Research Design 

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Research Design 

Before starting the investigation, after properly thinking about each research problem, we should decide that by which methods and procedures we want to work, then we need to implement control. Prasha increases. Research and design is the process of decisions that are made prior to the circumstances in which these decisions are put into action. Many social scientists have defined research structure. Here we can see some definitions. Selidge, Jahoda, Deutsch and Cook in their book ‘Research Methods in Social Relations’ define research design and write that “and research design provides those data for the collection and analysis of data which are consistent with the objectives of the research”. The aim is to incorporate it with the pathetic control in the works.
“Pr. L. Aikoff has named his book ‘The Design of Social Research’. According to you, “To design is to plan, that is, to design, the process of making decisions before the occurrence of the situation in which decisions are made.” is to be applied. It is a process of anticipation in the direction of bringing a possible situation under control.
The term design or design means a predetermined outline. Ekoff has explained the word creation by analogy. A building builder prepares the design or structure of the building in advance, how big it will be, how many rooms it will have, what materials will be used in it etc. He takes all these decisions before the construction of the building so that a ‘map’ is made about the building and if any modification is to be done in it, then it can be done before the construction starts. Some of the major definitions of research design or design are the following: Ekof – “The meaning of design or design is to plan, that is, design is the process of pre-decision making so that it can be used when the situation arises. It is a process of understanding and forecasting whose purpose is to keep control over the expected situation.

In social research, after the selection and formulation of the problem and the formulation of hypotheses, the research design or structure is made. Its task is to provide a definite direction to the research. In order to complete the process of any social research properly, the outline of the plan set in the beginning is called the design of social research. A good research design also saves human labor by reducing the errors of collection of material and often eliminates the possibility of errors and difficulties that may come later. To understand the meaning of the word research design or design, first ‘ It is necessary to understand the meaning of the words ‘research’ and ‘design’ or ‘design’.
Sanford Lebowitz and Robert Hagdan also define it in ‘Introduction to Social Research’, writing that “A research design presents the logical way in which individuals and other entities are compared and analyzed. The basis of the discussion is. The purpose of the design is to assure a comparison that is not affected by alternative considerations.



According to Saltiz, Jahoda and others, “Social research means to obtain new information about social phenomena and facts or to amend, verify and enhance previously acquired knowledge. “

‘Saltz, Jahoda and others – “Research design is a system of conditions for the collection and analysis of data whose goal is to coordinate the relevance of the research objective and the economy of the procedure, it is clear from the views of Ekoff, Saltiz, Jahoda and other scholars. It becomes known that research design or design is a process of pre-judgment whose purpose is to collect data related to the problem on the basis of economy and control the situations that arise. Also, different types of structures can be made depending on the goal of the research. It is worth noting that research design is concerned with the two major phases of research – the collection of materials and the analysis of the material. Therefore, research design is the most appropriate and convenient plan or framework related to them, whose purpose is to provide direction to the researcher and to save man-labor.



 Characteristics of a Good Research Design 

The entire process of research depends on its properly designed structure. Therefore, in a good research design, it is necessary to take the right pre-decisions for the next steps according to the nature of the problem. A good research design or design must have the following characteristics:

(1) It should be flexible so that small changes can be made at any stage if required.

(2) It should be appropriate so that reliable material can be collected.

(3) It should be efficient so that the objectives of the research can be successfully achieved.

(4) It should be economical so that the entire research can be completed within the limits of the available resources. ? Really good research

Composition is said to be that which reduces the possibility of bias, while it helps to compile the material to be compiled reliably. In experimental designs, those structures are considered good in which there are least errors. Similarly, those research designs are also considered good which helps in gathering maximum material about different aspects of the problem. Therefore, the research design depends on the nature of the problem


Objectives of Research Design 

According to Saltiz, Jahoda et al., there can be different types of research designs depending on the research objectives. Each study has its own specific objective. Following are the main objectives of the research

(1) To obtain information about a phenomenon or to obtain new knowledge about it so that more accurate research problems or hypotheses can be made.

(2) To accurately depict the characteristics of an individual, situation or group (with or without preliminary hypotheses concerning the nature of these characteristics).

(3) To determine the frequency of occurrence of an object or to determine its relation with any other object, usually but not necessarily, with the help of any hypothesis.

(4) To test hypotheses involving causal relationships in different variables.



Subject – Matter of Research Design 

In a general research-design, the following topics are mentioned.

(1) Topic of Research – By doing this, a clear knowledge of the subject of study becomes clear and its scope and limitations can be known. One has to study the available literature, journals etc. regarding its form determination, search etc. The sources of study can be government, non-government, personal, libraries or environment related.

(2) Nature of study – The type and nature of research has to be determined in this. It may be of statistical, individual, comparative, experimental, analytical, exploratory or mixed type.

(3) Introduction and Background – In this, the background of choosing that subject has to be told and it has to be started. From this it is known that how the interest of the researcher arose in the said subject and what was the nature and condition of the problem. So far, who and what results have been obtained and studied about that problem? What were their shortcomings and errors? How is it possible and desirable to remove them now? e.t.c .

(4) Objectives – In this, the researcher or investigator states his purpose. In this he also reveals the sub-objective or goal, that is, mentions the main objectives. These are often clarified in four or five words.

(5) Social, Cultural, Political and Geographical Context of Study – In this, the researcher clarifies what kind of society and culture environment he is living in and its main values. What are traditions, beliefs, etc.? It has local standard customs. Traditions etc. can also be found. In this context, the political system, behavior and values ​​are mentioned. Facts and conditions influencing human behavior in a geographical context. Climate. Natural vs natural production etc. If possible, the economic environment should also be introduced. Political research should be accommodated in social, cultural, economic and industrial dimensions.

(6) Concept, Variable and Hypothesis – First of all in this field, if any theory or conceptual framework has been made as the basis, then it needs to be mentioned. In this context the main concepts should be clarified. To make them sure, their working definitions should be given. For example, if the concept of ‘corruption’ is used, it should be stated in what sense it has been used. Similarly, it can be told that which variables are being made the central subject and which hypotheses have been made related to them. As it has been mentioned earlier that the formulation of hypotheses makes the investigation sure and they determine the direction, extent, area etc. Na Kohn and Nagel have pointed out that we cannot move a step forward without proposed lectures or solutions to the problem. These are suggested by the subject matter related to the problem and the prior knowledge of the researcher. When these suggestions or discourses are put in the form of introductions, they are called hypotheses. These hypotheses direct the research by bringing order in the facts.

(7) Period – Indication – In this it is told that Hishod is related to time, time or revesh. Time is a very important factor in political research.

(8) Basis of Selection of Datas and Techniques of Collection – In this, the methods of selection of facts material are told and fixed.

Their rationale should also be clarified. These bases can be praleviya, physical or conceptual, observable etc. The methods of fact-collecting can be human or mechanical. Data can be collected by means of observation, questionnaire, interview, observation etc. It is necessary to pay attention to their suitability.

(9) Analysis and Interpretation After the material is collected, its tabulation, classification and analysis systems can be indicated. What methods will be used in its interpretation? Or what will be the degree of its normality or authenticity? Etc. things can be mentioned in more or less quantity.

(10) Survey – Period, Time and Money – It should also be indicated within how much time the survey will be completed. Will it be done only once, or several times in a row? Similarly, the time and money spent in research should also be estimated.




In brief, the important stages of research design can be presented as follows:

1. The study problem should be presented first in the research design.
2 . The research work that is being done at present is clearly related to the research problem, the second main part of the research structure.
3. At present, we have to clearly set the boundaries of the research work that we have to do.
4. The fourth stage of the research design is to present a detailed description of the different areas of research.
5. In this phase of research design, we decide how to use the research results. _ _ _
6. After that we should select the appropriate variables for observation, description and measurement and define them clearly.
7. After that, proper selection of the study area and the whole (universe) and their definition should be presented.
8. After this, detailed decisions should be taken about the type of study and the subject area.
9. In the next phase of research design, we should choose suitable methods and techniques for our research.
10. After this, the assumptions and hypotheses (Mypothesis) contained in the study should be clearly mentioned.
11. Later, while defining the hypotheses operationally, it should be presented in such a way that it is worthy of testing.
12. As the next step in the research design, we should review the documents, reports and other forms used during the research.
13. After that, to select and manufacture effective instruments of study and to do their systematic pre-testing.
14. To mention the detailed arrangement of how the data collection will be edited.
15. After mentioning the arrangement for editing the data, selecting the appropriate categories for their classification and defining them.
16. Preparation of details of proper arrangement for coding of data.
17. To develop a proper system of the whole process to make the data usable.
18. To prepare a detailed framework for qualitative and quantitative analysis of data.
19. After this, in the background of other available results, to mention the procedures for proper analysis.
20. In this phase of research design, we decide about the presentation of the research report.
21. This stage of research design is to estimate the time, money and human labor required in the entire research process. In the meantime, we also estimate the establishment and development of the administrative system.
22. If necessary, to make provision for pre-tests and pilot studies.
23. In this phase of research design, we prepare in detail the entire procedure, rules, bye-laws related to the procedures.
24. In this phase of research, we mention the methods and methods of training of employees, students.
25. In this last phase of research design, we make provision that all the staff and study researcher will maintain a cohesive condition, how will they complete the work satisfactorily by following the rules and procedures of the work.


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