Technique of Ethnomethodology 

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Technique of Ethnomethodology 


Folk-legal sciences follow many of the same methods of study, which are adopted by traditional sociologists. Garfinkel has asked public law scientists to pay attention to reflexive behaviours. For example, when a child is asked to speak about his own creative output and then to do so present the figures, forms and colors in line drawings to another person, the child in a way Presenting an ‘Account’. This technique and the above mentioned techniques together provide tools of practical research for public law scientists and titles that promise to advance the discipline through research and publication.


According to Jonathan Turner, public jurisprudence is concerned with the study of perception, to which little attention is paid to the intellectual fields of the traditional theoretical perspective. It uses a number of research strategies to study this appearance, including many forms of observational and participatory observational methods. The following direct methods are emphasized by the public law scientists


observational techniques,
disguised listening techniques,
recorded material,


For example, diaries, letters, etc., in which people are more open and more free. Although folk jurisprudence has not yet recognized its most effective analytical techniques, four techniques have been mentioned in the works of most public jurists:

The tradition of Participant Observation which has been used extensively in cultural, anthropological and symbolic interactions.
The ethno-methodical application which is originally adopted when the interaction is caused by the preoccupation of the situation by conduct inappropriately with the norms of the situation.
One method is that of ‘archive interpretation’, in which the behavior, statements and outward manifestations of another person or group are taken as a record or underlying form, which explains the feelings.
“There is a significant interest in linguistics, which is the medium of communication of meaning. It pays special attention to the relationship between the form of language and the structure of social interaction.




Folk-legal science considers its approach different from that of all branches of traditional sociology and does not call it mere conceptual formulation; Because they rejected the fundamental assumption of empiricist sociology that there is no real social and cultural world that can be studied objectively by scientific methods.


Folk-law scientists emphasize the singularity of each interaction situation, so they do not generalize. They challenge the belief of traditional sociology that society consists of a sufficiently stable system of participatory meanings , by questionnaires or interviews or some kind of research method in which the researcher fits the subject ‘s reactions and behavior into predetermined categories . provide a basis. Bales and Golf have paid special attention to the concept used in this type of social analysis, which is called accounting. According to him, accounting is the ability of people to declare the meaning derived from the circumstances for themselves and for others. Accounting includes both language and meaning. People constantly present linguistic or original accounts explaining their actions.





Methodology gives sufficient importance to experience in its studies. The facts which the researcher collects through his sense experience are important. Experience can be primary as well as secondary. Primary experience is acquired by reaching the event itself, whereas secondary experience is obtained on the basis of information obtained through some other means. The Versathan method is an example of elementary experience.


Documentary Method


Among the facts gathered by this method, one fact becomes the basis for the explanation of the other. In this method, facts are classified on the basis of observation. All events are sorted by the time they occurred. Under this method, patterns of uniformity are searched through different meanings. This method is often used only in the study of community. Garfinkel has based the ideas of Karl Mannheim under this method.


Experimental Method


Ethno-methodology considers social reality to be variable. Our daily life goes on in a certain way. We do not know how this arrangement of our life has come into being. It is in this context that Garfinkel believes that we can discover this reality by making changes in the patterns of our daily life. Garfinkel in this context




Observation Method


– Although ethno-methodology is opposed to empiricism, but this sub

He uses observation in his studies. Observation is the method of studying events directly and accurately. Ethno-methodology accepts the precise study of events. This approach gives more importance to participatory observation in the form of observation. In the study area, the material collected secretly by staying between the units of study is real and deep, this approach has such a recognition.





Basic Concepts of Ethnomethodology





Garfinkel holds the view that the social world is experienced by members as a factual system as the act of perceptual creation through which that system arises or is recognized. Members are not subject to scrutiny. Here Garfinkel has mentioned the subjectivity of practical work. The contexts refer to the circumstances of the occasion of a social event, which are chosen by the members themselves to understand the meaning of the events. Members cannot separate the circumstances of social events from their own explanation of what these events are. Our way of summarizing these situations and events to explain them is inseparable.

Circumstances and interpretations mutually create each other. According to Garfinkel, subjectivity refers to the unified combination of descriptions or accounts of situations and of social events and social arrangements. In this way, members as aspects of ordinary arrangements use the characteristics of these arrangements to make these self-consistent arrangements visible and happenable. They make their sense of what is happening responsible and descriptive. They do this to make their social worlds descriptive to each other.

Glossing Practice


The literal meaning of ‘Glos’ is – ‘Explanation’, ‘Explanation’, ‘Marginal words for clarification’ etc. In the adjectives of speech, the meaning of the speaker is somewhat different from what they are able to say in many words. It is a behavior, according to Edward Roes, that is the deliberate use of a property that certainly includes its consequences in particular circumstance. For example, Garfinkel and Sachs have a conversation in a moving car. In this the guest peeping outside says – ‘It has certainly changed as long as the host answers, the car moves on. But he can still understand what the guest is about his place.’ was making a statement and he replies that ‘the block has been rebuilt ten years back after a fire. Every detail is not discussed during the conversation but is left in an explanatory form. The parties participating in the conversation take away its meaning or give it true meaning. If the context is not known, the problem is solved by giving the context and thus the confusion is removed. There are many such commentary behaviors. Commentary behaviors are techniques for presenting observational, reportable understanding in natural language. ‘





Members’ Methods


Garfinkel’s suggestion is that it is not mindlessness, disagreement, or failure to explain the day-to-day social world. We can make it clear to others that we do not know the subject they are talking about; We do not agree with what they are saying, we do not know what they want us to do or why we have pleased them. We are able to hear from their answers through our perception creation work, what exactly they want us to do or what they are talking about or what we said was the reason for their displeasure. Garfinkel’s proposal is that members must fulfill their social world. They use methods of members to do this which are used in given, implied and undeclared methods. The Public Legal Scientist considers it his task to bring to light the methods of the members to make them as they appear.




Garfinkel suggests that familiar events and common-sense things of day-to-day life are familiar and common because the techniques for producing and identifying these events and scenes are important. According to him, events in our everyday lives as members of our society become important because we generate and receive them in special ways. Garfinkel has used the word ‘member’ in place of Schutz’s word actor. We carry out our actions in such a way that the nature of these actions may be available to others. For example a complaint from social processes, a language or a joke we do in such a way that others can accept them without any problem. We refer to these things as a question, a liar or a mere turn to speak.

If we are recognized, we are in a way reproducing our social world in a given, regular and proven way. What is happening is clear to all concerned. This everyday non-problematic and familiar feature of everyday events is the product of our empirical work. Through the methods of members, which are adopted to save empirical work, we complete a common social world. Through this we are sure that what we are doing can be seen by others. For example, to give a speech, to ask a question, to make a promise or to do all three together, etc. If the examinations are suspended for a week, will your worries about the examination be quelled?




. Indexability


The meaning of cataloging is to derive the meaning of an object or activity from its context. It is listed in a special condition. Consequently, any explanation, explanation or mention made by the members in day-to-day life is made only with reference to the particular circumstances and situations. Garfinkel argues that the meaning of an action is derived from its context. The meaning of what is happening or is about to happen depends on how we interpret the context of the activity concerned. From this point of view their understanding and mention are listed. Their meaning emerges only in a particular form.


Sources of origin of Ethnomethodology 





Schutz separated phenomenology from Hussl’s philosophical discourse and emphasized how interaction ‘creates and maintains the supreme reality’. How doers achieve reciprocity of perspectives and how they create a world accepted as fact. Keeps social life in order, the emphasis on the nature of the world accepted as fact and the importance of this life-world to maintain the sense of reality of the doer is the main subject of public jurisprudence. Many of its concepts are derived from the phenomenology of Husserl and Schutz. Thus the ideas of Blumer, Goffmann, Hussl and Schutz have a great influence on folk jurisprudence.



Symbolic Interactionism


Public jurisprudence borrows ideas from symbolic interactionism and phenomenology and disseminates them widely, however public jurisprudence has a different world view in disseminating these principles. In symbolic interactionism, the subject has the ability to create symbols, to introduce new objects into the situation, and to redefine the situation. The subject of these ideas is to know how the interacting subject creates meaning and definition in a given situation. This condition of investigation is also for public jurists; But a major difference in its analysis is that they have a desire. “How do people deduce that they have a general sense of the world and how do they arrive at the presumption that the objective external world exists.”

acting science


Erwin Goffman’s epistemological perspective is an important source of impetus to folk jurisprudence. How doers exert influence in a particular social scene by means of signals. Much of Goffman’s analysis focuses on the nature of the interaction. This topic of management of social scenes is also found prominently in folk-legal scientific analysis. In folk-legal science, aside from the aministic perspective, there is an interest in the effect of influence from the point of view of how the doers generate a sense of general reality. “




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