Panchayati Raj and Democratic Decentralization

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Panchayati Raj and Democratic Decentralization

Panchayat is the most important institution of democratic governance and social system in India. Along with the execution of judicial rights and functions, many other more important functions are in the hands of Praj Panchayats. From the determination and implementation of policy and rules, the responsibility of the social and economic development of the people in their jurisdiction, from taxation and tax collection and general administration, is on the Praj Panchayats.

Panchayat system has existed in India since ancient times, but the existence of Panchayats as an institution based on definite and clear meaning, purpose, budget, rights, organization and rules, was never there in independent India in the past. The system of settling domestic disputes on the basis of arbitration and arbitration has been going on in the country since ancient times. The arbitral award was accepted with respect in the society. An underlying function of the social recognition of the Panch Parmeshwar was that an ordinary person became an extraordinary person by becoming a Panch, separated from the society’s established dignity of the God.

Due to which he did not allow ordinary human weaknesses to come in the way in the performance of his duty as an arbitrator. In the modern era, the jurisdiction of Panchayats has become very wide. Its nature is more and more formal and legal. During the Dammt National Movement, the leaders had thought of reviving the basic institutions in post-independent Indian governance and social system in a modern way. But after independence, the basic draft of the Indian society was not mentioned in the Panchayats. Dr. Ambedkar was the chairman of the constitution drafting committee. They did not consider Panchayati governance system useful below the national and provincial level. His apprehension was that Panchayats at the grassroots level, instead of becoming effective instruments of social justice, administration and economic development, would remain as puppets in the hands of powerful people, instruments of social hatred and exploitation and center of political arena. The idea of Mahatma Gandhi was opposite to the idea of Ambedkar. Gandhi believed that until democracy is not extended to millions of villages of India through Panchayats, neither the participation of the common man in governance and development nor democracy will be established in the real Indian society.

In his era, Gandhi used to represent Indian public opinion and democracy, as a result of whose pressure a provision was made under the Directive Principles of the Constitution that the State Governments should take necessary steps for the formation of Panchayats in their area, so that they could function as units of self-government. Can do Accordingly, by January 1957, panchayat laws were passed in almost all the states and within a few months, panchayats were formed in more than 70 percent of the villages of India. Panchayati Raj is such a governance system based on the principle of democratic decentralization, in which power and governance at different levels is in the hands of the representatives made by the public. In a broad sense, the Panchayati Raj system represents a five-tier system of democratic governance, while in a limited sense, it is a three-tier self-governance system. The end points of the five-tier system are villages and centres, while the three-tier system has villages and districts. Balwant Rao Mehta Committee; Based on the recommendations of 1959, the three-tier Panchayati system was implemented in almost the entire country with the aim of increasing public cooperation and participation in national reconstruction and development works. Although Panchayats are formed through direct elections in all the states at the village level, but the blocks; somewhere . Somewhere, there has been some variation in the formation of Panchayats at Taluk and District level in different states. The basic element of Panchayati Raj system is that the process of development planning should be started from the village. Villagers should be made partners in development works, so that rural development and community development organizations and programs can become people’s programs instead of government initiatives and programs. Following are the main objectives of Panchayati Raj in the third five year plan. were designated

, Increase in agricultural production.

, b) Development of rural industry.

, (c) Progress in the formation of co-operative institutions.

, d) Maximum utilization of local manpower resources and physical and economic resources.

, Distribution of power and importance of voluntary organizations.

, Increase in mutual cooperation in rural community and self. Encouragement to the tendency of humility.


Organization of Panchayati Raj Institutions


In the direction of democratic decentralization, under the three-tier system of Panchayati Raj, Gram Sabha, Gram Panchayat and Nyaya Panchayat at the village level, Panchayat Samiti at the block level and Zilla Parishad at the district level have been established in the state. , at 1 gram level. The village panchayat is the most important institution under the Panchayati Raj system. There is little variation in their form in different states and the organization of village panchayats to a large extent was established in the year 1961.

Village panchayats have been divided into three main units for all-round development related to the form of Gavi Payata, prevalent in Uttar Pradesh since


1. Gram Sabha

2. Gram Panchayat A and

3. Nyaya Panchayat is called.


Although this department seems to be separate from above, it is practically complementary to each other. The organization and functioning of these three departments can be explained in the following way. ,


Gram Sabha. In the beginning, the assembly was formed in every rural area with a population of one thousand, but in the second election of the panchayats, it was realized that the village type. Sabha Jan. Bath is more useful for ordinary. As a result, under the new system, if the population of a village is at least 250, then there is a village. Assembly can be established. When the population of a village is less than this, a village consisting of more than one village. The meeting is established. In such a situation, it is necessary to keep in mind that these villages should not be located at a great distance from each other and there should not be any river, stream or other similar natural obstacle between them. Membership of the Gram Sabha is voluntary. Every woman of 21 years. A man can be a member of the Gram Sabha, but no such person can be a member of the Gram Sabha who is a leper, a lunatic, an insolvent or a person who has been punished. There are two general meetings of the Gram Sabha in a year. One after the harvest of the Kharif crop and the other after the Rabi crop. In the first meeting, the budget for the year is placed before the Gaon Sabha, while in the second meeting, the income. Checking of accounts of expenditure. Investigation is done. These meetings are presided over by the Chairman or ‘Pradhan’ of the Gram Sabha. According to the new amendments, the head of the Gaon Sabha is elected through the secret ballot system and his tenure is of 5 years. Although a no-confidence motion can also be passed by voting against him. The real power of the Panchayat is the consent of the Gram Sabha. This is the reason why Gram Sabha is seen as the most important unit at the village level of the Panchayati Raj system.


Gram Panchayat Each Gram Sabha has an executive body which we call Gram Panchayat. The head of the Gram Sabha is also the head of the Gram Panchayat. The members of the Gram Panchayat are determined on the basis of the number of members of each Gram Sabha. All these members are elected by the members of the Gram Sabha. Later all the members of the village panchayat elect the deputy head of the village panchayat. Before the year 1961, the head of the Gram Panchayat was elected by the direct voting system, but from the year 1977, the head and deputy. The election of the President is being done by secret ballot system. Deputy like the head. The tenure of the Pradhan is also of 5 years.



Nyaya Panchayat Nyaya Panchayat is the third major organization related to this organization at the village level, whose work is to provide cheap justice to the villagers by settling rural disputes on local basis. Normally a Nyay Panchayat is formed by combining 8 to 12 Gram Panchayats. As many Gram Sabhas as are found in each Nyaya Panchayat, first of all Panchs are nominated by the District Magistrate from each such Gram Sabha. Even after this, if a justice If Panchayat area Yam Sabhas are included, then the number of members of Nyay Panchayat was kept at 15 instead of 12, so that all Panchs have 5. Can be divided into three benches of 5 pachas. This means that the number of members of the Nyay Panchayat is determined in such a way that all the panches are 5. Can be divided into canes of 5 members. After the nomination of Panchs of Nyaya Panchayat, two persons from among themselves are elected as Sarpanch and Assistant Sarpanch by these Panchs by meeting at the time and place fixed by the District Magistrate within a month. The tenure of all these office bearers of Nyay Panchayat is also 5 years like that of Gram Panchayat. Presently 8 A 791 Nyaya Panchayats are functioning in Uttar Pradesh. Nyay Panchayats are definitely important in the field of providing cheap justice to the villagers, but their right. The area is very limited.


Panchayat committee . Panchayati Raj in Uttar Pradesh. Panchayat committees were constituted at the development block level from 1961 under the level system. Panchayat Samiti and District. According to the provision given in the Council Act, a Panchayat Samiti was formed in the area of 10 or more Nyaya Panchayats. At present, a total of 876 Panchayat Samitis are functioning in the state. In the Panchayat Samiti one chief and two deputy. prominent ; In which a senior sub. Major and one junior sub. Along with being the head, there are many other members. Heads of all Gram Sabhas located in the Development Block, Chairman of all Town Area Committees, Chairman of Notified Area Committees, At least two and not more than five representatives of Government Committees located in the Development Block, and members of the Lok Sabha and Legislative Assembly of that area. There are members of the Panchayat Samiti. Apart from this, membership of this committee is also given to at least 5 women and 8 persons belonging to scheduled castes. In the area of the development block, any person whose name is included in the voter’s list of four to be held for the Vidhansabha, can stand for the post of the head of this Panchayat Samiti.

The age of the person must be 30 years or more. The head of the Panchayat Samiti and the honorable voting system is done by the persons who are the members of the Panchayat Samiti. The tenure of the office bearers of the Panchayat Samiti is also 5 years, chief and deputy. Majority of 2/3 against the chief. No-confidence motion is ever passed from the system.


Under the system, the Zilla Parishad at the district level, at the same time one in each district of the state. It is an important institution of democratic decentralization to come under various Panchayat Samitis under a district. At present, each Zilla Parishad has been established in the state and the entire area with different Panchayat Samiti under one district is the working area of the Zilla Parishad. In Uttar Pradesh, no fixed number of members of this Zilla Parishad is fixed by the heads of all Panchayat Samitis and the State Government. According to the fixed number of all the Panchayat Samitis under the district, some persons elected by the Panchayat Samitis from amongst themselves are its members. Apart from this, presidents of all municipalities located in the district, 3 to 5 representatives elected according to the rules of co-operative societies, a person associated with any social organization in the district and nominated by the state government and according to the number fixed by the state government, you have been elected on the basis of adult suffrage. Individuals are also members of the Zilla Parishad. The members of the Lok Sabha and the Legislative Assembly of the district concerned and the members representing that district in the Rajya Sabha and the Legislative Council are also members of the Zilla Parishad. It is necessary to have at least 5 women and 5 to 10 scheduled caste representatives in each Zilla Parishad. Any shortfall in the number of such representatives from the appropriate categories is made up by the nomination of additional persons. Each Zilla Parishad has a President and a Vice President who are elected by secret ballot. Any person who is not less than 30 years of age and is not disqualified to be a candidate for any post according to the law can be a candidate for the post of President of Zilla Parishad. The tenure of the Zila Parishad and its office bearers is also five years, although the state government has the right to extend this tenure for a maximum of one year. The Zilla Parishad is responsible for construction of roads, construction and repair of culverts, tree plantation, hospitals and animal hospitals in its area. It does important work like arrangement and inspection of houses, construction of buildings etc. Primary and junior high school level education in the district. Institutions work. Primary and junior high school level education in the district. Opening of institutions and appointment of teachers in them is the work of Zila Parishad only. Zila Parishads have the right to levy some taxes independently, but their main source of income is grants received from the state. Thus it is clear that Zilla Parishad at the district level is the main unit of democratic decentralization through which efforts are made to implement development works. Under Panchayati Raj System, Village Panchayat, Panchayat Samiti and Zila Parishad are equally important and complement each other. Even after this, if the importance of these different units is known from a comparative point of view, then it is clear that the Gram Panchayat is the most important of all these units. Gram Panchayat not only tries to develop healthy leadership in the village, but through this a democratic system becomes possible in which governance flows from bottom to top. Gram Panchayats are the medium through which suggestions are given for the formulation of plans according to the local needs and the implementation of those plans is made effective. India is a country of villages, so until the participation of the villagers in various development programs is not achieved, the success of the schemes cannot be expected. Perhaps from this point of view, Gandhiji had said, “If there is any meaning for the people of India, then the development of village panchayats as primary institutions will have to be given the most.” In this context, Mr. Dhebar has made it clear that Panchayats are not only the pivot of rural development but also the development of the whole of India. The importance of village panchayats in India becomes clear from the fact that village panchayats are the most effective means of teaching democracy to the villagers at every small place and training them to do their own development. It has all the qualities of a rural republic. In fact, the important work that Gram Panchayats can do for rural life is not possible by any other organization. We can easily explain the importance of Gram Panchayats in different areas in the context of the following works done by them.




Importance of village panchayats in public welfare Public welfare in rural areas. There is acute shortage of work. The standard of health everywhere is very low. There are special problems in the villages like filth, infectious diseases, lack of clean drinking water, lack of healthy entertainment and inconvenience of transport etc. Panchayats are important in the public sector as follows

By doing important work, it has proved helpful in rural reconstruction.


Improving public health. All the problems which lower the level of health in the village. It can be solved only with the help of Panchayat. Through this, the necessary information of rural life is kept and necessary facilities are collected for the people in the field of health.


treatment of diseases. This work village. This can be done more easily through Panchayats. Most diseases are contagious. It is necessary to take immediate action as soon as they spread. Being a local organization, this work is done in the village. This can be done soon by the Panchayats.


Management of cleanliness. Because most of the villagers are not educated, they are generally not much aware of cleanliness. As a result, their health status remains low. village . Panchayats not only appeal to the villagers for cleanliness but also train them to make drains and cover compost pits. Village from all the villagers. Due to the suffix relation of Panchayats, this work is also done easily.


Helpful in the development of traffic. One of the main reasons for the backwardness of rural life is the lack of means of transport. Village . Panchayats fulfill this deficiency by getting the roads repaired, making arrangements for lighting and building new roads. Rajasthan Government has now given more priority to Gram Panchayats for creation of permanent community assets in villages under ‘Food for Work Programme’. Now the village Panchayats can get the work done themselves costing up to Rs.5000. Prior to this the village Panchayats could implement schemes only with an expenditure of up to two thousand rupees.


Clean water system. Most of the diseases in the village arise as a result of drinking dirty water. Panchayats by putting red medicine in the dogs of the village, by keeping the ponds clean and water. They make arrangements for drinking water by keeping the falls safe. This saves the villagers from many diseases.


Management of entertainment. Entertainment is of utmost importance in rural life. Karina sah thode. It is only through entertainment that new enthusiasm and power can be instilled in the villagers. village . Panchayats, fairs, exhibitions, programs and games of Prakashvani. By arranging jumps and sponsoring films with the help of the officer, the villagers wish to be entertained and sometimes, with the help of the welfare officer, Grayo provides facilities for the films. Assistance in natural calamities. Famine remains in the life of the villagers. Due to their limited resources, the villagers always face the possibility of epidemics. In times of their own political calamities, they are unable to do it alone by providing primary help to the villagers.


village . The Panchayat encourages them in various ways to keep up during natural calamities. Importance of village panchayats in various economic life to keep their morale high castes also do important work of improving the basic condition of the villagers by doing the following work


The development of industries and trades is the most important in improving the rural life, although the economic condition of the villagers can be greatly improved by the development of agriculture. village . Small Panchayats on the basis of cooperation. Help in setting up small industries and give new opportunities to the villagers. They also try to give information about new small scale and cottage industries.


Improvement of animal breed. The importance of livestock is fundamental in rural life, but despite having the largest number of Indian livestock in the world, its breed is the worst. Village panchayats do important work by establishing new centers to improve the breed of animals and save them from many diseases.


Irrigation facilities Our country’s agriculture is still dependent on rain to a large extent. village . Panchayats provide maximum facilities for irrigation by constructing and repairing public wells, ponds and irrigation drains.


Assistance to landless laborers. Lakhs of farmers in Indian villages also work only as laborers on the land. Village . Panchayats can make arrangements for distribution of some land among such Mardurs who do not have any land of their own and who have to remain idle for more than half of the year by proper management of all the land. The Prashok Mehta Committee constituted to make the Panchayati Raj system effective has laid special emphasis on the idea that efforts should be made at the Gram Panchayat level for the proper development of the landless farmers and weaker sections in the villages.


Development of co-operative societies. The economic condition of the villagers can be improved to a great extent by cooperative farming and cooperative societies. The success of cooperatives depends on the efforts of Panchayats apart from the efforts of the government. Rgao. Panchayats encourage them to participate in cooperatives by easily promoting the benefits of such societies among the villagers.


Importance of village panchayats in social life. Panchayats are also helpful in rural progress through the following social works


spread of education. Most of the villagers are still completely illiterate, due to which their social life is very backward. Village . Panchayats by arranging adult education in addition to primary education in villages

Has proved helpful in the progress of the villagers.


Assistance to bonded laborers. In our country since 1976, the countrywide agitation started to liberate the bonded laborers from exploitation, its success is also a village. It depends only on the efforts of Panchayats. village . Panchayats give information about bonded laborers in their area to the government and through this work they try to make the social life of the village more healthy.


Social reform work. Many bad practices of rural society like. , The curtain was untouchability and hair. Prohibition on marriage and widow remarriage etc. problems are hindrance in rural progress. Gram Panchayats can prove to be very helpful in ending these evil practices. To prepare people against these practices. It can be a relatively simple task for the Panchayat.


Maternity and child welfare facilities. The health of mothers and children is very important for the national and social interest. Many blind Till some time ago, about two lakh mothers used to die every year during child birth in India due to beliefs. Panchayats can do a lot of work in making the lives of mothers and children healthy through delivery and medical facilities. Some panchayats have also done important work in this direction.


Prohibition on the use of intoxicants. It is very necessary for the rural people to stop the use of liquor and other types of intoxicants in the village. Even today, such things are used in large quantities on festivals and occasions in the villages. This leads to both wastage of money and degradation of morals. Even after the present law of prohibition, village panchayats can be very successful in stopping this evil because the members of village panchayat have close contact with the villagers.


Importance of Panchayats in Political Life Everyone accepts the contribution of village panchayats in the direction of rural leadership. Panchayats do this work in many ways. For example


, By explaining the meaning of voting to the villagers

, By introducing them to their important role in a democracy

, c) By teaching citizenship

, By introducing you to ways to contribute to governance

, f) By giving cheap and speedy justice to the villagers and

, Gaon Panchayats have encouraged healthy rural leadership by giving them training to solve their own problems.


Bhatnagar has clarified the fact on the basis of his study that as a result of the Panchayati Raj system, changes have started becoming evident in the rural society since last one decade. There has now been enough awareness among the villagers, as a result of which the political dominance of the traditional elite has reduced. The villagers have also become aware of their voting rights and power.


In areas where earlier the traditional leadership was established without elections, it has now become necessary to have elections there. Panchayats have also done important work in the political field by settling lawsuits and local disputes. Functions of village panchayats. It is through this system that the rural people learn the rudiments of governance and by staying in these organizations they acquire the necessary qualifications for democracy. In fact, a Panchayati Raj organization organizes the entire village as a joint family even after being a socio-political system. The head of the village council is like the doer of the joint family who provides equal opportunities for development to all the members.


Problems with Panchayati Raj;

There are many such problems related to the Panchayati Raj Institutions, which are difficult for their successful functioning. Obstacles to operations. Until these problems are not resolved after studying them in the right perspective, the work of rural reconstruction through these institutions will remain incomplete. Some of the problems of Panchayati Raj are as follows


Government and non-government related to Panchayati Raj. Strained relations are found among the government members. Government officials who previously had considerable power. They were prosperous and still do not want to relinquish power in the changed circumstances. where non There is enthusiasm among the government workers due to the attainment of power and responsibility, whereas there is dissatisfaction and indifference towards work among the government officials due to the decrease in their administrative power. The preconceived notions of both these types of people towards each other have hindered the work of rural reconstruction. There is suspicion and trust in each other.


Another problem related to Panchayati Raj is lack of financial resources. It has been seen that the schemes for which funds from the state government. Funds are received, interest is found in the public regarding their implementation and lack of interest towards the rest, as well as the institutions related to Panchayati Raj have not been completely successful in the purpose of raising funds from local resources. Panchayats and Panchayat committees are afraid of imposing taxes due to the fear of opposition from the public. In such a situation, they have to depend only on the money received by the government. The result is that the pace of development remains slow and Panchayat Samitis have not been provided with adequate resources to conduct the works. Their power to levy taxes is also very limited.


Most of the leaders elected for the Panchayati Raj Institutions generally get the public. These are often related to their traditional gotra. rish

Thedars and Sanyukta get the support of their own caste. They are often able to win elections on the basis of extended relations of their traditional families. In such a situation, the litigants remain and they are radical. Radical changes cannot be expected. Who has told that after the end of traditional panchayats, there has been development of nomadic groups. You have named such groups as factions. encourage factionalism. Political in the elections of Panchayati Raj Institutions


There is factionalism in rural areas even with the participation of parties. The result is that there is a conflict of one caste with another and even in one caste, opposing pitchers are seen. This type of stressful environment in rural community life is the successful functioning of Panchayati Raj Institutions. hinders operation. It is seen in many ways that the members of these institutions are related to their caste, gotra, family and friends. The groups and their political parties get involved in the fulfillment of the interests of the people belonging to their particular group and the goal of all-round development of the villages remains unfulfilled.


It is also seen that many qualified persons in rural areas do not like to handle the responsibility of Panch, Sarpanch, Pradhan or President because of party politics. Even after taking membership of these institutions, lack of interest is found in many people towards their work. The work of Panchayati Raj institutions is also influenced by qualified and purposeful persons. hinders operation. Some members even make these institutions a medium for their personal interests. The result is that public dislike for such institutions arises.


Under the Panchayati Raj system, no effort has been made to strengthen the Gram Sabha. The mere arrangement of its meetings once or twice in a year cannot generate interest and readiness for public cooperation in the public towards various development programmes. The result was that people’s cooperation could not be obtained in the schemes related to rural reconstruction as per the expectations.


Development Section . The kind of co-ordination that has been arranged among the various workers at the level, that type of arrangement has not been made in the district level workers. As a result, the district level officers of various development departments do not coordinate their work under any Panchayati Raj Institution. Also, the head or chairman of the Zilla Parishad formed at the district level has no control over the employees of the district level. In such a situation, the task of bringing rapid changes in rural areas and bringing changes in development works and speeding up development works remains incomplete.

Tips for Success;

Ashok Mehta Committee in its report has evaluated the Panchayati Raj system on the basis of three stages of its development. First, a state of dominance, which existed from 1959 to 1964, second, a state of inactivity or stability, which was found from 1965 to 1967, and third, a state of decline, which existed from 1969 to 1977. By studying these three stages of Panchayati Raj system, it becomes clear that the history of Panchayati Raj system from 1959 to 1977 has been a history of ups and downs. In the initial stage, the work of Panchayati Raj was very satisfactory, in the second stage it became a non-negotiable institution, while in the third stage it began to decline. In this way, in spite of agreeing with the theoretical side of Panchayati Raj at present, some changes are necessary in its practical form, on the basis of which this system can be made an effective medium of rural development. Shaj Panchayats are made public only by increasing the number of villages. Can be made useful for general. In order to improve the administrative situation, it is necessary that the rights of Panchayats should be increased and the amount of financial assistance given to them in the form of grants should be increased. Apart from this, the government will be able to get real knowledge of various rural areas and their problems only when the elected persons at different levels of Panchayati Raj system must be educated to some extent. At least the head and deputy of the Gram Panchayat, a Panchayat Samiti and the Zilla Parishad. It is necessary to set a minimum educational qualification for the candidates for the post of Principal. Apart from this, the Panchayati Raj system can be made more useful on the basis of the following suggestions.


The development of Gram Panchayats must be encouraged, but at the same time the work of the Panchayat in the villagers. It is also necessary to generate interest towards understanding the methodology. This task can be accomplished by organizing training camps.


The various units of the Panchayati Raj system should not function only as units of governance, but they should be primarily concerned with social and economic development.


It seems necessary that Panchayati Raj institutions should be given more and more rights to improve their economic condition, but at the same time it is also necessary that the resources of these institutions should be used only for the development and productive works of agriculture. Let’s go


It is necessary to keep the Panchayati Raj system completely separate from political parties. For this it is necessary that Tri. No candidate should contest elections as a political party at any level of the tier system. it would be more beneficial

After ending the election process, the MPs and MLAs of the areas should send the names of experienced and respected people of the village to the state government for nomination.


If the system of election is considered essential on a democratic basis, then it is necessary that the candidate participating in the election must be a permanent resident of that village for at least the last 10 years. Minimum educational qualification must be prescribed for the candidate contesting elections at different levels of Panchayati Raj system, so that after getting elected, he can fulfill the responsibilities related to his post. Can live like this.


Look at the works of the office bearers of the Panchayati Raj system. A separate evaluation team or study team should be appointed for Bhal and on the basis of its recommendation, grants should be given to panchayati institutions of different levels.


Lastly, for the success of the Panchayati Raj system, it is essential that small To give coordinated instructions to small panchayats, a regional panchayat should be established over 10 or 15 panchayats. In Kshetriya Panchayat, Shrache members should be nominated from different Panchayats and Maghe members can be ex-officio Govt.

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