Social change of women

Spread the love

Social change of women


Today both sexes have the right to civil marriage. Without parental consent, the age has been raised to 18 years for girls and 21 years for boys. Thus, monogamy, judicial separation, nullity and divorce are some of the salient features of the post-independence era which put man and woman on an equal platform. Inheritance, adoption and divorce (even by consent) have raised the status of women in India. The history of these reforms goes back a long way, and they are the result of the efforts of various reformists from various movements that they started in the pre-independence period. However, India does not have a Uniform Civil Code. Muslims have their own personal marriage laws.

Contemporary Indian society has been exposed to the pervasive processes of social change, agricultural modernization and economic growth, urbanization and rapid industrialization. However, these processes have created regional imbalances, sharpened class inequalities and exacerbated gender inequalities. All these have adversely affected various aspects of the status of women in the contemporary Indian society.

Most of the families in India, irrespective of their caste and religion, are patriarchal. Exceptions are tribes such as the matrilineal Nairs of Kerala and the Khasis of Meghalaya. Simply put, patrilineality refers to descent and inheritance through the male line. It also refers to patriarchy or the husband living in the father’s household, often with the father, brother, or brothers and their wives and children. In the family the child acquires the role of the family. Men wield more influence in the decision-making process and are far more visible and audible than their wives. Most of the household work in the family is done by mother, grandmother, sister etc. At mealtime the females carry food to the fields for the males. All these tasks which consume time and energy do not count as work or employment and do not involve any payment. But non-payment should also not mean non-recognition. In fact women are expected to perform all these tasks as a part of their traditional roles and are not given any special qualification for these tedious and exhausting jobs. According to the latest data, 14 per cent of Indian women are recorded as wage workers, of whom over 87 per cent are in the unorganized informal sector of the economy.


Without the paid or unpaid labor of women, the Indian agricultural economy would not be able to function. In the informal sector, there is no legal solution to the problem, no maternity or other benefits and little security of service. Working long hours as domestic servants, sewing clothes for the apparel export industry, working in small electronics manufacturing units or on the assembly line of beedi, tobacco, cashew factories, women stay at home




Fear of retrenchment, exploitation (often of a sexual nature) and inadequate wages. At the level of belief, regardless of social class, there is widespread commitment to the notion that a woman’s job should not interfere with or compete with her primary role of wife and mother. His

There are also concerns about physical safety and the reputation of the business. Clearly, working-class families are little able to ensure these conditions, and often their women work in very difficult conditions. Higher class occupations for middle-class women include teaching at various levels, librarianship, medicine, especially gynecology and paediatrics, specialization in health.

visit and so on. However, the availability of jobs is dependent on market conditions as well as access to higher education.

As women work long and exhausting hours, often in difficult and unhygienic conditions. Several studies have also documented how in the event of a shortage, women and girls suffer as a result of food discrimination.


Men and boys eat first, and are given larger and more nutritious portions. Traditionally, women in Indian society eat after men, and when there is limited food to distribute, they automatically receive less. What is important here is that food discrimination is not only a function of poverty and scarcity, but also of perceptions and expectations. It is believed that men need better and more food as they are hard workers and earners. The fact that women work as hard and earn as much is rarely taken into account. Certainly the labor and energy they spend in household related work is rarely noticed. These notions are part of a system where women’s lives are given little importance.

Granting fundamental rights and passing progressive laws have not paved the way for an egalitarian society. Even after so many years of independence, women are still victims of inequality, domination and exploitation. Whereas the Constitution of India prescribes the norm of family as egalitarian, conjugal and nuclear families of husband and wife who have entered into a marriage of their own choice; Several Acts, especially those relating to personal laws, provide legal legitimacy to different, diverse and contradictory patterns of family types for different religious communities.


These Acts relating to individual permits patriarchal, monogamous, bigamous families which not only shape different structures of families but also provide diversity and contradiction in the rights and obligations of different members within the family. as well as discrimination in respect of succession,




Descent, Heritage and Other Aspects of the Family (Desai: 1980). Reviewing the status of women under the Indian Constitution, it is argued that women have not been considered by the founding mothers as a particularly disadvantaged and disadvantaged community like the scheduled castes and tribes and other backward classes. Even the women of these scheduled groups—who are doubly depressed, first as women and second as women within the scheduled groups—are not seen as special constituencies within the scheduled groups. The Constitution does not see patriarchy as problematic; It takes it for granted (Bax: 1984).


It is not easy to adapt the legal system to the pace of social change. The Directive Principles of State Policy remain ideals; And the archaic functions remain operative. There is an Act like the Special Marriage Act, 1954, but the progressive legislation is still inadequate. Attitudes to women’s issues have not fundamentally changed. Woman is still seen more as an embodiment of virtue and sacrifice than as a citizen, equal to man and a participant in the process of development. Evils like bigamy, dowry, sex determination tests and prostitution (including child prostitution) have not ended. The Family Courts Act, 1984 has also not provided relief to women. Crimes against women are not decreasing. In addition, the legal process is cumbersome and costly.

There are some specific legislations for women workers. Yet the fact remains that the provisions of such laws do not reach all of them.


Despite some positive court rulings, discrimination against women in the economic sector remains a concern. Bisexual formulations, varied interpretations, half-hearted implementation of laws and the delay and expense involved in the judicial process make helpless women more helpless. Dr. Ambedkar, during the debate in the Constituent Assembly, sensed a contradiction between the sacred and the ritual from tradition. Women with less control over resources and their own lives are pushed by social forces to accept their subordinate position.

Legal theorists, and feminist scholars in particular, have debated the concept of equality and difference. Women are said to be equal to men, and are consequently judged by the same standards. At the same time, they are also said to be different from men, and therefore they deserve different treatment. The issue becomes more complex in the Indian situation, where the legal system has evolved from a colonial system to an independent one.




regime, resulting in a bizarre mix of traditions, religious practices, and principles of equality and rights.

The formal model of equality holds that equality equals equality, and that those who are equal should be treated equally. its cons

Rit, the original model of equality begins with the recognition that equality sometimes requires that individuals be treated differently. The focus here is not merely on equal treatment under the law, but on the actual effect of the law. the former

The explicit aim of this model is to eliminate the real inequality of the disadvantaged groups in the society. The formal model of equality continues to hold sway over the judiciary’s approach, although some inroads have been made towards a substantive model of equality (Kapur and Cosman: 1993). Feminists need to direct their attention towards developing an original model that is more approachable to women’s struggles (Kapur and Cosman: 1966). It has to be recognized that law by itself cannot bring about social change. Reconstructing equality requires a conscious formulation of positive ideology and practices as well as a sustained challenge to the premises, ideology and strategies that reinforce women’s subordination (Desai and Thakkar: 2001).








This course is very important for Basics GS for IAS /PCS and competitive exams




*Group c*

*Forest guard*






*Complete General Studies Practice in Two weeks*




**General science* *and* *Computer*


*Must enrol in this free* *online course* xxx76D77B987A




**English Beginners* *Course for 10 days*







समाजशास्त्र का परिचय











Beginners Urdu Learning Course in 2Weeks



Hindi Beginners Learning in One week



Free Sanskrit Language Tutorial



Follow this link to join my WhatsApp group:


Join Teligram group


Join What app group for IAS PCS


Join Facebook


Instagram link

Leave a Comment

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.