Culture And Society

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Culture And Society


  Generally, we keep using the word culture continuously in our day-to-day life. Also, the word culture is used in different meanings. For example, this does not happen in our culture and it is accepted in the western culture. Sociology as a science has a clear meaning of any concept which reflects scientific understanding. Therefore, the meaning of culture as a sociological concept is “learned behavior”. That is, whatever a person learns from childhood till now, for example, the way of eating, the way of talking, knowledge of language, writing and reading and other abilities, this is culture.

Which human behavior is culture? There are many sides to human behavior

(a) Biological behavior like – silent, sleeping, walking, running.

(b) Psychological behavior like thinking, fearing, laughing etc.

(C) Social behavior like- Greeting, reading-writing, talking etc.

  Under culture, we do not take biological behavior or psychological behavior. Culture is that aspect of human behavior that a person learns as a member of society, such as wearing clothes, religion, knowledge, etc. An important difference between human and animal society is that human could create culture while animal society lacks it.

Do you know how humans were able to create culture?

  Leslie A. White has mentioned five special abilities in human beings, which man has got from nature and as a result of which he can create culture:

  The first feature is – the ability of a human to stand, due to which the person does useful work with both hands.

The second is the texture of man’s hands, as a result of which he

Can freely rotate in any direction and create different types of objects through it.

Third – Human’s sharp vision, due to which he is able to observe and observe nature and events and makes various discoveries and inventions.

  Fourth – developed brain, with the help of which man can think better than other creatures. It is because of this brain that he presents logic and is able to establish cause-effect relationship.

Fifth – Ability to create symbols. Through these symbols, a person is able to transfer his knowledge and experiences from one generation to another. The development of language became possible only through symbols and people were able to exchange their knowledge and ideas. Thus it is clear that symbols have a great contribution in the creation, development, change and expansion of culture.

  Do you know ?

The first mention of culture in the book Primitive Culture, published in 1871 by the famous anthropologist Edward Benart Tylor (1832-1917). Tylor is mainly known for his definition of culture, according to which, “Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and all other capacities and habits acquired by man as a society.” Tyler has used culture in a broad sense. According to him, being a social animal, whatever a person possesses and learns is culture. Only non-material elements are included in this definition.

  Meaning and definition of culture

The definition of culture given by Robert Beersteed (The Social Order) is that “Culture is that whole complex which includes all those things which we think, act and possess as members of society”. In the definition, both the physical and non-material aspects of culture have been included.

  In the words of Harshkovits (Man and His Work) “Culture is the man-made part of the environment. It is clear from this definition that the environment has two parts, first – natural and second – social. Social environment includes all material and non-material things. For example, chair, table, pen, register, religion, education, knowledge, morality etc. Harshkovits has called this social environment, which is created by humans, as culture.

According to Bogardus, “Culture is the name of all the ways of thinking and acting of a group.” On this, you should note that, like Beerstead, Bogardus has emphasized both its material and non-material aspects.

Malinowski – Culture is the creation of man and a means by which he achieves his goals. You say that “culture is a total way of life which fulfills the physical, mental and other needs of a person.”

Redfield defined culture as “the lifestyle of the members of any society”.

  It is clear from looking at the appropriate definitions that various sociologists and anthropologists have given the definition of culture on the basis of their respective viewpoints. In fact, culture is the way of life of the society and in this form it is passed on from generation to generation after necessary changes and modifications. All types of thought and behavior come under culture. Therefore, it is clear that in culture that complex totality of material and non-material elements, which a person receives as a member of society and through which he passes his life.

Nature or Characteristics of Culture

  After knowing the views of various sociologists regarding culture, some of its characteristics become clear, which is also helpful in knowing and understanding its nature. Some of the key features are being discussed here

  1. Culture is learned behavior – Culture is a learned behavior. It is not acquired by the individual through inheritance from his ancestors, but is learned through the process of socialization in the society. This learning goes on continuously till life i.e. from birth to death. You need to know that culture is learned behavior, but not all learned behavior can be called culture. The behavior learned by animals cannot be called culture, because whatever animals learn, they cannot teach it to any other animal. Those habits and ways of behavior come under culture, which are learned by all the members of the society in general. In this context, Lundberg has said that, “Culture is not related to a person’s innate tendencies or zoological heritage, but it is based on social learning and experiences.”

  1. Culture is social – The quality of sociality is found in culture. The whole society and social relations are represented under culture. Therefore it can be said that the behavior learned by any one or two-four persons cannot be called culture. any behavior unless it is learned by the majority of the individuals in the society

Till then it cannot be called culture. Culture represents the entire way of life of a society. This is the reason why every member of the society adopts the culture. Culture is also social in the sense that it is not the property of any particular person or two or four persons. It is for every member of the society. Hence its expansion is wide and social.

  III. Culture is Transmissive – It is because of this quality of culture that when culture passes from one generation to another, the experiences and understandings of generations get added to it. Due to this, there is a slight change and modification in the culture. Due to this quality of culture, man invents new things on the basis of his previous knowledge and experience. You have to understand that – even animals have the ability to learn something. But they are unable to teach what they have learned to their children and other animals. This is the reason that despite having the ability to learn a lot, culture has not developed in them. Man develops and expands his culture very easily through language and symbols and also transfers it from one generation to another. This also maintains the continuity of the culture.

  1. Culture is made by man (Culture is Man-Made) – Culture refers to all those elements, which have been created by man himself. For example, our religion, beliefs, knowledge, ethics, ways of behaving and means of various needs i.e. chair, table etc. have been created by man. In this way all this culture Harshkavits says that “culture is the man-made part of the environment”.

Culture Satisfies Human Needs – Culture has the quality of satisfying human needs. Even the smallest unit of culture directly or indirectly fulfills or helps to fulfill human needs. Sometimes a unit of culture may appear to be redundant or ineffective on the outside, but it has an important place in the overall picture.

  Thoughts of Malinowski:- Famous anthropologist Malinowski states that the existence of even the smallest element of culture depends on its ability to satisfy needs. When any element of culture does not have the quality to fulfill the need, then its existence also ends. For example, the elements of culture that were there in ancient times were destroyed because they were unable to fulfill the requirement, in this Sati Pratha can be seen as an example. Similarly, a unit in a system may sometimes appear to be very small but that unit is also very important for the system. Thus, no element of culture is dysfunctional but rather the fulfillment of a human need in any form. Does i

.vi Every society has its own distinctive culture (Culture is Distinctive in every Society) – Every society has a distinctive culture. We know that any society is meant for a specific geographical and natural environment. According to this, the social environment and culture is created. For example, the geographical environment of the people living on the mountains is different from the geographical environment of the people of the plains. Similarly, the people living in these two places have different needs. Like – food, way of living, dance, singing, religion etc. Therefore, the culture of both develops according to the need in relation to the geographical environment. When there are changes in the behavior and needs of the society, then there is a change in the culture. The rate and direction of change in the behavior of people in different societies is different. Because of which there is variation in the rate and direction of change in culture.

vii. Culture has the quality of adaptation (Culture has Adoptive Quality) – An important feature of culture is that it gets adapted to the needs over time. Culture is according to the environment and situation of the society. When the environment and circumstances change, the culture also molds itself accordingly. If this specialty and quality is not there, then the existence of culture will not remain. Due to change in culture according to time and situation, the usefulness of uraki does not end. The main objective and function of every culture is to fulfill the physical, mental and social needs of the village. Culture has to be molded according to these needs. Do you know – the needs of people have been different in every era. New needs have been born in place of old needs and they also change from time to time. Along with these, the quality of adaptation is in the culture. This is the reason why culture changes, but culture changes very slowly.

  viii. Culture is Super-Organic – Man created culture by using his mental and physical abilities, which is above organic. A person develops by living in a culture and then a human creates a culture which is above the human. The basis of all human abilities is organic,

But this culture goes above Aghi-Savayavi. In this sense, culture has been called super-organic.

  1. Culture is super-individual – both the creation and continuity of culture do not depend on any particular person. Therefore it is super-individual. Culture is not created by any particular person, but culture is created by the whole group. Each cultural entity has a history of its own, which is beyond any individual. Culture is the result of social invention, but this invention is not the brainchild of any one person. Thus no one person can be the creator of the whole culture. The ability to change and modify it is not in the control of any particular person. Thus culture is hyper-personal.

x There is balance and organization in culture (Culture has The Integrative) – There are many elements and sections within the culture, but they are not separate from each other, rather interrelationship and interdependence are found in them. Of culture. Each unit does not work in isolation from each other, but all work together. This type of balance and organization creates a cultural framework. Under this structure, each unit has a certain position and function, but all of them are based and related to each other. In any one part or unit of culture. If there is a change, the other party or other entity is also affected.

  1. Culture is Ideal for the Group – The culture of each group is ideal for that group. This type of belief is found in all societies. All people consider their own culture as ideal and consider their culture higher than other culture. Culture is also ideal because its behavior pattern is not of a particular person but of the whole group.

You need to understand that – according to Emile Durkheim, culture is a symbol of collective-consciousness, that is, it does not represent a particular person but a group, so it is considered ideal, that is why it is ignored against collective consciousness. And that person is condemned but those who respect it are praised.

types of culture

Ogerbon and Nimkoff have discussed two types of culture –

  Material culture and non-material culture. 1. material culture

-1. All those material and tangible things are included under material culture, which have been created for humans, and which we can see and touch. The number of material culture is more in modern society than in primitive society, Prof. Beerstead has tried to make it more clear by dividing all the elements of material culture into 3 main categories. Machines 1. Equipment iii. Utensils iv. Buildings v. Roads vi. Bridge vii. Craft articles viiiArtistic articles ix. Clothing x. Vehicles xi Furniture xii. Foodstuffs xiii Medicines etc.

The characteristics of physical culture are as follows

  1. Material culture is tangible.

  2 . It keeps on increasing continuously.

  1. Physical culture can be measured.
  2. Changes happen quickly in the original culture.
  3. Its usefulness and benefits can be evaluated.
  4. It cannot be accepted without making changes in material culture. That is, there is no difference in its form in taking it from one place to another and adopting it. For example motor vehicle, dress and cloth etc.

Non-material culture – All those non-material and intangible things are included under non-material culture, which do not have any size, shape and color etc. Non-material culture is transferred from one generation to another through the process of socialization and learning. In this way we can say that non-material culture refers to that part of culture.

107 is in favor, which does not have any concrete form, but controls, regulates and influences human behavior through thoughts and beliefs. Pro . Bearstead called ideas and ideal rules as the most important under non-material culture and said that ideas are the main part of non-material culture. There can be a certain number of views, yet Prof. Beerstead has presented some sets of ideas Scientific truth Religious belief Mythology iv. Anecdotal literature vi Superstition vii. Sutras viii proverbs etc. All these ideas are part of non-material culture. Ideal rules are not related to thinking, but to the way of behaving. That is, those rules or methods of behavior which the culture considers as its ideal, are called ideal rules. Pro . Beerstead has divided all ideal rules into 14 parts. Law 2. Act 3. Rule 4. Regulation 5. Practices 6, Generalities 7. Ethos 8. Prohibition 9. Fashion 10. Sanskar 11. Karma-Kand 12. Rituals 13. Custom 14. virtue .

The characteristics of non-material culture are as follows

  1. Non-material culture is intangible.

  2 . It is difficult to measure it.

  1. Non-material culture is complex.
  2. Evaluating its usefulness and benefits is a difficult task.

  Change in non-material culture is very slow.

  1. When non-material culture is accepted from one place to another, then there is a slight change in its form.
  2. Non-material culture is related to the spiritual and inner life of man.

difference between material and non-material culture

Culture is created only by the combination of material and non-material aspects, but there are some differences between the two, which are as follows

  1. Material culture is also called civilization, while non-material culture is simply called culture.

2 . Material culture is tangible, while non-material culture is intangible. For example, the train and the thought and mind of the scientist, which led to the invention of the train. Here the train is the material culture, while the scientist’s idea is the non-material culture.

  1. It is easier to imbibe material culture than non-material one. It can be accepted anywhere, but it is not easy to accept non-material culture. Others face difficulties in accepting. Very easily we are not able to accept the ideals and values of other places.
  2. Non-material culture changes at a slower rate than material culture. Like – motor, watch etc change, but the beliefs of man do not change soon. ,
  3. Since material culture is tangible, it is easy to measure it, but due to non-material culture being immortal, there are difficulties in its measurement. Its measurement is not possible.

6 Growth in material culture happens at a rapid pace, while growth in non-material culture happens at a very slow pace. For example, different types of things come to the fore due to new discoveries and inventions in the society, but the thoughts of a person are found to be years old.

  1. The growth and accumulation of non-material culture cannot be explained. But there is growth and accumulation in material culture and it can also be measured.
  2. The benefits and usefulness of material culture can be measured and told, but the usefulness and benefits of non-material culture cannot be evaluated. It can only be experienced.
  3. Material culture is related to the physical and material life of the person, while non-material culture is related to the spiritual and inner life of the human being.
  4. Material culture is simple, while the form of non-material culture is complex. ,

The Structure of Culture

  1. Cultural Traits

2 . Culture Complex

  1. Culture Pattern or Culture Configuration

  1. Cultural elements – Cultural elements are the smallest units or single elements of culture. Culture is formed by combining these units. Culture is formed by combining these units. Hershkovits has called the cultural element the smallest identifiable unit within a particular culture. Kroeber called it “the least defining element of culture”. For example – handshake, touching feet, taking off one’s headgear, kissing cheeks, providing accommodation to women, saluting the flag, wearing white sari during mourning, vegetarian food. Eating, walking barefoot, sprinkling water on idols. It has three main characteristics i. Every cultural element has a history of its origin, whether that history is small or big. ii. Cultural element is not static. Mobility is its characteristic. iii.Cultural elements have the nature of assimilation.They mix together like a bouquet of flowers.

2 . Cultural complexes – are made up of cultural elements. When some or many elements together fulfill human needs. Thus, bowing down in front of the idol, sprinkling holy water on it, placing some food in its mouth, folding hands, taking prasad from the priest and singing aarti etc. all these elements together form a religious cultural complex. Piddington called cultural complex as functional association of cultural elements.

  1. Cultural Pattern – When cultural elements and packages together become related to each other in functional roles, then a cultural pattern is born from them. Culture – The study of the pattern gives knowledge of the main characteristics of a culture. For example – Gandhism, spiritualism, caste-system, joint family, ruralism are cultural complexes of Indian culture which introduce the characteristics of Indian culture.

  Clark Wissler has mentioned 9 basic cultural elements that give rise to culture-pattern

  1. speech and language

2 . Physical Elements – 1 Food Habits Habitat iii Transport iv . Utensils etc. v. Arms viBusiness and Industry

  1. art
  2. mythology and scientific knowledge
  3. religious ceremonies
  4. family and social species
  5. property
  6. Government
  7. war .

  Kimble Young has included 13 elements of culture in universal patterns

  1. Models of Movement: Sign and Language

  2 . Things and riots for the welfare of humans

  1. quantity and mode of transport

  4, Exchange of goods and services – trade commerce

  1. Types of Property – Real and Personal
  2. Sexual and family patterns – marriage and divorce, types of kinship relations, succession, guardianship.
  3. Social Control and Governing Institutions – Ethos Public Opinion Law


  1. Artistic expression: building arts, painting, culture
  2. leisure time activity
  3. religious and magical ideas
  4. mythology and philosophy
  5. science
  6. The cultural structure of foundational interaction processes.

Functions Of Culture

  1. for person

  for 2 groups

  1. for person

Culture makes man human.

  1. Solving complex situations.

iiiSatisfaction of human needs

  1. personality building

V: Provides values and ideals to human beings.

vi determines the habits of human beings.

  vii. determines morality.

viii Brings uniformity in practices.

ix Increases experience and efficiency.

  1. Provides security to the individual.
  2. solves problems.

xii. Contributes to socialization.

  xiii Determines status and role.

  xiv. instrumental in social control

  , for 2 groups

It keeps social relations stable.

  1. Broadens the outlook of the individual.

iii Creates new needs.

  , Phase of Culture

Dr. Dube has discussed six stages of culture.

  1. early stone age

  2 . paleolithic age

  1. neolithic age
  2. copper age
  3. bronze age
  4. iron Age

Normative Bases of Culture

  Emile Durkhim said in relation to the need for regulatory bases to maintain the unity and stability of the society. W. G. Sumner stressed the need for regulatory bases for the effective functioning of society. When we talk about regulatory bases of culture, we are talking about all those abstract forms that control social behavior in one way or the other. You guide and influence. Example – rules – values, customs, conventions, laws, customs etc. Let’s do

  Social Sanction There are two types of social discipline

  1. Positive Sanction

2 . Negative Sanction: Positive discipline is that which makes an action expected and the doing of which increases social respect. For example, reaching office on time is a good thing and those who do so are considered good. Negative discipline, doing such work which brings down reputation, is punished. For example, raising hands on women in India is considered bad, and brings down prestige.

Cultural Lag

This concept was discussed by W. F. Ogbum in his book ‘Social Change’ in 1925. According to Agibern, culture can be broadly divided into two parts.

  1. physical and

  These two parts of material culture do not change at the same rate. For some reason a part moves forward. The other one is left behind. As a result, a situation of cultural delay arises. Due to this diseases arise in the society. As soon as the left behind part is brought forward, there is a change in the society. Thus, according to Ogvern, Sanskrit. Logical delay is a mantra in the hands of sociologists by which society changes. All the examples given by them make it clear that material culture moves ahead and non-material remains behind. He was criticized a lot for this. Accepting these criticisms, in 1957, in his book ‘On Social and Culture Change’, he presented it in the form of a principle, defining cultural delay. According to them – a culture lag occurs when end the two parts which are co – related or change before or in greater degree than the other part does their by causing less adjustment between the part then exist its previously. It is clear from this definition that following conditions are necessary for cultural delay. Any two variables whether both physical or one physical one non-physical. II. There must be correlation between the two variables. III. Adaptation between the two variables is necessary at a particular point in time. IV. For some reason, one moves forward and the other back. As a result, there should be delay in both.

  There are four factors causing cultural lag

  1. conservatism

  2 . allegiance to the past

  1. fear of new ideas
  2. Vested interests

Criticizing this, Mackiwar and Page have said that Technological Lag should be used instead of Cultural Lag. Culture Lag is unimportant in today’s sociology because it only talks about two variables whereas today in any science there is talk of Multiple of factors.

Culture Change – The question arises why culture changes. Sumner has given three reasons for this

  1. 100% transfer of culture is impossible. 2 . Change in external conditions 3. Attempt to adapt

  Culture Contact – When two different cultures come in contact with each other, it is called cultural contact. Sanskritization due to cultural contact or on –

The process of acculturation begins. Accultraltion (Para-Sanskritisation) – According to Harshkavitsa, “When the elements of two cultures intermingle – meet. It is a two-way process (Two Way Process) like – Indian Muslims and Hindus have adopted each other’s elements.”

  Cultural Relativism (Cultural Relativism) – Harshkovitas has mentioned it

, Cultural relativism means the coexistence of different cultures. We can express cultural relativism by the example of greeting. In India, people join hands to greet, in Western societies they shake hands and take off their hats, in Japan the body is bowed, and in Africa, the Maasai tribe spit on each other. Every human’s experiences, decisions and behavior are according to their culture, this is called cultural relativism. Therefore, Harshkovitas says that no culture should be compared on the basis of values of other culture, rather each culture should be evaluated relative to its own culture.

  Ethnocentricism (Self-Culture Centricity) – It was discussed by American sociologist W. G. Sumner did it. When people of one culture consider their culture as superior and evaluate all other cultures on the same basis, it is called Ethnocentrism.

Discussing Temperocentricism Bierstedt said that the relation of the past of each aspect is considered more important.

  TransCulturation (Para-Culturation) The process in which two or more cultures exchange themselves. It is called Trans-Culturation.

Cultural Pluralism Cultural Pluralism refers to a society where many people live together. Everyone respected each other, no one considered anyone inferior. Indian culture for example.


Generally, people use the word “civilization” in the sense of culture, that is, in common parlance, both of them are understood in the same sense. Under civilization, we include those material things through which we fulfill our needs. For example house, table, pen which can be seen and touched. It is also called material culture. Why is the Harappan civilization called a civilization?

The English word “Civilization” is derived from the Latin language Civitas and Civis, which means urban and urban group. Such groups are educated, well-mannered and indicative of equality. The behavior of people in a civilized society is complex. Their language develops and differentiation and specialization are found in many works. Many scholars have given the definition of civilization. The definitions given by some sociologists are being mentioned.

While giving the definition of civilization, Ogburn and Nimkoff said that civilization is said to be the stage after semi-organic culture.

  According to Green, “a culture becomes a civilization when it has a written language, science, philosophy, highly specialized division of labor, complex technology, and a political system.”

MacIver and Page have defined civilization differently. By civilization, we mean the entire system and organization that man has created in an effort to control the conditions of his life. ‘ MacIver has included in his definition social organization as well as material equipments that satisfy human needs. For example, there are typewriters, telephones, presses, motors, etc., which are used as means to achieve human objectives.

  Characteristics Of Society

  Like culture, civilization also has some main characteristics,

1 Material form – Material things are included under civilization. Civilization is tangible from the point of view of the material side. That means we can see and touch the world. These material things are also created by human beings. For example, table, chair etc. ,

All material things are not included under utilitarian civilization. It includes all those things which are important from the point of view of utility. The usefulness of three things ends, people leave them. That is, civilization provides happiness and satisfaction to human beings.

  1. Civilization is the means. , , Civilization is a means because those things are included under it. By whom man fulfills his objectives. It is such a useful object by which man fulfills his objectives. As we travel easily from one place to another by car.

4 Transmutability – Changes in civilization happen at a very rapid pace, along with the change in human needs and interests, their husband’s resources also change. This is the reason why there is always change in civilization.

5 Fixed direction – The development of civilization takes place towards a certain direction. Its development is always upward. The pace of development of civilization never turns back. There is continuous progress in civilization.

  1. Measurement possible – It is possible to measure the things that come under civilization.
  2. Receptivity – The quality of receptivity is found in civilization. That is, any person can accept civilization and can benefit from it. A thing may be manufactured or invented in any corner of the world, but people in every field can easily accept it and benefit from it.

  1. Optionality – It is not mandatory to adopt all the things that come under civilization. It depends on the desire and interest of the person whether he will adopt that thing or not. For example, a person can travel by motor vehicle, train, bus or even on foot. this particular person

depends on the will of In this way it is clear that civilization is optional rather than compulsory.

Difference Between Civilization And Culture

  People often use the words civilization and culture in the same sense, but there is a difference between civilization and culture. Civilization is the means while culture is the end. Some common things are also found in civilization and culture. There is a connection between civilization and culture. Civilization prepares the environment for culture and culture is also propagated through civilization only. Culture gives direction to civilization. It is through civilization that culture is transferred from one society to another and from one generation to another. Civilization and culture both influence each other and also influence each other. Both were created and developed to meet the needs of human beings. There is such a close relationship between them that it is difficult to separate them from each other. Despite this, there is a difference between civilization and culture. MacIver and Page have distinguished between civilization and culture. The differences given by them are as follows

  1. Measurement of civilization is possible, but not of culture – civilization can be measured. Since it is related to the utility of material things, it can be called good-bad, high-low, useful-unusable on the basis of utility. This is not the case with culture. It is not possible to measure culture. It cannot be described as comparatively good-bad, high-low, useful-unusable. People of every group describe their culture as the best. Every culture is the product of the time and circumstances of the society. Hence the question of its valuation does not arise. For example, let us look at new techniques. What is present today is better than the old things and in the coming times even more advanced technology will be present in front of us. We cannot do this kind of comparison with culture. The culture of two places and two eras cannot be said to be superior to each other. telling . Every culture is not said to be useful or useless. measure of culture

  2 . Society always moves forward, but not culture – there is continuous progress in society. It never goes backwards. MacIver said that civilization does not move forward only, but its progress is only in one direction. Today, new discoveries and inventions are happening all the time, due to which advanced things are available to us in comparison to old things. As a result, there is progress in civilization. There is progress in civilization. Every first step of civilization, every new invention, every new discovery, every new thing is better than the previous step, previous invention, previous discovery, previous thing. But this is not possible with culture. It can never be said with certainty that the poets, novelists, dramatists, etc., change at a faster rate today than in the past. Its direction is also not certain. Today’s people are better than novelists, dramatists, etc. in culture

  1. Civilization moves forward without effort, not culture – Vishish Prayal’s Sanahahat for the development and progress of civilization, it moves forward very easily and alertly. When there is any new thing, then everyone uses that thing. It is not necessary that we keep full pan in his relation and contribute fully in his invention. That means they can be consumed even without it. Standard Vastua is used without any change in attitudes, interests and thoughts, but for the spread of Eta Bara Naha Ha culture along with the culture, a change in mindset is also required. For example, if a person wants to change his religion, then he has to be mentally prepared for that, but there is no need to think specially for using it. Civilization can be inherited, but not culture. Thus it is clear that the transfer of civilization is of culture. Simple in comparison.

  1. Civilization can be adopted without any change or loss, but not culture – the elements or things of civilization can be adopted as they are. There is no need for any change in it. When this one thing is invented, people from different places accept it. A physical object can be moved from one place to another without any change in it. For example, when the tractor was invented, it was taken to every village. For this, there was no need for any change in it. But this is not the case with culture. When the elements of culture are accepted from one place to another, there is a slight change in it. Some of its qualities become secondary, while some qualities are added. This is the reason why even after converting religion, people are not able to bring about a complete change in their old beliefs, thoughts and attitudes. Some influence of the previous religion remains. Even after doing Some of his qualities village from one place to another

  1. Civilization is external, while culture is internal – material things come under civilization. Material things are related to external life, external comforts and facilities. For example, electric fan, television, motor vehicle, etc. All these things give people external comfort and convenience.

But culture is related to the inner life of a person. Like – knowledge, faith, religion, art etc. A person gets mental satisfaction from all these things, thus it is clear that civilization is external, but culture is related to internal life. That is, only physical happiness is obtained from civilization, while culture gives mental happiness.

  1. Society is tangible, while culture is intangible – civilization is related to material things. Material things are tangible. They can be seen and touched. Almost all people can benefit equally from this, but culture is not related to material things but to non-material things. They can be felt, but they cannot be seen or touched. In this sense, culture is intangible. Civilization refers to the material side of culture. In this sense civilization is tangible. Like – – chair, house, fan, etc. The intangible side of culture is called non-material culture. Like – knowledge, faith, art etc.

  1. Civilization is the means while culture is the end – Civilization is a means by which we reach our goals and objectives. Culture is an end in itself. Religion, art, literature, morality etc. are the elements of culture. To achieve these, material things such as religious books, paintings, music, dance-instruments, etc. are required. In this way civilization is the means and culture is the end.

culture and personality

  There is a close relationship between culture and personality. The factors that are believed to contribute to the formation of a cultured personality. Among them, the place of culture is the main relationship. Culture gives a certain direction to personality. Personality is considered to be insane. The place of culture is important among them. Culture plays a very important role in the development of personality. It pays to know how these two are related. To know the relationship between these two, it is necessary to know what is culture and personality? What is culture, it has been discussed earlier. So what is a house, it has been discussed earlier. So there is no need to repeat it here. What is personality is being discussed below

the personality

In the language of ordinary speaking people, the meaning of personality is not just the external qualities of a human being, which is evident from its physical structure. Earlier the study of personality was only in psychology, but now it has become a topic of discussion in anthropology as well. There have been many important studies in the field of anthropology, which show the important role of culture in the formation of personality. The word personality is the Hindi adaptation of English ‘Personality’, which is derived from the Latin word ‘Persona’. It means shape and mask. In plays etc., people play special roles by wearing masks. On changing the role, the mask also changes. It means to say that there are different types of masks for different roles. The type of role that has to be played, the same type of mask is worn. It is necessary to clarify here that personality does not mean only face, complexion, height and dress. Under this, physical, psychological, social and cultural initiatives are included. Different scholars have given the definition of personality in their own way, according to Allport – ‘Personality is the dynamic organization of the psycho-somatic qualities of the individual which determines its unique harmony with the environment. He has tried to make it clear through his definition that personality is a variable sum of physical and mental qualities of a person, which determines his adaptation with the environment. Because of this, a person behaves differently in different situations. According to Park and Burgess, – “Personality is the sum of those aspects of a person’s behavior that determine the role of the person in the group. Like Allport, Park and Burgess have also described personality as a sum of different qualities. Through these qualities, The behavior and roles of the personality are determined in the group. Edward Sapir has written – * Personality is the sum total of those aspects of an individual’s behavior that give him meaning in society and differentiate him from other members of the community. Merrill and Aldwijs According to – “Personality is a set of innate and acquired qualities related to each individual. He has described personality as the sum of innate and acquired qualities. It is clear from the views of the above mentioned scholars that physical, psychological, social, cultural aspects contribute in the formation of personality. This is the reason why a person is a contributor to a common culture. This is the reason why a person, despite being a member of the same culture, develops a different personality from others.

Basis Of Personality

There are three main bases of building personality,

  1. physical aspect

  2 . Society

  1. culture

These three have a hand in the development of personality, that is, as a result of their interaction, personality develops. Physical basis – Under this comes the physical structure, size, complexion, height, weight etc. of the person. In general, a person can interpret personality on the basis of these.

It is Rata. That is, looking at the physical appearance, a person is said to have attractiveness or a big personality. Hereditaryists call this basis important in the formation of personality. According to them, heredity, body composition, talent, nervous system and endocrine glands contribute in the formation of personality.

Social base – The whole social environment comes under this. Lack of society is not the middle. If a person’s zoological constitution is very good, but he comes to social environment. The development of personality is possible in the absence of society, in such a situation the development of his personality cannot take place. The meaning of saying is that the social income structure is very good, but it has been deprived of social contact, and the effect of culture is also possible only through contact. A child cannot be born when it comes to this earth. It means to say that social contact is necessary. It is possible through the process of social socialization that the society develops the personality of an individual. When a child comes to this earth, it is only a biological being. Society develops a person’s personality through a process and then he becomes a social person from a biological phenomenon. Various social institutions, circumstances and roles have an impact on the personality. All the habits, attitudes, attitudes, values and ideals of these are created, due to which the personality develops.

Cultural base – Anthropologists have described cultural base as important in the formation of personality. According to him . Many biological abilities are determined by culture. Anthropologists have discussed the formation of different types of personality on the basis of difference of cultures. The names of Mead, Litton, Cardiner, Dubois etc. are prominent among these scholars. Ya. The scholars are known by the name of Culture Personality School. Referring to the interrelationship of culture and personality, John Gillin said that after birth man enters a man-made environment, which has an impact on the personality of the person. Culture determines certain rules and methods for the fulfillment of human needs. Most of the people of the society believe in them. The practices, traditions, customs, customs, religion, language, art etc. which are included under the culture, express the social and collective way of life. Culture also uses rewards and punishments for appropriate and inappropriate behavior. Ruth Benedict while expressing her opinion said that the practices in which a child is born, from the very beginning, his experiences and behavior start happening accordingly. Further, he also told that culture provides raw material to a person, from which he builds his life. If the raw material itself is insufficient, then the development of the person does not take place completely. If the raw material is sufficient, then the person gets the opportunity to make good use of it. Ferris has called personality the universal aspect of culture. Each society has its own distinctive type of culture, which is different from the other. Each person represents his own culture. This is the reason that due to cultural differences, differences are also found in individuals. According to Kluckhoun and Moore, everyone is in some degree 1. Happens like everyone else. 2 . It is like some other people and not like any other human being. First – from the zoological point of view, the physical characteristics of all humans are similar such as eyes, nose, ears, hands, feet etc. Therefore, every human being is similar to all other people in some or the other way. Second – there are some common behavior patterns in every society. Which a person adopts according to his choice. Thus everyone is like some other people. That is, equality is found in some people on the basis of similar behavior and work. Third – Every person has some special qualities, which are not like any other human being. This is the reason why differences are found in human personality. Due to the difference in the cultural environment, there is no similarity in the common qualities of people of two different cultures.


  Concept and characteristics of society

  (Concept and Characteristics of Society)

  Society, elementary concepts of sociology. I am first and foremost. In common parlance, the word society is used for ‘Groups of men or collection of Individual’. Whereas in Sociology, the word ‘Society’ is used for ‘Social Relation’, which are created by individuals. Sociology studies social relations created by social influence, which we can call society. Aristotle wrote long ago that man is a social animal. Because the person is bound by social relations with each other. Sociology is the science of society. That’s why first of all it is necessary to know what is society? In daily and practical life, people use the word ‘society’ in different meanings.

Generally, people use the word ‘society’ by associating it with language, region, religion, culture, caste and race etc. Relating this to language, a language-speaking group is called a society, such as Hindi society. a religion by associating it with a religion

Those who believe in this call their group a society, like – Hindu society. By associating with the culture, the people of a culture call their group a society, such as the Indian society. By associating in this way, a caste-group calls itself a society, such as – Brahmin society etc. Seeing these examples, it is known that people use the word ‘society’ arbitrarily. This experiment will be called unscientific. The word ‘society’ in sociology is neither a racial group, nor a religious group, nor a regional group, nor a cultural group. The concept of society under Sociology is totally different. Under this, only a group of individuals is not called a society. We live together in trains, buses, fairs etc. for a long time, but even such a group is not called a society. It is meant to say that the word ‘society’ has a specific meaning in sociology. Let’s experiment In the basic sense, ‘society’ is an abstract system of social relations. Many types of relations are found among the social workers. These relationships also continue to be expressed in many forms. There is no limit to any social relations. All these relationships are intertwined. All the people are connected with each other in the form of farmers.

  Many sociologists have given the definition of society. Here we will mention the definitions given by some prominent scholars.

In the words of Ginsberg, “Society is a collection of individuals united by certain relations or modes of behavior which distinguish them from all others who do not have such relations or whose behavior is different from them.” It is clear from this definition of Ginsberg that society is made up of social relations. Due to difference in the nature of social relations, one society differs from another society.

  Giddings has written, “Society itself is an association, an organization, a sum of formal relations, in which interrelated individuals are connected to each other. There are two main things in this definition – first, society is a group of individuals.” It is the sum of formal relations and secondly it has formal relations. The biggest shortcoming of Giddings’s definition is that only the sum of formal relations has been called society. But there are both formal and informal relations in society and both have equal importance. it happens .

  According to Fichter, “Society is an organized group of individuals who live in an area, satisfy their basic needs through co-operative group, have a common culture and act as a separate social unit”. Huh . From this definition of Fictor, all the main things and characteristics of a society are becoming clear. It states that

  (i) Society is an association of people, (ii) It has a geographical area, (iii) It has the satisfaction of needs through co-operation, (iv) It has a distinct culture and (v) It is a distinct social unit. serves as .

According to Reuter, “Society is an abstract concept that is found among the members of a group. Wall gives a sense of completeness of mutual relations. Reuter has given the definition of society in a very simple way. In this definition, he has described the mutual relations between groups as important.

Maclver and Page have also explained society more clearly. According to him, “Society is a system of customs and practices, rights and mutual aid, many groups and sub-divisions, controls and freedoms of human behavior. We call this ever-changing complex system society. All the elements of society are included in this definition and it is always changing. MacIver clarified the nature of society through this definition and said that society is a network of social relations. It is not created by individuals. Rather, it is due to the mutual relations found between individuals.From this point of view, society is an abstract organization.

  It is clear from all the above definitions of society that

  1. Society is a web of social relations.
  2. These relations are of different types.
  3. Social relations are changeable.
  4. Society has a specific culture.
  5. It regulates the behavior of individuals.
  6. Society is not just a collection of individuals. Society is the name of the groups formed on the basis of social structures, institutions, customs, work-systems and fulfillment of needs.

Basis or Elements of Society

Here we will mention some of the main bases of society, which have been discussed by MacIver and Page in their definition. MacIver said that society is a network of social relations, but it also has some major bases, through which it takes the form of a complex system. MacIver and Page have presented the following bases of society as follows

  1. Customs (Usages): There are different types of customs in every society. They are related to different tasks and situations. That is, there are certain rituals for different tasks and different situations, through which they are accomplished. Like food, dress, marriage etc.

There are special rules in relation. It is through these rules that a person is motivated to behave in a particular way on a particular occasion. Therefore, whatever is the custom of the society, so is the behavior of the people there. In this way social relations are formed through these customs and society is formed.

  2 . Work-Systems (Procedures) – Some of the main basis of every society are work-systems and rules, by which the system of society is maintained. On the basis of the needs of the people, different work systems have been created for different tasks in the society, through these work systems the needs of the people are fulfilled. If everyone starts acting arbitrarily, then the system of the society will be destroyed. Therefore, it is necessary to behave according to these procedures. This system is based on rules and traditions. Also, it is expected from most of the people that they will complete their tasks through them.

  1. Authority – Authority is the main basis of society. Authority is also known by the names of authority and dominance. There is no such society where relations of authority and subordination are not found. For the proper operation of every organization, group and committees of the society, it is necessary that authority and power should be associated with some persons. In their absence, order and peace cannot be maintained in the society. This authority and power control the behavior of the people. Right from the beginning till date, the concept of authority and power has been there in every society. Like – father or doer in the family, head in the panchayat, principal in school and college etc. People have to work with this right and dignity, due to which system or organization remains in the society.
  2. Mutual Aid Mutual cooperation is the real basis of the society. Man’s needs are infinite. He himself cannot fulfill all his needs. Mutual cooperation is required for its fulfillment. Social relations are formed only by mutual cooperation. In their absence the society cannot even be imagined. Individuals depend on each other through co-operation and order is maintained in social life. Therefore, it is necessary for any society to have a mutually cooperative relationship.
  3. Grouping and Divisions – Different types of groups and divisions are found in every society. Society is made up of these groups and departments. For example, family, neighborhood, caste, class, city, community, etc. The basis of division in the society are age, gender, class, caste, wealth and education etc. All these groups and departments maintain mutual relations. All these (groups and departments) affect our social relations, as well as the society fulfills its functions through these groups and organizations. The more organized these groups and departments are, the more organized the society is.
  4. Controls of Human Behaviour: The nature of a human being is such that when he is freed, he starts doing whatever he wants. If every person starts acting arbitrarily in the society, then the system of the society will be disturbed. To maintain the order of the society, it is necessary that there should be control over the behavior of the individuals. Every society has its own rules and regulations, according to which a person has to behave. Society uses some formal and informal means to regulate the behavior of individuals. Administration, police, courts and law etc come in formal means and ethos, custom, tradition, religion etc come in informal means. Through all these means, the behavior of individuals is regulated and controlled, due to which the system of social relations is maintained in the society.

  7 Freedom Control and freedom are two sides of the coin in the form of society. Along with control in society, freedom is also necessary. Freedom is also very important for the proper development of a person’s personality. Freedom does not mean that a person can act in his own way. Also, control does not mean that the person’s personality becomes frustrated. This is the reason why MacIver has described both control and freedom as important elements for building a society. In order to keep social relations organized, it is necessary to give freedom to some extent. A person makes social relations with other people according to his wish and opportunity only when he is independent. It is also necessary to say here that freedom should be given to others as much as one’s own freedom is needed.

Similarly, we come to the conclusion that it is very necessary for the society to have these seven bases. All these elements are intertwined. Social relations are formed through these. Some or the other changes take place in these relationships all the time. With this change, the society also changes. The seven pillars of the society are different from place to place. This is the reason that along with the local distance, there is also variation in the nature of the society. That is, according to time and place, some or the other changes take place in the society. MacIver and Page have discussed the definition of society as well as its seven bases. of these seven bases

Mention has been made above. But after knowing about the various definitions and its bases in relation to society, we come to the conclusion that three things are necessary for any society – first, abundance of individuals, second, social relations and third, social End action. The first essential thing for a society is that there should be a considerable number of individuals. Society cannot be built without it. The second essential thing is that there should be a relationship between the individuals. Society is not just a collection of individuals. Unless there is a relationship between them, the society cannot be imagined. The third essential thing for the society is that there should be social interaction between them. That is, there should be mutual awareness among them and they influence each other with their behavior and actions and also get influenced. In the society, a person not only affects others by his/her behavior and actions, but also gets affected.

characteristics of society

(1) Abstraction: – Society is a system of social relations, therefore society is abstract. ‘Wright’ has written that, “We can define society as a system of relations established between them.”

(2) Mutual Awareness: – It is known that society is the name of the system of social relations. The basis of social relations is the psychological conditions of the individual. Mutual awareness is necessary for social relations. Unless individuals are aware of each other, relationships cannot develop between them. Man is a social animal. And He has consciousness and awareness. In this way, when people become aware of each other’s existence and work, they will do work in their context and social relations will be formed. MacIver has written that ‘since there is no mutual awareness consciousness between material things, they are nothing in spite of being based on each other. ‘ For example there are books lying on the table which are not animate but material things, but not so for a person. person knows. Who is doing what for us. Therefore, being aware of them, he behaves in the context of them, due to which social relations are formed. Humans have knowledge due to which they are aware of each other, which is the basis of social relationship, which can be written in the form of symbols like this

(3) Likeness and Differences in Society: – There is coordination of equality and difference in social relation. Knowledge and awareness of each other is necessary for social relations, which cannot be built until there are similarities and differences between individuals. But the differences to which individuals are attracted to each other must be in a context of equality. Just as day is related to night, imperfect is related to perfect, greater is related to less, similarly equality is related to difference and difference is to similarity. It is necessary for the social relations according to which the society is built. That’s why Giddings wrote. Consciousness of kind is the basis of society.

  In the words of MacIver and Page, ‘similarity and difference are logically opposed to each other, but ultimately both are related to each other. Both are complementary to each other, through which social relations are built. ,



Diversity – Where on the one hand equality is seen in the society, on the other hand diversity is also found. It is also very important to have diversity in the society. This variation can happen in any field. Equal intelligence, ability, functionality, readiness etc. are not found in all the members of the society. Equality is not found even on the basis of gender. That is, it is necessary to have individual and social inequality. It is because of inequality that people need each other and action-reaction takes place between them. Due to this attraction remains in the society. It is because of inequality that division of labor is found in the society. The person who is skilled for the type of work or the type of work in which he is interested, he does the same work. Not all people have the same mental and physical strength. Not all are equally ambitious or indifferent. Due to this, feelings of competition and competition etc. are born in the society. As a result, changes take place in the society. Society moves towards progress. Inequality is also necessary for invention and revolutionary social change in the society. MacIver and Page have said that if all the people of a society were exactly equal to each other in all areas, their social relations would be as limited as that of ants or bees. Thus it is clear that the inequalities complement each other. After getting information about both equality and inequality, it is clear that for the fulfillment of the same objectives (equality), different people cooperate with each other through different actions. Although it is necessary to have equality and inequality in the society, but equality is more important than inequality. Similarities are primary and dissimilarities are secondary. people do dissimilar things together for common needs

For example, the main purpose of schools and colleges is to provide education to the people.

All the people there work to fulfill this purpose through different works. Teachers do different jobs, office staff do different jobs, students have different jobs, etc. Here we are seeing that all the people are fulfilling the same objective of imparting education through different works based on their respective roles. That is, there is a state of internal equality between them.

  (4) Interdependence Man’s needs are infinite. He alone cannot fulfill all these needs. As the needs of the people increased, in the same way people got organized due to which the society was formed. People have to depend on each other to fulfill their needs. This mutual dependence creates a feeling of brotherhood and equality among the people. Due to this, relations are established among people and they behave according to the rules of the society. This dependence remains between people from birth till death. The primitive society was very simple and small. At that time the needs of the people were also less, yet people had to depend on each other. There was division of labor among them. There was a division of work between men and women. The women looked after the children and looked after the household and the men hunted and gathered food. The basis of this division was gender discrimination. Due to the division of labour, they were interrelated and dependent. Today in the modern and complex society interdependence has become more. In every area of life, a person has to depend on each other for every need. If there is a change in any one aspect of social life, then other aspects are also affected by it and change takes place in that too. The reason is that all units are interrelated and dependent on each other. Thus it can be said that mutual dependence is an essential element in the formation of society.

(5) Co-operation and Conflict – Like equality and inequality, cooperation and conflict are also essential for the society. From above, these two characteristics appear to be opposite to each other, but in reality they complement each other. The process of cooperation and conflict is found in every society. Society may be simple or complex, primitive or modern, rural or urban, both cooperation and conflict are found. Cooperation – Cooperation is the main basis of social life. Every person needs each other’s cooperation to fulfill his needs. No work can be done alone. Work cannot be done without cooperation in every field of life and in every work. There are two types of cooperation

  Indirect cooperation – When some people help or cooperate in their objectives through face-to-face relations. Like different players in the field of sports is called cooperation. Both direct and indirect cooperation are necessary in the society. None of these can be called more and none less important. That much is simple. The importance of direct cooperation is more in small and primitive societies, whereas in complex, large and modern societies, indirect cooperation. The reason for this is that in simple, small and primitive society, direct relationship and face to face relationship is possible. But in a complex, large and modern society, only secondary relations between people are possible. It is not possible for everyone to know each other directly and cooperate directly.

Conflict – Many sociologists have also expressed their views on the importance of conflict. The history of struggle has been going on since time immemorial. There is no such society in the world, where there is no struggle. Whenever any great change has taken place in the society, its root cause has been struggle. Due to their selfishness, purpose, ideas, religion, physical difference and cultural difference, there is a conflict between people. Conflict is also of two types direct conflict and indirect conflict – In direct conflict people cause physical or mental harm to each other through face to face relations. Fighting, rioting, looting, fighting etc. are examples of direct conflict. In such incidents it is seen that people harm each other through direct relation. In indirect conflict, a person harms another for his selfishness and interests. In indirect conflict, there is no face-to-face relationship between people. Competition is the best example of indirect conflict. In this the person or group indirectly obstructs the way of another and wants to fulfill its purpose. ‘Cold War’ is also a good example, which happens between different countries. Like direct cooperation, direct conflict was found more in simple, small and primitive societies. In the complex, large and modern society, indirect struggle has become important. But at this time direct struggle is also present in the society. There is no society in the world where conflict is not found. Just as equality and inequality complement each other, in the same way cooperation and conflict also complement each other. On one hand cooperation teaches to work together and on the other hand it ends conflict, exploitation and injustice. The form of cooperation we get to see today

It has been the result of thousands of struggle. It is written in relation to this, “Society is co-operation crossed huamnflict”. But even though conflict is necessary, it can become the cause of disintegration in the society. It is not necessary that the exploitation and injustice that will disappear through struggle. It is clear from all these things that co-operation develops the feeling of brotherhood and mutual harmony in the society, while conflict ends governance, injustice and evil practices. Therefore, both the characteristics of cooperation and conflict are necessary in the society, but cooperation is more important.

(6) Society is not confined to men only (Society is not confined to Men only). This is also seen in other organisms. McCover and Page have said. Wherever there is life, there is society. That is, society is found in all living beings. to society . It is necessary to have social relations, mutual awareness, equality-disparity, division of labor, cooperation-conflict, mutual dependence. The arrangement of all these things is also seen in other living beings. For example, mutual cooperation, division of labor, conflict, etc. are also found in bees, ants, termites etc. This makes it clear that society is not limited to humans only. But the organization and order that is found in the society of humans is not found in the society of other living beings. In the absence of language, living beings cannot develop their civilization and culture. Humans have developed civilization and culture through their language, experience and thought power. Because of this culture, human society is different and unique from the society of other living beings. Only human society is studied under Sociology. The reason for this is that human society is complete and orderly. It has a culture of its own, due to which it is at the highest peak of development.

(7) Changeability Change is the law of nature. Society is a part of nature, therefore changes also take place in the society. There is no such society in the world where there is no change. Society may be primitive or modern, simple or complex, rural or urban, change is inevitable. Even if there is a decrease or increase in the rate of its change, but the change definitely takes place. MacIver has said that society is a web of social relations. Social relations keep on changing due to various reasons. As a result, the society also changes. Our needs keep changing according to time and situation. With this, the relation of fulfillment of needs also changes. When new ideas and new attitudes develop in the society, then it also affects the ideals and values of the society. The type of society that was found in ancient times is not the same today’s society. Due to industrialization and urbanization, many changes have taken place in the society. It is clear from all these things that there are changes in social relations due to various reasons, as a result, changes take place in the society. Many changes are seen in ancient India and modern Indian society. The form of caste system which was there earlier is no more. The relationship that existed earlier between teacher and student is no more. There were many types of discrimination in other areas as well, which is not there now. Similarly, changes have been taking place in every society of the world. So we can say that society is changing.

Types and Examples of Society

  Sociology studies society. Society refers to the changeable and complex system of social relations. To better understand the society, the meaning of society, its definition, its basis and its characteristics were clarified. Here some examples of society are being presented so that it can be understood more easily. Various sociologists have discussed the types of society on the basis of their respective viewpoints. For example . According to Durkheim, Mechanical Solidarity and Organic Solidarity, according to Tonnies, Gemenschaft and Gesellschaft (Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft) etc., all the examples given in relation to the society are discussed here on the basis of three types of society. Will

Primitive Society – Primitive society is also addressed as tribal society or tribal society. Primitive society refers to such a society whose population is less and they live in a particularly small area. Their social contact is also narrow. Compared to the progressive and technological society, their economy is simple. The classification and specialization between them is also very simple. Division of work is found on the basis of age, gender and age. The culture of primitive society is separate and complete in itself. There is a lack of systematic art and science in them. Their political system is also different. Generally, such societies are found in hilly areas and plateaus amidst forests. Like – Santhal, Toda, Munda and Usaon etc. – There are primary relations between people in Atim society. They are related to each other on the basis of mutual oneness and the feeling of ‘we’. They fulfill their every need within their own society. May to keep contact and neither like to keep contact.

  On this basis, this society transfers on oral basis.

. Thus it is the community, which has a separate social relationship between them and a different characteristic from the rest of the society in general.

  (ii) Simple and traditional society – is addressed as simple or tradition. In such a society away from the city and village and spirituality have special importance. They are determined by fate and function (status and role) caste, birth and age. J- By calling the simple or traditional society a rural and agrarian society. Today they are away from the city and settled in rural areas. In their life, there is a face-to-face relationship between people in a simple society based on religion, tradition, and emotional unity is also found in them. Mutual cooperation among themselves (i) There is a feeling of primitive society. They are aware of each other’s sorrow and happiness. That is, a primary relationship is found between them. People’s behavior is regulated on the basis of religion, custom, tradition and morality etc. (Simple or Traditional. There is less conflict among each other. Science and Technology (Science Society) and Technology) do not develop. The form of division of labor and specialization is also very simple. The economy of a simple society is agrarian-oriented. The main occupation of the people is agriculture and the rate of social mobility and social change is very slow in a simpler society. In such a society, personal ability, wealth, education and business do not have much importance. The status of women is also very low. Simple society is relatively large as compared to primitive society. The characteristics of this society are simple due to which it is lower than primitive and modern society.

  (iii) Complex and modern society – Complex or modern society is much larger and wider than the primitive and simple society. In such a society some or the other selfishness is hidden behind every cooperation and relationship. Secondary relationship is found between people. Everyone thinks about their own interest and selfishness. Lack of ‘we feeling’ is found in people. There is a spirit of struggle and competition between different people and groups. In such a society, there is a lot of disparity in the aims and interests of the people. Science, technology, economy and political organization are highly developed in complex societies. There is a lot of division of labor and specialization. In such a society, the population of people and their social contacts are also wide. The structure of society and its functions are very complex. In such a society, religion, tradition, morality etc. do not have much importance. In such a situation, the importance of literature, systematic art and logic increases. New institutions, businesses and machines are created daily in a complex society. The work of the persons related to it are divided and are limited in themselves. But in this diversity there is unity. In such a society, the needs of the people are so high that no one person alone can fulfill them. Everyone has to depend and depend on each other. But these relations remain limited to the editing of the work. Complex or modern society is city dominated. Different types of industries keep on developing here. The status of people in this society is determined by personal ability, education, wealth and occupation. People are engaged in different types of business and there is a lot of specialization. There is a formal relationship between them. In such a society, control is imposed on the behavior of the people by law, police and court. In a complex society, the rate of social mobility and social change is very fast.

St. Simon describes three types of society:

  (a) Militant Society,

(b) Legal Society, and

  (c) Industrial Society

Auguste Comte mentions three types of society:

(a) Theological Society,

  (b) Metaphysical Society, and

  (c) Positivist Society

  (i) Tylor’s contribution to the study of primitive religion

Although Tyler embraced the whole field

Anthropological investigation, his most extensive treatment was in the field of primitive religion. He began to define religion in such a simple way as to include all its forms, such as “belief in spiritual beings”. He asserted that religion was a cultural universal, as no known culture was without such beliefs. He also explained how the belief in spirits could arise, but before discussing this I would like to give here a brief classification of theoretical and practical religion, which will be very useful for students to understand primitive religion. totality.

A Van Gennep (1908) classified the religion in his book “Rites of Passage” in the following way: Theory (Religion)


Dynamism                                                                                                                             Animism

(monistic, impersonal etc.)                                                                                                                             (dualism, personal etc)



Totemism                                Spiritism                    Polydemonism                                                Theism

(with intermediate stages) Technique (Magico-Religious)


Sympathetic                           Contagious               Direct            Indirect                                                Positive                     Negative







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