Radha Kamal Mukherjee

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Radha Kamal Mukherjee

 There was a line of social reformers and social thinkers of the last century, who later contributed to the origin and expansion of Indian sociology. Some of them also had people of religious basis. Raja Rammohan Roy, Keshav Chandra Sen, Ishwar Chandra Vidya Sagar, Ramkrishna Gokhale Paramhansa. Vivekananda, Dada Bhai Naoroji, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Gopal etc. Many social reformers and religious philosophers, it can be said that they had a sociological vision. But sociology developed in a different way from the point of view of a subject and knowledge. This vision was centered on scientific positivism, its theory, method and analysis thereof. At the same time many clergy and administration officials

They were collecting data that were sociological in nature and were used for studies in sociology. Pro . According to Yogendra Singh, the beginning of sociology was influenced not only by colonialism but also by the movement of Indian freedom struggle. The sociology before 1950 was a sociology of coordination at many levels. It was a strange coincidence that sociology and anthropology developed in two such big cities, Mumbai and Kolkata. Which were major centers of colonial rule. Later Lucknow also became a big center of sociology. The contribution of sociologists before 1950 is considered important. Among them B.N.C.L. , GS Dhurye, BK, Sarkar, Radhakamal Mookerjee, D.P. Mookerjee and K.P. Chattopadhyay’s name is particularly noteworthy. All these sociologists were the early scholars of Indian sociology and were also the determinants of the early directions of sociology in India.


The Department of Sociology was started in Bombay University in 1919. This department was started under the patronage of Patrick Geddes. In 1921 Dr. Under the chairmanship of Radhakamal Mukherjee, the study and research of sociology was started in Lucknow University under the Department of Economics. Doctor . Mukherjee’s tireless hard work, practice and thinking played an important role in the development and flourishing of the sociology department of Lucknow University. The name of the Sociology Department of Lucknow University soon became known in the world. It’s just Dr. It was the result of Mukherjee’s contribution.


Initially Dr. Mukherjee was known and regarded as an economist. He presented a sociological interpretation of economics. He tried to prove from many points of view that physical and psychological theories reside in the background of economic theories. Here they seem to be linked to the functionalities of the institutional system. In the beginning, Mukherjee was such an economist who got the credit for presenting the sociological analysis and analysis of population growth. Similarly, in the theoretical field, you severely criticized the experimental rationalist and anti-materialistic Western approach. To prove his facts, where he presented examples of western scholars, he tried as much as possible to coordinate Eastern and Western policies and values. Similarly, he has tried to examine and analyze human problems from an inter-disciplinary point of view.

opinion is, “The establishment of an economic, political and legal democratic state is possible only when the various social sciences are not fragmented but unitedly as the parts of the philosophy set of human values ​​– the search for the whole values ​​of human and culture as a whole. and investigate. This was the specialty of Dr. Mukherjee’s personality that he tried his best to get to the bottom of whatever subject he touched.


In the field of sociology, Mookerjee gave important place to rural economics, labor economics, social ecology, social psychology and social philosophy, which were in neglected condition. Mookerjee took great interest in the works of scholars like Ward, Giddings, Comte, Spencer, Beghot, Ricardo, Mill, Hobhouse and Marshall etc. That is why a wonderful mixture of East and West is found in his thinking, which can be seen in his interpretation of human values. Mookerjee’s thought is a wonderful amalgamation of the ideas of the West and the East. In the last years of his life, he was engaged in the creation of ‘Master science of society’ and his inaugural speech on this subject was read in the eighth All India Sociological Conference a week after his death in 1968 AD. In his contribution to sociology, ‘human ecological theory’, ‘sociological theory’ and ‘theory of values ​​and symbols’ have a prominent place and each theory is complete in itself. Mookerjee wrote many books during his lifetime and also wrote many research articles in many eminent domestic and foreign journals. Mookerjee’s intellectual grasp on various subjects like economics, ecology, regional sociology, sociology, philosophy, psychology, culture, civilization, human evolution, art, religion, ethics, mysticism, symbolic sociology, values, humanity etc. can be clearly seen in his works. Is .


his main books

A History of Indian Civilization (1956):

 The Culture and Art of India (1959) ;

 The Philos

ophy of Social Science (1960);

 The Philosophy of Personality ( 1963 ) ;

Social Structure of Values ​​(1949):

The Dimension of Human Evolution (1963);

 The Destiny of Civilization (1964) ;

 The Dimensions of Values ​​(1964):

 The Foundations of Indian Economics (1916);

 The Principles of Comparative Economics (1922);

  Democracies of the East (1923) ;

 Civics (1926 )

  Regional Sociology (1926) ,

 Mind in Society: Introduction to Social Psychology (1928);

 The Theory and Art of Mysticism (1937):

  Man and His Habitation (1940).

Social Ecology (1945) :

 The Social Function of Art ( 1948 ) :

  The Indian Scheme of Life ( 1949 ) ,

 The Dynamics of Morals ( 1951 ) ;

 Borderlands of Economics ( 1952 ) :

 The Horizon of Marriage ( 1956 ) :


 The main aim of Radhakamal Mookerjee’s works was to bridge the gaps between various social scientists. He especially wanted to combine economics with internationalism and sociology. His economics theory was the result of this thinking in which he raised some important questions for the future. Pro . Mookerjee’s contribution was also in empirical studies of Indian society. His work “Land Problems in India” is an important work in relation to rural problems. In the book presented in his honor, he has been accepted as a foundational scholar. They were trained on scientific basis. He was a great knower of his subject and was aware of human calamities and concerns. He accepted the historical perspective in his studies. Mookerjee believed that social sciences are divided in today’s picture, each social science is declared autonomous in itself, there should be mutual interaction and study of inter-social sciences should be encouraged. He wrote that there is very little in Indian economics. What is needed is that the interaction, which is based on British economics tradition, did not take into account the Indian tradition such as caste and local trading patterns, crafts and market scenarios. Without understanding these social perspectives, we cannot understand the economic structures that characterize this country. This model of economics is of urban-industrial system. Pro . Some of the major ideas of Radhakamal Mookerjee are discussed in the following pages.




Radhakamal Mookerjee was trained in both economics and sociology. To understand Indian society, he believed that to understand the economy, there is a need to understand the social condition and its mutually coordinated study. In a country like India, where many economic activities take place in their traditional positions of caste and tribal groups. Hence the market model of economics is relevant to the social context. These traditions have also created their own economic structures. He believed that castes, arhatiyas and handicraft groups in India work on a non-competitive basis in the society. In agriculture and handicraft production, there are no competitions like modern modern. Economic exchanges also take place on Hindu normative basis. The artisans and farmers have to conduct much of their production on the basis of Hindu social status. According to the Varna system, Hindu beliefs have more emphasis on mutual occupational beliefs. Therefore, if we want to understand the rural economic structure, then we have to understand it according to local or universal social rules. Mere physical or biological needs do not create economic activity. The cores are inherent among the members of the society and with the collective approval the members of the society are bound to perform the prescribed behaviours. For example, no matter how hungry he is, no Hindu will eat beef and similarly no Muslim or Jew will eat pork. Similarly, many needs and their sale and exchange are linked with social needs and social practices. It is very difficult to say that economic behavior is different from collective social behavior. Radhakamal Mookerjee was of the clear view that many parts of the economic structure in India are social and that many aspects of the economy or economic behavior are intertwined with the social system.




Social ecology was another subject to which Radhakamal Mookerjee made his contribution, his view that the social environment is a complex construct, in which many social sciences intertwine. Geologists, geographers and biologists together make up the ecological field. Economic, social and political conditions mold these ecological regions. For example, human or agricultural settlement in many ecological areas was due to political conquest. Pro . Mookerjee was of the view that human settlement in the ecology is not a mechanical process. By removing it from its ecology, new settlement often disturbs the entire social balance. He discussed the people removed due to the construction of big dams in India. Social life in most parts of India is of interdependence. Many customs and social practices strengthen this interdependence. If a settlement is uprooted in the name of development, then this part of the social structure gets destroyed. that is why it is necessary

To maintain the social environment, planning should be done in advance. He was of the view that in the case of imbalance of social ecology, an alternative to interdependence could be co-operation. A social perspective is necessary for orderly and systematic transformation in the urban-industrial economy. In his concept of social ecology, Mookerjee distanced himself from the concept of western countries. The sociologists of Chicago School of Sociology such as Park and Burghese, Louiswirth and Gidding etc. had discussed social ecology in the context of social problems and social disintegration. He laid emphasis on the study of human ecology. This ideology also discussed social mechanics. This mechanics meant new respect for the people living in slums, new jobs, etc. were included. Mookerjee, along with solving the then problems in India, had also called for the creation of a new Indian society structure based on value. The construction of such a structure would be more suitable for the Indian society. In the course of analysis of social ecology, Mookerjee also put the concept of regional sociology. If there is equal inward development of all the regions, then the development of the whole of India happens very fast, otherwise imbalance will be established in the entire Indian social system. Each region is inhabited by a different ethnic population. Therefore, a mutual balance between economic development and regional population would have to be struck: in a way, Mookerjee’s idea was to create a balancing relationship between the economy and the social system. Each region of India has its own folk arts. Spinning, weaving, dyeing, printing and manufacturing of textiles may be finished in the context of modernity. These folk arts can be integrated into the modern cooperative society. To maintain the natural balance of social ecology, Prof. Mookerjee also laid emphasis on bun protection. Due to floods and droughts, there is a loss of immense public wealth, to prevent this and to maintain the natural balance, security is very necessary.






Pro . Mookerjee also wrote extensively on Indian arts, history, culture and architecture. He wrote that the art of Asia was collective development-oriented. The art of Asia was a source of inspiration for millions of people and was responsible for religious and moral changes. Whatever arts are there in the Eastern culture, they are collective expressions and these expressions have given cultural continuity to a country like India. On the other hand, in the western world the arts have been associated with individual grounds. Art was not a collective or social expression in the western world, so art could not create any social unity or even a spiritual movement in the western world. The environment of art in India is social and ethical. The aspects of religious, moral and social values ​​of this art can be seen in temples, schools, viharas. Mookerjee believed that Indian art was related to religion. In his study of history, he mentioned religions like Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism etc. and analyzed the art related to them. He also discussed the influence of Indian art in other countries. This impression can be clearly seen in many eastern countries adjoining India. He also mentioned the forms of staging of the Ramayana which is seen in these countries. Despite the ethnic differences, it all tries to bind people together. The religions that flourished in Indian society were very flexible and could accept any kind of variation. Pro . Mookerjee not only considered Indian culture to be permanent, but also highlighted the harmony of culture. What role can religion play in the creation of a culture, its analysis is also done by Prof. Mukherjee did.




In his important book ‘Culture and Art of India’ he presented the various stages of development of civilization, culture, literature, religion and art. They say that Indian civilization has more importance in human history for three reasons:

The first reason, the wonderful continuity of this civilization for about five thousand years proves its vigor. It is rooted in its human spirit and its distinctive system of values ​​and social legislation, and they throw light on the myriad sources of strength and stability of mankind.

 Second Indian culture has established the unity of Asian civilization over many centuries. Thirdly, on the problems of human life and society, the strong thinking that took place in India from the dawn of civilization, a mental model was born and strengthened which is somewhat different from the Western and East Asian paradigm. In this paradigm, the quest for peace and reconciliation occupies a prominent place, in which the war-weary world cannot remain without interest. “On analyzing Indian society, he came to the conclusion that politics, state, war have not been given so much importance in this country as religion, spirituality, art. Indian society became more influenced and governed by traditions. It has also established peace by establishing harmony between different religions. The Middle East and South Asia – through these have been organized as a spiritual society for many centuries. Even though the foreigners considered India to be bigoted

Said the country of but Dr. According to Mukherjee, it is a land of Puranas, spirituality and aesthetics. The 33 crore gods and goddesses discussed in the Puranas are basically explanations of the supernatural, spiritual and aesthetic characteristics of Bharat-Bhoomi. Describing the specialty of Indian culture, he says, “The flexibility and generosity that is found in Indian culture, the success that it has achieved in assimilating foreign and backward races and castes within and outside the country, the reason is that India Religion in the U.S. has been based not on classical beliefs and customs, but on pure and spiritual traditions, and from them developed its cosmology and system of social values ​​and institutions. Emphasis is placed on the eight-antrik path of restraint, and since then the Indian law of religion has emphasized humility, compassion and non-violence.India has made many castes, without sword and gun, humble and civilized by these qualities.

In this book, where the Indus-culture to Jainism, Buddhism have been explained, while the revival of Mughal culture, art and Hinduism has also been discussed critically. In his conclusion, Dr. Mukherjee says, “Indian history should be approached not only by a political one, but of an integrity and a cultural one.” His no less important book is ‘History of Indian Civilization’. Through this book, he has tried to show how the paradigm of Indian myth, religion and art has been in different eras. How has it developed and in what form is it an integral part of Indian culture.

 One at one time simultaneously seeks oneness with his fellow person and on the other hand seeks himself separately from the same fellow person. He is at a time a part and a whole, he is an individual as well as a whole. ( Man simultaneously identifies himself with fellowman and differentiates from him . He is atonce a part and a whole , an individual and a ‘ universe . ) ” He is simultaneously perceptive and experiential , reflective and enlightened , actor and spectator . He is both the subjective and the unsentient. He is the instantaneous and the irrational and the ephemeral and the self-truth.” (He is simultaneously both the sensory and experiencing and the subjective and self understanding being, the actor, the spectator. He alternates between self. – involvement and self – detachment between the immediate and irrational and timeless and true self.)


Doctor . Mukherjee is of the view that man thinks in duality and also lives in conflict. The values ​​of life in all social relations and backgrounds are sometimes contradictory and there is uniformity in them. But the person is not always aware of these dialectical tendencies and neither is his nature. Yet every social system, culture, strongly opposes its rival and wishes to win by defeating him. In the period of fighting for it, it partially accepts the opposing point of view and intention. Therefore, Mukherjee observes, “The individual is a value creator and a value fulfilling animal. This characteristic of him influences the structure of his personality and social relationships, especially groups and institutions that express values ​​to be experienced. or means, he is not only the source of values, but he also determines the value which is contained in the differences in the normal functioning of groups and institutions, in individual goals, relationships and behaviours.” (Man is a value – creating and value fulfilling animal and this distinctive characteristic influences the structure of personality and social relationships , more particularly groups and institutions that are expressions of , and instruments for the realization of values ​​. in all inter-personal goals, relations and behavior in the normal functioning of groups and institutions. It is said that in the modern age, individual and culture have experienced the grave dangers of imposing their core values ​​by powerful nations and classes on others. So now the modern age aspires to create one world, one world-community by participating in a common set of values.

 (The modern age has experienced grave dangers to mar culture arising from powerful nations and classes imposing their fundamental valuations upon others. It now wants to build – up one world – one earth community through the sharing of common pool of values.)


 Defining value, he has said, “Values ​​are the mechanisms of social orientation and direction of man, they are the tools of human groups and individuals to harmonize with the natural and social worlds. Values ​​are the models that systematically meet the various needs of man.” They guide in the fulfillment of what is considered the central element of collective life from the point of view of social existence and for whose protection the members of the group make every possible sacrifice. Values ​​are in a way the collective goal towards which the members have natural faith it occurs . “


they value

These are called ‘aspirations and goals accepted by the society’. Characteristics of values ​​Describing the importance of values, he wrote, “For social science, values ​​have the same importance as motion and gravity for physics and digestion and blood circulation for physiology. But motion, gravity and blood are of the same importance. Communication can be measured in isolation from natural phenomena and can be expressed by a certain formula, but values ​​cannot be separated from life, intelligence and society.


Doctor . Mukherjee has given the following characteristics of value


  1. Absolutism and Universalism – Among the many characteristics of values, absolutism and universalism are also one. Values ​​are attached to every sphere of the individual. These are helpful in the fulfillment of the person’s goal. Values ​​are powerful tools that guide the actions of an individual. On the basis of value in the economic field, man spends himself on different types of work. The values ​​which lead to progress and balance in social life, on the basis of them social norms, related institutions etc. are born and develop. Doctor . Mukherjee accepts universal values. The future society cannot be formed without the study, explanation and nurture of universal values, ideals and symbols by sociology. ,


  1. Expression of Values ​​by Symbols – The nature of values ​​is symbolic. All kinds of relationships are explained through symbols. The competition among individuals for obtaining different things is symbolic. Human beings get information about different economic and social things only through different types of symbols. In this way human values ​​can be understood through symbols.


  1. Prices are dynamic – Prices keep on changing from time to time. Values ​​are always changing according to economic, social and cultural needs. Values ​​are also associated with other functional parts and sub-organs in the functional continuity of the whole social system. Due to change in their functional nature, the value also

 it changes . Doctor . According to Mukherjee , ” Values ​​may be based entirely on individual selfishness. The experimental, conflicting and aggressive paradigm of modern Western culture does not accept the clear, complete, eternal and absolute nature of values.” Dr. Mukherjee has said, “The society of the future cannot be built without the study, explanation and nurture of universal values, ideals and symbols by sociology.”


  1. Nature and relationship of value and ideal groups – The cultural interpretation of the group has an effect on the values. Values, on the one hand, form the pattern of social behavior, but also establish cultural unity. The important subject matter of all social facts, relations and situations are the values ​​of other persons in which one’s own values ​​are found in situations of conflict and cooperation. (The most important content of social facts, relations and situations in the values ​​of other persons with which one’s own come into conflict and co operation.) and they are generally accepted by all persons.


  1. The unity and stability of culture is based on values ​​- Dr. According to Mukherjee, “The organization formula that integrates individual happiness, personal cohesion and social and institutional adaptation is the central concept of valueism”. In fact, values ​​are the basis of continuity and conformity of institutions and groups. There are elements of mutual unity in various types of values ​​and human behavior on which social organization, organization of personality is based. Origin and Development of Values ​​Dr. Mukherjee defined values. While explaining the development, attention has also been paid to their origin and development. Where the human mind has been considering its need, how to increase interpersonal relations and how to maintain balance in them? Man also thinks about it. exchanges ideas with each other. He has always been bound by the bonds of mutual cooperation because social action satisfies the individual by establishing interrelation. That’s why they say that the origin and development of values ​​take place in the structure of collective relations. That is why whenever changes take place in the culture, new values ​​are born.


He has considered human being as the discoverer and the creator of values. ‘ ( Man is the value seeking and value – creating being ) | Value is found in human’s zoological tendencies, basic tendencies, desires and interests, but it can be understood only when it is considered as the result of social nature and case. ‘ Doctor . Mukherjee believes that the collective situation is the main basis for the origin of values. When a man is active in social life, he is more conscious of the ideals and material facts in his mind. Thus, as a result of collective interaction, many things related to social life develop on the basis of many experiences. The experience gained from them and the group’s

Functional process also creates values.


Mookerjee divided values ​​into two categories-


 Divided into (1) achievable-value (intrinsic values), and (2) instrumental values. The first values ​​are those goals and satisfactions which human beings or society accept for themselves in the process of development and expansion of life and mind, which a person internalizes in his behavior and which are self-achievable. The other are those values ​​which are themselves used as means to promote end-values.


 The first type of values ​​are intangible and transcendent, while the second are specific and existential. According to him, the first type of values ​​are related to the highest ideals and values ​​of the life of the society and the individual; Whereas the second values ​​are used as means or tools for the fulfillment of temporal goals. In general, the relation of man is more with the means values ​​than with the end values ​​and that is why they are discussed more in social sciences. Social values ​​are not universal, but due to development on the basis of situation and regional, lack of universality is found in them. In other words, it can be said that although values ​​are found in every society, yet their nature and scope are not the same everywhere. For example, the values ​​related to Hindu marriage in India are different from the values ​​of Muslim marriage or the values ​​of marriage in Western countries. According to him, value principles are related to social organization and social structure and hence locality is found in it.


origin of values


 Doctor . Mukherjee has given different levels of origin of values ​​because no idea or ideal becomes a value in the beginning but it has to pass through various processes of becoming value. Those procedures are


  1. Goals – The basic needs of a man determine the goals of his life. These goals are helpful in reducing tension and interpersonal conflict in orderly fulfillment of these needs. There is competition among goals.


  1. Ideals – The best among the competing goals are selected on priority basis and they eventually become ideals. Like other goals, ideals also do not have perfect stability, order and organization.


  1. Beliefs – The ideals which become permanent over time and become essential to the existence and well-being of the group are given the form of beliefs. In this regard, Dr. Mookerjee has said, “The beliefs are the embodiment of man’s efforts and aspirations for self-realization, which his life and his society present.”


  1. Values ​​- These beliefs become values ​​when they have attained stability in the consciousness of man and are ingrained in it. Leveling of Values ​​Dr. Mukherjee has considered social interaction and social structure as the basis for the origin and development of values. Different values ​​arise at each of the levels in social life or the stages of collective integration in which he is a participant. On the basis of these levels, a hierarchy of values ​​is formed.


Stratification of values ​​can be seen in four types of social systems. these are the following


  1. Crowd – Inhuman expression of moral feelings can be seen in the crowd. In the crowd, there is usually an atmosphere of correcting an error or socially unwanted act. On such an occasion, values ​​related to morality are born and they start participating in groups according to their own interests. The specialty of these different groups is that the basis of their integration is selfishness. The values ​​of honesty, struggle, vengeance etc. emerge in the crowd.


  1. Self-group – What is the exchange, unity, proper in the interest group? Ethical principles can be seen. In spite of this, the struggle of interest continues.

 , Economic-religious groups are examples of this. Primary values ​​arise in such groups.


  1. Society – There is an expression of equality and justice in the society. Its members express certain values ​​necessary for maintaining equality and justice in social life. In fact, interest groups eventually result in society or community.


  1. Mass community – The population is a superior moral-social group. Whenever a human reaches this level, then by fulfilling his hunger, thirst and needs, he develops the spiritual values ​​of fraternity like love, equality, unity, social responsibility etc. It is that state of value in which the individual turns from self-motivated, selfish and egoistic tendencies to materialistic, the basis of the new creation of the universal human being. In his own words, “Only a worldly view of progress and morality, based on social responsibility, unity and cooperation, can provide a definite moral basis for the reconstruction of the world of the future.”


Concept of Disvalues

 Doctor . Mukherjee has not only reflected on the values ​​but also expressed his views on the depreciation. You are of the opinion that both value and depreciation exist in the society. By devaluing they mean ignoring social values. material

When evils start to arise in the social life, then invaluables start being established. For example, after independence, there was a laxity in the ideals of Indian life and as a result of this, the values ​​started getting lax and the ideals started getting depreciated. In place of the spirit of truth, non-violence, love, sacrifice and brotherhood, the spirit of untruth, violence, malice and disintegration took its place. Due to not giving importance to the values ​​set in this way, the depravals increased their importance. The origin of values ​​is also due to the defects and stagnations prevailing in social life. There are three main needs of man, which must be fulfilled in a balanced way.


 (1) The fulfillment of his physical and biological needs.

 (2) the fulfillment of his social needs and,

 (3) The fulfillment of his idealistic or mental or spiritual needs.

When the mutual balance between these three types of human satisfactions is disturbed, then the value of values ​​is born. Doctor . Mukherjee is also striving to remove the depreciation. Valuations can be rectified in two ways – firstly, by social integration among people with corrective and secondly creative deviant behavior, values ​​are eliminated, such that if the offender is given a proper opportunity to lead a social life again, he can enter the improved situation again. can. In this way, it is possible to remove the malpractices prevailing in the society. Values ​​and Personality Dr. Personality of Mukherjee – Values ​​have special importance in the organization. Values ​​influence personality. The more systematically the values ​​enter the personality, the more comfortable a man is in adjusting himself as well as in society. Simultaneously, there is a dynamic and change in values. There are three aspects to human behavior. The first biological social aspect, in which the individual tries to become social and is controlled by the environment. The second mental aspect, in which a person lives peacefully with other human beings for the fulfillment of his selfish interests. Third, the spiritual aspect, in which a person attains self-realization by establishing an internal relationship with the whole universe and the Supreme Soul.


Mukherjee wrote that a society should regularly strive for the fulfillment of the highest values ​​of personality in order to survive. His statement also gives an indication as to why a civilization ends quickly. They also suspect that living civilizations can hardly last long. Their decline or rise depends a lot on their emphasis on the development of the individual.


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