What is Sociology

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Meaning and Definition  of sociology

‘Sociology’ as a subject is a new term while society is ancient.  As Bairstead wrote in his book ‘The Social Order’ (1970), ‘Sociology as a subject is innovative while its past is quite ancient.  Thus, the practical form of sociology is as old as society.  But during the development of socialist, sociology as a special science developed very late.  That is, sociology is one of the last of a series of developed social sciences.

In other words, one can say that the history of sociology is not very old.  This is a new science.  The term sociology was first used in 1838 by the famous sociologist August Comte.  They were from France.  Since August Coste first used the term in a scientific sense, he has been called the ‘father of sociology’.  Thus the credit for giving birth to this new science goes to August Comte.  This science was born about 182 years ago.

 

 

The word ‘sociology’ in English is made up of the sum of words from two different places.  That is – socius  + Logus

“Socus is the first word that originates from the Latin language and logus’ is the second word. It is derived from the Greek language.”  Socius means ‘society’ and ‘Logus’ means science. Society means. The word ‘sociology’ literally means ‘society’ means ‘science’.

It is important to know a clear definition of any subject before studying it.  In relation to sociology, various sociologists have given definitions from their own perspectives.  Different sociologists have observed differences.  The main reason for this is that its field of study – society itself is variable.  Thus we see that it is very difficult to define the science that studies society.  Nevertheless, various sociologists have tried to define it:

 

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  (i) Sociology is the study of social relations – Some sociologists consider sociology to be the science of the study of social relations and call society a network of social relations.  Among the prominent proponents of the idea are McLaver and Page, Greene and George Simmel (G. Simmel).  .

Mechiver and Page have given a definition, and wrote, “… sociology is about social relations, we call this network of relations of society.”

In the words of George Siemel, “Sociology is the science of the forms of human interrelationships. It is clear from these definitions that sociology is the science of the systematic study of social relations. The real subject of sociology is social relations. Society We find this relation of society.  This system of relationship is called society and the science that studies society is sociology.

   (ii) Sociology is the study of society – some sociologists refer to sociology as the study of society.  According to him, sociology studies the whole society.  Ward among followers of this approach.  The names of Giddings etc. are prominent.

According to Ward, “Sociology is the science of society.

“According to Girdig’s,” sociology describes and interprets society in a whole different way.

Based on these definitions, it is clear that sociology is the science of society.  Being the science of society, he studies the whole society.

 

   (iii) Sociology is the study of social groups – some sociologists have tried to define sociology as the study of social groups.  Johnson’s name is prominent among sociologists, who understand sociology as the study of social groups.

Johnson in his definition of sociology as the science of social groups, Johnson clarified that sociology is the science of social groups.  But this group will not only be a collection of individuals, but will study social groups formed on the basis of social interactions.  That is, sociology studies groups arising from systems of social interaction.  Here indirectly sociology has been considered as the study of social interactions.

 (iv) Sociology is the study of social life, events, behaviors and actions – among sociologists who consider sociology to be the study of social life, events, behaviors and actions, Obgum Nimcott, Sorokin, Bennett and Tensett (Bennett and Tamin)  e.t.c.  Is particularly notable.  According to these people, sociology studies social life.

According to Ogborn and Nimkoff, “Sociology is the scientific study of social life.

  Sorokin defines sociology as “sociology is the general science of socio-cultural phenomena. Common forms, forms and interrelations of various kinds.”

  Bennett and Tumin defined it as “sociology is the science of the structure and functions of social life.”

Based on these definitions, it is becoming clear that sociology is the study of social life, events, behaviors and actions.  In other words it can be said that the science which studies the activities of social life is called sociology.

 (v) Sociology is the study of social interactions – another approach like the approaches given earlier.  According to this view, sociology has been considered the study of social interactions.  Its definition is Gillin and Gillin, George Simmel, Max Weber and Ginsburg.  According to him, the real basis of society is social interaction rather than social relations.  The number of social relations in human society is so high that it is difficult to study them properly.  Therefore social participation should be studied in sociology.  Social engagement means two or more individuals or groups influence and influence each other through their thoughts and behavior.  That is, two or more individuals and groups come into contact with each other and influence each other’s behavior.  Social interaction is also the real basis of social relations.  Therefore, social science has been considered as the science of social interactions.

 

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According to George Simmel, “Sociology is the science of the forms of human interrelationships.”

 

Max Weaver calls it “sociology is the science that seeks to give an analytical understanding of social action.”

According to Ginsberg, “Sociology is the study of human relations, interactions, and their conditions and consequences.”

According to Gillin and Gillin, “sociology in the broadest sense can be called the study of interactions that occur as a result of the interactions of individuals.”

 

Looking at the differences in definitions, Alex Inkles in his book ‘What is Sociology’ has divided the definitions of sociology into three parts:

    (1) Sociology as a study of society: – In this category we can put definitions of sociologists like Ward, Giddings, Sumner etc.

    (2) Sociology as a study of institutions: – Dukkham.

    (3) Sociology as a study of social relations: – In this category, names of McIver and Page, Cuber etc. are notable.

 

On the basis of this, it can be said that sociology is a science studying the whole society as a unit.  The sociologists above express their definitions based on their style and approach.  If we pay attention to these definitions, we will find that everyone has considered social relations in some form or the other.  Therefore, the definition of creator and page is the most recognized.

 

 

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