Types of Hypotheses 

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Types of Hypotheses 

 

The nature of social events, facts and problems is very complex, so many types of hypotheses are used in scientific research. According to Goode and Hot, hypotheses can be divided into three categories, which are as follows

 

(1) Hypotheses stating existing empirical uniformities – These are those hypotheses which are based on the prevailing ideologies, beliefs, prohibitions, behavior patterns etc. Although the basis of such hypotheses is common sense, scientific testing can be done.

 

(2) Hypotheses con cerned with complex ideal-types – These hypotheses are constructed to test the logical interrelationships among various factors based on empirical uniformity. In these, after collecting the material, the logical sequence of factors is considered ideal and generalization is done.

 

(3) Hypotheses related with analytical variables – Such hypotheses are more abstract than complex ideal-types. They are used to logically analyze the various factors responsible for change as well as to find out many interrelationships.

 

Sources of Hypotheses 

 

There are many sources of hypothesis. Our own thoughts about an event, our personal experiences and reactions, socio-cultural environment, exceptions found in theories, analogies and literature etc. Goode and Hot have given the following four sources of hypothesis

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1. General culture – Common culture is an important source of construction of hypothesis. Characteristics of different cultures, customs, maya, folklores, beliefs, proverbs, etc.

There are auxiliary sources. socio-cultural units; For example, changes in the caste system, joint family, rural structure, marriage etc. in India also help in the formulation of hypotheses. Gade and Hott say that personal happiness is highly valued in American culture, and many of the reasons for this can be the source of hypotheses.

 

Scientific theory – Many hypotheses are formed by science and scientific principles themselves. Some generalizations about different subjects prevail in each science and these generalizations affect problems in other sciences as well. These generalizations and the universal elements found in them are the main sources of hypotheses. The sources of hypothesis can also be found in theories.

 

Analogies – In the formulation of hypotheses, analogies found in two different areas also have special importance. On the basis of analogies, the researcher tries to find the fact or behavior found in one area in another area. If we see some similarity in two different situations, then naturally the question arises in the mind of the researcher that why is this so? Therefore, the similarities found in different behavioral areas are important sources in the origin of hypotheses.

 

4. Personal experience – Personal experience is also an important source of construction of hypotheses. A skilled researcher on the basis of his personal experience can form hypotheses about the relationship of many events on the basis of his attitude towards the social problems which he sees in his daily life. The changes we observe in traditional behavior, what we think about them or the changed circumstances of different units also help in the formulation of hypotheses.

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Importance of Hypotheses

Determination of the purpose of study – Hypothesis gives clear knowledge of the purpose of study because there can be many objectives behind the study of a particular event or problem. Hypothesis tells us what to look for.

 

Helpful in collection of relevant data – By providing direction to the hypothesis study, not only brings certainty in it, but also helps in the compilation of facts related to the problem. The researcher collects only those facts on the basis of which the truth of the hypothesis can be checked and thus he avoids the collection of unnecessary facts.

 

3. Helpful in drawing conclusions – The type of relationship estimated by the hypothesis in two variables is either proved to be true or false by research. Therefore, it proves helpful in drawing conclusions and even in finding solutions to problems. Might be possible .

 

Helpful in searching the : truth ) – By making the hypothesis study clear and definite and proved data

It helps in discovering the truth because of the assumptions because the hypothesis is tested on the basis of actual facts only.

 

Delimiting the scope of study – The researcher cannot study any event, unit or problem by keeping all the aspects in front. Therefore, it is necessary to limit the study area for deep and real study. The hypothesis helps us in this task. It tells us what, how much and how to study an object. The more limited the research area, the lesser the chances of errors.

 

Providing suitable direction to the study – The hypothesis is not only helpful in limiting the study area but it also provides proper direction to the study. P . v . Young says that hypothesis protects us from blind search. It helps us to point out in advance in which direction we need to proceed. This saves unnecessary labor and also reduces the expenditure.

 

Bringing definiteness in the study – Hypothesis helps in planning and making sure research. This lets us know what information to get, from where and when. Therefore, this often eliminates the possibility of ambiguity and uncertainty in research.

 

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Limitations of Hypotheses

Perfect confidence in hypothesis The hypothesis is based on the researcher’s own experience and sometimes he has unwavering faith in the hypothesis at the very beginning. So he tries to prove the hypothesis to be true by distorting all the facts which may be contrary to the reality.

 

Limited nature of data collection – If the hypothesis is not properly formulated due to inexperience, the reality of the event may never be known, because the hypothesis is only limited to the researcher. That is, related to hypothesis) emphasizes only on the compilation of facts.

 

3,. Bias – There may be bias or bias in the formulation of the hypothesis. If the researcher is interested in a particular type of sect, then the formulation of hypotheses, material compilation and conclusion may be biased. It becomes clear from the discussion of the importance and drawbacks of hypothesis that if the hypothesis is carefully constructed then it can definitely be an important stage of scientific investigation.

 

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