Rs 1.50 per child/school day for other states and union territories. Nutrition criteria were revised to 450 calories and 12 grams of protein. For central assistance to facilitate construction of kitchen-cum-stores in schools and purchase of kitchen equipment, Rs. 60,000 per unit and @ Rs. 5,000 per school was done in a phased manner. In October 2007, the scheme was expanded to cover children in upper primary classes (i.e. classes VI to VIII) studying in 3,479 educationally backward areas.
Block (EBB) and the name of the scheme was changed from ‘National Program of Nutritional Support to Elementary Education’ to ‘National Program of Mid Day Meal in Schools’. The standard of nutrition for the upper primary level was fixed at 700 calories and 20 grams of protein. The scheme was extended to all areas across the country with effect from 1.4.2008. The scheme was modified in April 2008 to extend the scheme to Madarsas/Maktabs recognized under SSA.
c) Lok Jumbish:
The project started in 1992 and was completed by June 1999 in two phases. This program is being implemented in Rajasthan and has shown positive impact of micro-planning and school mapping process through community collaboration.
d) Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY):
The program was launched during 2000-01 and envisages Additional Central Assistance (ACA) for basic minimum services in certain priority sectors. The scheme has six components covering elementary education, primary health, rural shelter, rural drinking water, nutrition and rural electrification. A minimum of 10 percent of the ACA has been set for all components except nutrition (for which it is 15 percent). The allocation for the remaining 35 per cent ACA will be decided by the states and union territories among the components of the scheme.

Priorities. The funds for the elementary education sector under PMGY are used to further the goal of universalisation of primary education.
e) Mahila Sankhya
Mahila Samakhya Yojana was launched in 1989 for the education and empowerment of women in rural areas, especially those from socially and economically marginalized groups. It focuses on enabling greater access to education, creating demand for education, building capacities and strengthening the capabilities of women to participate effectively in village level processes for educational development.

f) Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
SSA has been working since 2000-2001 to provide various interventions for universal access and retention, bridging gender and social category gaps in elementary education, and improving the quality of learning. SSA interventions include, inter alia, opening of new schools and alternative schooling facilities, construction of schools and additional classrooms, provision of toilets and drinking water, provision for teachers, regular teacher in service training and educational resource support, free textbooks and uniforms and Includes supports to improve learning achievement. Level / Result. With the passing of the RTE Act, changes have been incorporated in the SSA approach, strategies and norms. These include changes in the vision and approach to elementary education, guided by the following principles:
• A holistic approach to education as explained in the National Curriculum Framework 2005, with implications for a systemic reform of the entire content and process of education with significant implications for curriculum, teacher education, educational planning and management.
• Equality, not only means equal opportunity, but also the creation of conditions in which disadvantaged sections of society – SCs, STs, Muslim minorities, landless agricultural laborers and children with special needs – can avail themselves of opportunities. ,
• Access includes but is not limited to ensuring that
A school becomes accessible to all children within a specified distance, but implies an understanding of the educational needs and plight of the traditionally excluded categories – Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other sections of the most disadvantaged groups. Muslim minorities, girls in general, and children with special needs.
• Gender Concern, an effort not only to enable girls to keep pace with boys, but also to see education in the perspective given in the National Policy on Education 1986/92; That is, a decisive intervention to bring about a fundamental change in the status of women.

• Teacher centrality, to inspire them to innovate and create a culture in the classroom and beyond, that creates an inclusive environment for children, especially girls from oppressed and marginalized backgrounds.
• Moral pressure is exerted on parents, teachers, educational administrators and other stakeholders through the RTE Act instead of insisting on punitive procedures.
• A convergent and integrated system of educational management is a pre-requisite for the implementation of the RTE Act. All states should move in that direction as fast as possible.


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