Communist government

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Communist government


Communists give a different meaning to ‘government and power’. Power here refers to political power. According to him, the government is a puppet in the hands of the capitalists, which only works to protect the ‘rich class’ from the ‘poor class’. According to him, the basis of political power is economic power. Those who have economic power in their hands, political power also comes in their hands. That’s why capitalists are the holders and operators of political power in liberal democratic systems. The major means of production and economic power remain in the hands of only a few people in the capitalist system, who use it to protect their own interests and increase wealth. Therefore, communists believe that in western democratic systems, the use of political powers and the facilities available in the form of fundamental rights are used only by the rich class, not the general public. This is just a formality of democracy, because the class with economic power is the operator and controller of the entire political system. So liberal democracy only makes sense for a few. In practice, they offer nothing more than theoretical opportunities for the masses to participate in the political process. According to communists, true democracy can be established only when the economic power is also vested in the entire society, so that the political power is also vested in the entire society and the governance can be operated by all, for all and by all. For this, communists consider it important to establish these institutional arrangements as pre-conditions of democracy-


(1) public ownership of the means of production and distribution;

(2) equal distribution of wealth;

(3) Monopoly of the Communist Party.

(1) The basic belief of communist ideology is that individual ownership of the means of production and distribution ultimately concentrates economic power in a few individuals. This type of concentration of economic power gives rise to class struggle. Due to this, the class with economic power starts oppressing and exploiting the class without this power. Due to the concentration of political power in their hands, the majority of the citizens of the society are forced to accept and adopt the ideals and values imposed by the capitalists in place of their political beliefs, ideals and values. Communists do not consider such a system as democratic. That’s why he says that to make democracy really practical, the obstacles coming in the way of publication of the beliefs of democracy should be removed. their

It is believed that these obstacles can be removed only by arranging public ownership on the means of production and distribution. Therefore, in the belief of communism, democracy cannot become practical until the ownership of the means of production and distribution is vested in the entire society.




The social ownership of the means of production and distribution makes the system of equal distribution of property essential. Due to the equal distribution of property, property does not become a cause of conflict, and does not give rise to inequality in the society. The vesting of economic resources in the entire society frees the society from those shackles, which obstruct the achievement of the values of democracy. Economically, democracy becomes practical only in such a society with equality.




Communists believe that there are no classes or different interests in a society with economic equality. That’s why there are no conditions for the formation of many political parties to represent and protect the specific interests of the classes. He says that in a classless society political parties


There is no need left. This is the reason why communism does not accept plurality of political parties. But for the attainment of the values of the people’s democratic system, it is necessary to have the leadership and direction of the society. So that co-ordination can be maintained in all the means and powers of the society and arrangements can be made for the fulfillment of the ends. For this, a party (communist) of the entire public is needed, which gets the monopoly of using, directing and controlling political powers for the society. This communist party truly represents everyone and makes possible the use of political powers in everyone’s interest. Such a party is not a symbol of exploitation and oppression, but remains a means of practicing public interest. Only a society with such a system can be called democratic.



In the communist world, all those ‘formal institutions’, which are found in liberal democratic system states, are adopted in the constitution. As the constitution is made written, immovable and ‘supreme’. Division and separation of political powers is found. Fundamental rights are provided to the citizens by the constitution and institutional arrangements are made for the continued responsibility of the government. Not only this, the pretense of ‘rule of law’ is also well established from the legal point of view. These constitutional arrangements, influence on political power

Vaashali is going to work to curb its misuse by exercising control. That’s why it is said that real democracy exists only in communist states.


William G. Andrews has rightly written that, “From the point of view of procedural democracy, the Constitution of Russia establishes all those parliamentary institutions which are prevalent in western countries and limits their mutual relations in the same way.” There are many such arrangements in the Constitution of Russia which establish the standard and procedural rules of power control in accordance with the Western tradition. The Constitution of Russia has a systematic protection of the fundamental rights and freedoms of the citizens, a clear description of the mutual relations between different governing bodies and a procedural agreement for the determination and implementation of public policy. In all these respects it is not at all different from the western democratic constitutions.

All the institutional arrangements found in Russia and other communist constitutions appear to establish democracy, but in reality democracy is not followed in communist societies. All the institutional arrangements of constitutional checks on the holders of political power in communist states are mere ‘formalities’. In conclusion, in the words of Alfred Meyer, it can be said that “the entire constitution of Russia is a fraud, it does not work, and it does not even reflect the nature of the political system.” There is freedom and he does not get the option to choose the path of development of his personality. Therefore, the idea of communist democracy can be said to be very new and unique.

Ellen Bal has found them different from liberal democracies on the basis of describing the characteristics of communist systems. These symptoms are-


The government is politically associated with all aspects of individual and social activity.


Only one party is politically and legally effective. All political activism passes through it and the party provides the only institutional basis for competition, appointments and opposition.


Theoretically, there is only one distinct ideology which regulates the entire political activism within that system. This ideology is much more than theory. It is an instrument of governance and manipulation.


The judiciary and the media are tightly controlled by the government, and civil liberties as defined in liberal democracies are severely curtailed.


Authoritarian rule lays emphasis on mass activism with the aim of providing a democratic basis and to obtain widespread public support for the rule. Government is legitimized by public participation and public acceptance.



One thing is clear from these symptoms that there are fundamental differences in values, principles and procedures between the liberal approach to democracy and the communist approach. For this reason, if we look at the basis of the theoretical interpretation of democracy, which is largely inspired by liberal notions, then the communist system cannot be called democratic, but it can be blamed for the conclusion that we use liberal democratic systems as a standard. We are using it and consider it undemocratic to deviate even a little here and there. There seems to be a lack of rational basis here.



The liberal and communist types of democracy have been discussed above. The situation between these two types of democracy has also become many names and forms. In such forms of democracy only those names and forms come which are given the nouns of basic democracy, directed democracy or controlled democracy. In the form of these types of democracies, we can take the governance systems of emerging nations whose social, economic and political status and intellectual level of whose people, in these countries, both western and communist type of democracy do not prove suitable and In which democracy is implemented on the basis of limited, directed or controlled expression of public opinion.


Well the truth is that democracy in developing countries is still going through a period of instability. Due to the political processes in these countries being in a state of transition, the foundations of democracy have not been enshrined in the constitutions. Fundamental amendments are made in the constitutions again and again and in place of one value another value is being adopted. The circumstances of these states are such that sometimes it becomes necessary to bring the conflicting goals into a state of harmony. Along with the need to speed up the pace of economic development in these countries, it is also necessary to adopt means of political stability and legitimacy of political power. On the one hand, the legitimacy of political power is through free, fair and regular elections in the context of competitive political parties, and on the other hand, coordination of all means for the rapid pace of economic development can be established only when competitive politics is curbed. To be planted For these reasons, a new form of democracy is seen developing in many budding states.

But in all developing states people

This new form of Tantra does not appear to be the same. In many states, the institutional arrangements of democracy and the ideals of political society are going in the same direction. The democracy of these states has come to be known as socialist democracy. The values of political societies in these democracies are similar to the concept of liberal democracies, freedom,


Political equality, social and economic justice and public welfare are only for the practice, but from the point of view of resources, socialist democracy seems close to communist ideology. Because faith in communist structures and institutional arrangements is getting stronger in these states. Along with the political aspect of equality in these states, the economic aspect of equality is also considered important. The exemption of competitive politics remains till it does not become an obstacle in the efforts of economic development and in the system of economic justice.

In developing states, efforts to reduce economic disparities for economic justice and to remove obstacles coming in the way of economic development, banning political freedoms and competitive politics are the main features of democracy. To do so, in fact, is to make democracy meaningful to millions of naked, hungry and sick people. For example, the same form of democracy is being established in India.


Declaring a state of emergency in India on 26 June 1975 and restricting the freedoms of some people who were running rampant is not actually the abolition of democracy. It gives the true form of democracy. So we appeared in the February 1976 issue of Norman D. Palmer’s ‘Asian Survey’

An article may not be considered suitable. Many of the experts of Indian politics in western countries have tried to tell in their articles by using similar titles that the ‘era of democracy’ is over in India. These authors have considered only one main reason for the end of democracy and that is the restriction of the freedom of some people to do whatever they want by the government.


Should political freedom, if it is meant for a few, be allowed to be used unfettered to eliminate the basic values of the society, so that they can exploit countless people, use them to fulfill their interests, democracy? Will you say? Public participation is considered very important in a democracy. Mrs. Indira Gandhi while inaugurating the 56th convention of the Indian National Trade Union Conference on November 15, 1975, perhaps rightly said that “freedom becomes real only when it brings some relief to the vast majority of people who have been suffering and neglected”. Can bring and facilities can reach the poorest of the poor person of the country.


For the last 40 years in India, in order not to tarnish the name of the so-called liberal democracy, constitutional means have been openly used by some sections and people for mass exploitation and foreign and Indian scholars have been talking about the democracy of the political system, freedoms. remained and exploitation, injustice and disorder increased, but these scholars said that all this is a deep solidification of the roots of democracy. In fact, these western experts, including Myron Wiener, came to India and observed Indian democracy from the air-conditioned rooms of high-rise hotels and concluded that India’s democracy is lighting the lamp of democracy in Asia. While the facts present a different view. Freedom, political equality, social and economic justice and public welfare had remained meaningful only for some people of some classes, at the cost of the interests of all people. In such a situation, democracy cannot be said to be ‘on track’ but ‘derailed’. Therefore, the socialist approach to democracy, inspired by the goal of arranging freedom for all the people, is such a system of economic, social and political equality in which justice is done to the entire public and everyone’s welfare can be served.

The socialist view of democracy is not a middle ground between liberal democracy and communist democracy. This is a unique idea in itself. In which lies the effort to achieve the theoretical system of democracy in practical form. Political equality and freedom have also been emphasized in socialist democracy, as well as the importance of its social and economic aspects has also been considered basic.

It is not the middle class of these two because in place of coordination of both types of democracies, different values, principles and means have been adopted from both. Liberal and communist democracy are incompatible. Their combination is not possible at all. Therefore, it would be wrong to call socialist democracy a ‘khichdi’ of these two. Freedom and equality have been given special meaning in socialist democracy and this meaning is more in line with the spirit of democracy, because in these sense freedom and equality and justice can achieve the ultimate objective of personal dignity of a person.



This creates conditions for meaningful and competitive politics for public participation in politics. Otherwise, a person with a monthly income of Rs 150, in spite of all the freedoms and exemptions of their enjoyment, from a person with a monthly income of Rs 1.5 lakh.

Can there be competition? Socialist democracy aims at minimizing the economic disparity between the two rather than equalizing them to make competition realistic. Therefore, to understand socialist democracy in the true sense, it is necessary that the realities of societies should not be ignored.

It is clear from the discussion of this approach of democracy that most of the states of the world cannot be included in the socialist structure of democracy. In fact, this model of democracy is very complex. Political systems deviate from the fundamental assumptions of this view by simple structural manipulation. Therefore, the conclusion of Dr. Iqbal Narayan that “the states which do not come under liberal or communist democracies are known as socialist democracies,” cannot be valid. In fact, most of the states of the world can be kept in the category of either liberal democracy or communist democracy and perhaps only some states like India can be said to conform to the criteria of socialist democracy. Rest of the many developing states are administered according to the spirit of socialist democracy neither in theory nor in practice.

It is clear from the discussion of different perspectives of democracy that the concept of democracy has been changing. Because still man has not been completely successful in trying to survive on the physical level. When the entire humanity will attain a certain standard of living, then perhaps the values of democracy will begin to be redefined.


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