Postmodernity by Michael Foucault and Jacques Derrida

Postmodernity   Leslie Fielder and Ihab Hastan used the term postmodernity in 1960. It was widely used by dance, music and sciences related to society and culture. Two meanings of postmodernity are clearly stated. First, it presents a specific perspective of the study as an approach or theory. In another sense, postmodernity presents a form … Read more

Structuralism and Post – Structuralism : C. Levi Strauss and M. Foucault 

Structuralism and Post – Structuralism : C. Levi Strauss and M. Foucault  Structuralism: Structuralism is a method of thinking or method of analysis used in the social sciences and humanities of the twentieth century. Those communities, which extend to the cultural use of human languages, folklore, and literary use, structuralism studies and analyzes them in … Read more

 Structuralism of Brown and Nadel 

Brown’s Structural – Functional Theory  According to Brown, “We call a complex web of social relations by the name of social structure. “Brown has tried to understand his concept of social structure separately from the concept of ‘social function’. In this way, instead of understanding the social structure in the context of the whole society, … Read more

Neo – Functionalism 

Neo – Functionalism      American  sociologist Alexander is named as the father of neo-functionalism. But it is not so. In fact, neo-functionalism was born in Germany when Niklas Luhmann, rejecting Parsons’s functionalism, presented a new alternative to functionalism through his book ‘The Differentiation of Society’ (The Differentiation of Society, 1982). But this principle was … Read more

Structural – Functionalism

Structural – Functionalism   The stability and continuity of any society or culture depends on the organization and arrangement of its various elements or units. This organization and system is possible only when these different elements or units contribute their own in maintaining this organization or system. These units make or can make this contribution … Read more

Functionalism in Merton’s View

Functionalism in Merton’s View   Functionalism can be said to be the most important aspect in Merton’s ideology, which Merton tried to free sociological analysis from the influence of anthropology by giving a new form. Before Merton, many scholars had tried to explain society on the basis of functional analysis, but mentioning its shortcomings, Merton … Read more

Postulates of functionalism

Postulates of functionalism   The form in which functionalism was developed by anthropologists prior to Merton was based on several assumptions. These beliefs were mainly three : (1) all the units that make up a social structure must perform some function within the social system, (2) these functions of social units itself. sustain the existence … Read more

Redcliffe Brown, SF Nadel

Views of Radcliffe – Brown on Social Structure    Radcliffe-Brown has clearly written, “The components of a social structure are human beings and the structure itself is an orderly form or arrangement of individuals within defined and regular relations as founding. You have also written that by direct observation we know that human beings are … Read more

Social System

Social System   Social order is formed through social interactions and interrelationships. human soul The concept of social structure becomes more clear from the students. In this form it can be said to be the result of the interactions of the lines. Abstract Concept: Social structure is an abstract concept. Parsons and MacIver. And the … Read more

Social Structure – Concept and Theories

Social Structure – Concept and Theories   Social structure is one of the important concepts of sociology. The concept of social structure in sociology was first used by Herbert Spencer in his book “Principles of Sociology”. Durkheim used it in ‘The Rules of Sociological Methods’. But unfortunately they could not explain it clearly. Lewis Henry … Read more

Alfred Schutz ,Peter Berger, Luckman

Alfred Schutz    Schutz has explained social relations on phenomenological basis instead of traditional sociological basis.   Schutz is of the opinion that man carries in his mind the rules, social customs, concepts of proper behavior and other information which enables him to lead his social life.   Schutz has called the sum of these … Read more


  Phenomenology   Phenomenon – science carries with it a purely philosophical approach. It negates utilitarianism. That is why its place of origin is Germany i.e. Europe. Such ideas get a respectable place in Europe. Max Weber is a direct example of this. But phenomenology has not been able to take its roots in a … Read more

Technique of Ethnomethodology 

Technique of Ethnomethodology    Folk-legal sciences follow many of the same methods of study, which are adopted by traditional sociologists. Garfinkel has asked public law scientists to pay attention to reflexive behaviours. For example, when a child is asked to speak about his own creative output and then to do so present the figures, forms … Read more


  Ethnomethodology   Ethno’ (Ethno) means ‘folk’ or folk knowledge ‘Methodology’ (methodology) means subject-matter. Ethnomethodology means – the social science of the life of ‘everyday’. The purpose of this method is to systematically understand everyday events. The importance of ‘event’ is not as much as the meaning of ‘phenomena’. Public-legislative science wants to enter the … Read more

Coser, Simmel, Dahrendorf

L.A. Coser:   American sociologist Lewis A. Koser was influenced by the ideas of German sociologist Georg Simmel. Koser, in his book “Function of Social Conflict” (1955), made some proposals on various aspects of conflict. In fact, these proposals are hypothetical in nature. He has focused his proposals on five aspects of conflict.   1. … Read more

Conflict theory

  Conflict theory   This theory holds that conflict is the factor of change in society. The supporters of this theory are Karl Marx, Ralph Dahrendorf, Georg-Simmel and Lewis Coser etc. The biggest proponent of conflictist theory is Karl Marx. According to Marx, there was a condition of economic communism in the society in the … Read more

Verstehen: Method of Interpretative Understanding

  Verstehen: Method of Interpretative Understanding     What is the method of sociological analysis?  how to make a scientific understanding of social actions? For this the method which Weber presented was called ‘Verstehen’ in his German language. Due to the absence of a clear English or Hindi synonym for the German word ‘watless’, it … Read more

Ideal type

  Ideal type   Influenced by Dilthe’s Historicism and Kant’s Rationalism, the important instrument or tool that Weber presented for sociological analysis,  named it ‘ideal type’. Weber presented the concept of ideal type in the year 1904 under an essay written under the title ‘Objectivity’. In this essay, Weber, referring to economic theories, wrote that … Read more