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 When a person is physically and mentally eligible to work, but still does not get the work, he can be considered as unemployment.  The state of unemployment is there in every society, but in some societies unemployment comes as a serious and serious, economic and sociological problem.  While industrialization and urbanization have created new means of employment on the one hand, on the other hand they have also encouraged unemployment. 

Due to lack of competition from the goods produced due to mechanization, small and cottage industries have been destroyed due to which millions of laborers migrated from the villages to the city.  As a result, labor unemployment increased, industrialization has contributed to the development of capitalism.  Due to uneven distribution of wealth and inequality, many social and economic problems were misplaced, in which unemployed person gets frustrated, frustrated and inferior, due to which other mental and other social problems like crime etc. are born. Who should be considered unemployed?  Do such persons who despite being post-graduates do work like bus-conductors or clerks etc. or such skilled workers who work as indirect workers?  All these people are called ‘unemployed’ but not ‘semi-useless’

 Today, we would claim to be empowered with scientific power.  Huh .  Considers industrial development as the basis of economic growth and attempts to rate ignorance by expanding education;  But right there we bow our head in front of unemployment, then all our successes and achievements themselves make us laugh.  What a curse it is for a healthy, strong and capable person that despite having the ability and willingness to work, he does not get the opportunity to work and he craves for a living.  This is unemployment and this is also the result of unemployment.  But it is advisable to understand the meaning of unemployment before making any further discussion in this regard.


 According to the famous economist Gunnar Miradal, “Unemployment is a condition in which a person does not have any job or job but he is looking for or aspiring for a job in which he is getting money or salary in proportion to his qualification.  .  “According to Middle, unemployment is necessarily involuntary, ie those who are unemployed will not be able to find employment despite their ability and willingness to work and are seriously trying to find employment.


 Unemployment is the condition in which a person fails to get work even while he is workable and wishes to work at the rate of wages or remuneration prevailing at that time.


  Mr. Karl Pribram, defining unemployment, wrote, “Unemployment is the state of the labor market in which labor-power is more than the number of places to work.”


  In Florence’s words, “unemployment can be defined as the inaction of a person who is capable and willing to work.”


  According to Fairchild, “unemployment is the unwillingness and coercion of a normal working-class member, in normal times, in normal working conditions, from work on a normal salary.”


  According to Saxena (Dr. R. C. Saxena), “A person who is eligible to work and wants to work will be called useless in the event of not getting work at the prevailing wage rate in the country.”  “


 It is clear that a useless person will be the one who is deprived of employment despite having the desire to work and is eligible to work.  A person who is not able to work physically or mentally, if he does not get work, then he will not be called useless.  Similarly, although sages – monks and beggars are able to work, but since they do not want to do so, they cannot be called useless.  Similarly, that person is not useless even though the prevailing rate of wages in the country is 8 rupees per day, and 15 rupees.  Not willing to work on less than a day.  In this situation, because of not getting the wages of his will, that person will not work or he will not get employment, but that person will not be called useless.




  Types or Forms of Unemployment

 Following are the details of various types of unemployment on various grounds.


 Voluntary Unemployment – Voluntary unemployment occurs when a person does not accept the available employment at prevailing rates.


  Involuntary Unemployment – When a person is ready to get employment at the prevailing price (income) or less but is not getting employment, that situation is called involuntary unemployment.


 Structural Unemployment – This refers to a long term unemployment situation which is related to the backward economic structure of the country.


 Open Unemployment – This refers to such unemployment in which the laborer is without any work.  He does not get a little work.


  Disguised Unemployment – Individuals who continue to use some of their labor force but their marginal productivity (MP) is zero, come under hidden unemployment.


 The following six forms of unemployment are generally described:


   Seasonal unemployment – Some industries or businesses have this type of process. Passes run only in a few months in a year.  For example, ice and sugar mills do 6 – 7 months a year.  In the remaining months, the workers engaged in these industries remain idle.  Therefore, this type of unemployment is called seasonal.


  Casual unemployment – Casual unemployment is unemployment that arises as a result of sudden increase in the number of workers.  This kind of unemployment often develops after the economic depression (Ecn. Depression).


 Cyclical unemployment – A type of unemployment resulting in fluctuations in the cycle of trade.  In other words, when there was a sudden decline in advanced trade, the workers had to be removed from the work.


Rural unemployment – Farmers in villages are busy for some time only in farming – the rest of the time there is no work for them, meaning they remain idle.  This is called rural unemployment.


  Semi-unemployed – Sometimes more people are recruited than needed in mills, factories and offices.  Chat is less work for these people, so they get less facilities and salary.  This situation will be called semi-unemployment.


  Industrial unemployment – Sometimes thousands of workers become useless due to the workers’ strike or the lockout by the owners in the industrial institutions, or the closure of a mill or factory due to any other reason.  This is called industrial unemployment.




Unemployment in India


   We do not have any definite data regarding how unemployed in India are really, yet comparing serious statistics in different years from employment offices shows the seriousness of increasing unemployment in the country.  At the end of 1970, 41 lakh persons were registered in various employment offices, which increased to 51 lakhs in 1971 and to 82, 17, 649 by the end of 1973. In December 1977, the number of job seekers in the register of employment  offices was 1 crore 90 lakh 24 thousand and in December 1982 this number increased to 1 crore 97 lakh.  1990 as on 31 December 1989 according to the government data given in India.  Names of 27, 76, 220 people were registered in employment-offices.  But according to a non-government survey, at the end of the year 1990 the number of unemployed in India was more than 7 crores.  But this is not all.  Neither ManoramaDewan has truly written that neither the ruling party nor the opposing parties are predicting a terrible and dangerous explosion which is going to happen in India in the 21st century, exactly 9 years from today. 

The amazing thing is that there is no discussion of this terrible explosion by making a policy.  I. L. O. The VishwaMazdoorSanstha said in a report that when the 21st century begins, there will be more than ten crore unemployed in India, which will be the number of unemployed in the world tomorrow.


In front of them, hunger pangs.  The scene becomes unbearable for him after a period, and it is easier for him to take the path of theft, robbery, forgery, or prostitution than to bear it.

 Many social problems – unemployment, begging, gambling and drinking alcohol give rise to social problems.  A frustrated and unsuccessful person from every side tries to forget all his frustrations by drinking alcohol and invites most of the wastage for himself and his family.  The useless person is playing the gamble likewise – endured wealth also loses in it and returns with all the bouts of life.  In the end, there is only one way left for him and that is to spread the bag of begging, and thus a new problem of beggars is born in the country.


  Family Dissolution – In the state of unemployment, the process of family disintegration also becomes active because women also leave the house to work outside so that the family system is deteriorated and the children are not able to raise properly.


  Revolution – The problem of unemployment can lead to revolution.  The idle person suffers from lack.  Every grief and suffering has to be endured.  In the meantime, when he sees that some of the big men are spending millions and crores of rupees full of comfort and luxury in the vault, then it is not possible for him to bear his lack and sufferings and he can make revolution against those rich


  Barrier in progress – Unemployment is a hindrance in the progress of the country because the society is not able to benefit from the services of the useless people and all together are unable to work for its progress.  This is a huge economic and social loss for the country or community.  8.  Loss to the future generation – In the state of unemployment, the community is severely harmed because in this stage the parents are unable to raise the children properly so that the future generation of the community becomes inept, weak and poor


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