Nature of Demography

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Nature of Demography

Demography is the science that studies about human population, because it studies the number and human characteristics of human beings, so it studies the ever-changing trends because of any area like country, state, district, city or village. Population increases by birth and in-migration and decreases with death and out-migration. In this process, the determinants of population, gender, age structure, marital status, educational progress, classification of workers and economic activities also keep on changing. All the information or data related to this is available only when continuously empowered organizations do this work by carefully registering. Demography is a science. Science is its nature, systematic study is science. Science is that systematic form of knowledge which reveals the mutual relationship of causes and consequences of a particular event or fact. It is to be remembered here that collecting facts is not only science, but to be a science, collecting facts in an orderly form has to classify and analyze them and as a result some rules and principles have to be propounded. In short, let us know that to be a science, it is necessary to have knowledge of the following things.

1. The study of knowledge should be systematic.
2. Science should have its own rules and principles.
3. These principles should be built on the basis of relation of cause and effect.
4. These laws must be universally true.

Demography is considered a science, in favor of which the following arguments are given.

• Universality- The truth of the principles propounded by it is universal.

• Test of Truth The veracity of demographic theories can be tested.

• Forecasting future events can be done by the analytical study of forecasting demographic methods.

• Application of Scientific Techniques Scientific techniques of study are used in Demography. In this, facts are collected through questionnaire and schedule and general principles are presented by analysis of facts.

• Factual Study Under Demography, factual study of population is done with the help of census. Objective enumeration of population is done in census.


• Cause-results Under this, analytical study of cause-effect relationships is done.

Demography is not a static science but a dynamic science. In this, the changes in the population during a period and the changes in the population in the future are estimated. Since it studies time and changes. Hence it is Dynamic Science. Finally, it can be said in this way that Demography is not only a theoretical science but it can also be called as applied science.

Techniques of Demographic Analysis

Demography is the study and analysis of the status of the population and the measurement of the changes occurring in it. All the elements of demographics are dynamic and there is a constant change in them, as a result of which continuous data collection, classification, editing, analysis goes on. Generally, the study of demography is done in two main ways-
(1) the specific method (2) the general method.

Micro Demographic Method

Under this method, the study of individual or specific groups, components and problems and events related to them is done. The study of structure is important in this analysis. With the help of micro or micro analysis, it becomes possible to study the demographic characteristics of a limited area in depth. This analysis is very useful from the point of view of research because with the help of this, due information of a small area can be obtained.

 Macro Demographic Method 

Under the comprehensive or macro analysis demographic method, the demographic events of different communities and regions of a country are studied separately and collectively. This helps in comparative study of the demographic situation of different countries. This is the reason why the United Nations has urged all the countries of the world to relate the census at the same time. In this way, the analysis of population growth rate, birth rate, death rate, marriage rate, life table, population pyramid, national population policy becomes easy. In this way, comparative study at the international level becomes easy. It is necessary to use both the methods for demographic analysis, in fact the above two methods are different but both are not contradictory but complement each other. Not only one method for analysis but both methods would be preferable for demography. From this point of view, if it is said that the combined study of facts from both these points of view gives completeness to the knowledge of the subject, then it will not be wrong. American Demographers Thompson and Lewis have clarified in their book Population Problems that the study of different aspects of population is called Cause-Result- Analytical study of cause-effect relationships under this study is done.

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