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Along with Hinduism and Buddhism, Jainism is one of the ancient religions of India. It still has its limited following.

Jainism preaches a path of spiritual liberation through a disciplined lifestyle founded on the principle of non-violence. In the course of its history, it developed into a well-developed cultural system. The Jain cultural tradition made significant contributions to Indian civilization in various fields such as philosophy and logic, art and architecture, mathematics, astronomy and astrology, and literature. Although Jainism as a religion uses many theological concepts commonly found in Buddhism and Hinduism, it has its own identity.

Birth of Jainism

Jainism was founded by Vardhamana Mahavira, who is regarded as the 24th and last Tirthankara, in the 6th century BCE. It originated in the Ganges basin of northern India, a scene of intense religious speculation, meditation and activity at a time when Buddhism also appeared in it. same area. Both religions questioned the authority of the Vedas and rejected the ritualistic Brahmanical school. Jainism thus developed as a protest against the exclusion of all except Brahmins from the ascetic fraternity. Though the founders of both the religions never met each other, traveled mostly in the same region [Mithila, Sravasti, Magadha, Vaishali, Kaushambi and other places of the day] to propagate their faith.

Vardhaman Mahavira, who was born in a Kshatriya family, received the training and education usually given to the princes of the day. He soon realized the futility of worldly life and became a sanyasi at the age of 30. He did severe penance and meditation for 12 years. Finally he attained true enlightenment while meditating under a sal tree. He then became “Jina” [the conqueror] and a Tirthankara. Later he started propagating his doctrine and popularized “Ahimsa” and on this he built an ethical code for householders as well as monks. He preached what he felt for almost 30 years and died at the age of 72 in Pawapuri, Patna district of Bihar.



main teachings

Like Buddha, Mahavira also believed that the world is full of suffering. The falsity of “samsara” was considered universal. Therefore, he recommended a “mokshamagra” [the path to salvation consisting of three principles, called the “ratna traya” [three gems]. These principles are:

right belief [samyak darshan],

right knowledge [samyak gyan], and

Right conduct [samyak character].

Mahavira also emphasized on ethical conduct. Anuvrata or the moral code prescribed by him consists of five important principles.

  1. a) ahimsa [non-violence],
  2. b) truth [true]
  3. c) asteya [non-stealing],
  4. d) brahmacharya [control over sex],
  5. e) Aparigraha [free from greed]

Mahavira insisted

  n non-violence. In fact, all the religious rites of Jains are centered on non-violence. In no other school of philosophy do we find the application of non-violence as widespread as in Jainism.

With time Jainism split into two sects known as Digambara and Svetambara. The Digambaras, commonly found in South India, believed that monks should not wear any clothing, and the Svetambaras insisted that they should. Jainism, though in both forms, is one as far as its philosophy is concerned.

Unlike Buddhism, Jainism maintained good relations with Hinduism. It employed Brahmin priests as its household priests, who officiated at its birth rites and often officiated at its death and marriage ceremonies. Its temples had space for Hindu deities such as Rama and Krishna. Whenever persecuted, Mahavira’s organization took refuge in Hinduism. On the side of the conquerors, Jainism was only a part of the larger system, namely Hinduism.

Jainism received royal patronage at the hands of some Indian rulers. It is said that Chandragupta Maurya became a follower of Bhadrabahu and went to Sarvanabelagola with his gun. In the 2nd century BCE, Kharavela of Kalinga popularized Jainism and installed several images. Several southern ruling families such as the Gangas, Kadambas, Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta extended their patronage to Jainism during the 5th and 12th centuries. Around 1100 AD Jainism became popular in Gujarat where the Chalukya king, Siddharaya and his son Kumarapala openly accepted Jainism and encouraged their literature and construction activities. 12.4 Contribution of Jainism to Indian Culture

  1. The Jains played an important role in linguistic development: where the Brahmins established their supremacy over Sanskrit and the Buddhists used Pali for writing and preaching, the Jains used local languages for their religious propaganda as well as for the preservation of their knowledge. languages used. The early Kannada classical works were written by Jain poets. Most of the major and minor epics in Tamil were also composed by Jain writers.
  2. Contribution of Jainism to Indian Art: Jains built stupas in honor of their saints. Jains built temples by cutting rocks. The Jain marble temples at Mount Abu in Rajasthan display some of the finest examples of sculpture. The giant stone of Bahubali, known as Gomateshwara at Sarvandabelagola and

Karkala in the state of Karnataka is one of the wonders of the world.

Many Jain temples are found in Parshvanath hills, Pawapuri and Rajgir in Bihar and Girnar in Palitana of Kathiawar in Gujarat.

  1. Jains attached great importance to ahimsa or non-violence: All actions prescribed by the dharma are centered around “ahimsa”. The Jain philosophy of non-violence was responsible for eliminating “ahimsa” in sacrifices and other Vedic rites. This inspired millions of people to adopt a vegetarian diet.
  2. Glorification of human heritage: Jainism believes that heaven is the prerogative of only human beings. Even the gods must end one day or the other, unless they become human. It symbolizes an important truth, namely that the inheritance of man is far superior to any other wealth in the world. Jainism’s main message to mankind is: “Be man first and last, for the kingdom of God belongs to the son of man.” This is the same truth declared by the text of the Upanishad in the infallible arms: tat tvam asi” [Thou art That]

Jains do not believe in the creator of the world and believe that man’s liberation from karma is an individual effort, man being the creator of his own destiny.

Geographical Distribution of Jains

Jainism once had a widespread influence in India, but followers of Jainism are now few in number and are found in both northern and southern states. They do not hold a majority anywhere in India. They constitute 0.4% of India’s population and their number hardly exceeds 3.4 million [1991 census]. Jains are found in relatively large numbers in states like Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh. In fact, 90% of them are found in these states only.

The Jain population in India is not increasing rapidly. The population of all the six major religions of India has increased, but Jains have seen only a marginal increase, i.e. 4.42%, while the rate of increase in case of other five religions was 26.77%. Its growth is almost stationary or only marginal. Some of the reasons are:

  1. Jains do not allow widow remarriage. In comparison, Jains have a low percentage of women married in the age group of 15 to 39 years. For example, during 1911-31 about 1/5 of women in this age group were widows. It goes without saying that enforced widowhood reduced the Jain population to a great extent.
  2. It is also said that Jains have less fertility within the scope of marital relations. After Paras, the dogma of married women is also said to be very low.


  1. Jains are mostly urban dwellers. They are quite literate and hence prefer small families.
  2. Jains do not believe in conversion. Unlike Muslims and Christians, Jains do not resort to proselytizing activities to gain new converts, Jainism also does not receive new entrants who join it voluntarily.

“The Jain community, according to Sangway, a modern Jain sociologist, had an open class system: people could move from one class to another according to their merit. Untouchability is not practiced among them and intermarriage is permitted. However , Jains have endogamous castes. A 1314 document mentions that of the 87 castes that are branches of one of these communities, 41 had a population of less than 500. A more recent [1953] study found a population of less than one hundred. There are an estimated 60 endogamous groups each.


A sect is a relatively small religious group. Its members usually, though by no means always, come from the lower classes and the Kavi sect often rejects many of the norms and values of the wider society and replaces them with beliefs and practices that sometimes offend non-believers. appear differently for As a result, sects are, in the words of Peter Berger, in tension with the larger society and locked against it. Sects are insurance groups that are largely closed to those who have not gone through initiation procedures for membership. They establish a strict ‘pattern’ of behavior for members to follow and place strong targets on their loyalty. Belonging to a sect is often a major factor in a member’s life. Sects are organized as small face-to-face groups that do not have a hierarchy and bureaucratic structure of paid officials. Worship is characterized by an intensity and open commitment not found in many churches and denominations.

The black Muslim sect reflects many of the above points. It also shows the relationship between the circumstances of its members and the beliefs and practices of these sects.

Founded in Detroit in the early 1930s, Black Muslims, or more correctly the Nation of Islam, had some fifty temples in 1959 in low-income black ghetto areas. The sect rose to prominence in the early 1960s when the Black American movement for self-determination developed. Members are drawn largely from those living in poverty; The stated object of the sect is to recruit Negroes into the mud. Black Muslims believe that blacks are ‘divine in nature’ and whites are inferior and evil by nature. They prophesy that whites and their religion will be destroyed in the year 2000 and blacks will rule forever in the ‘new world’ under the guidance of Allah. On initiation into the sect, members change their ‘Das Naam’ to a Muslim name. they are told

Is, . From today you are no longer a negro. You are a Muslim now. Now you are free’. This identity change is accompanied by rejection by members of their former lifestyle, their non-Muslim friends and members of the lower class black society known as the ‘dead world’. In most major cities, Muslims operate small businesses – barbershops, clothing stores and restaurants. His economic blueprint for Blackmen advocates economic independence from and dependence on White America. Muslims are encouraged to work hard, save and abstain from luxury. A strict moral code similar to ascetic Protestantism, which prohibits the use of alcohol, tobacco and drugs, sexual intercourse outside marriage, dancing, dating and many forms of sports, applies to all members. Special emphasis is placed on the responsibilities of the man as husband, father and bread earner. Life revolves around the temple. Members are either attending services or taking courses on self-improvement, looking after the welfare of fellow members or recruiting new members.

The early 1960s was a period that promised change and improvement in the condition of blacks in America. For many blacks in areas of extreme poverty, black Muslim sects offered a means to translate this promise into reality. It provided a potential solution to the problems of poverty, unemployment, broken families, and the negative self-concept resulting from the stigma of blackness and poverty. Members’ statements indicated that sect membership gave them purpose, direction, pride, self-esteem, and hope for the future.

Max Weber argues that cults are most likely to arise within groups that are marginalized in society. Members of groups outside the mainstream of social life often feel that they are not receiving the prestige and/or economic rewards they deserve. One solution to this problem is a denomination based on Weber’s ‘theodicy of deprivation’ (a theodicy is a theological explanation and justification). Such sects have an explanation for the privilege of their members and are placed in a ‘sense of honour’ either in the afterlife or in a future ‘new world’.


An explanation for the growth of cults must take into account the diversity of social backgrounds represented in their membership. The sects are not confined to the lower strata of the society. For example, the Christian Science denomination has a largely middle-class membership. The concept of relative deprivation can be applied to members of all social classes. Relative deprivation refers to the subjectively perceived deprivation that people actually feel. Objectively, the poor are more deprived than the middle class. However, in subjective terms some members of the middle class may feel more deprived than the poor. Relative deprivation applies to middle-class hippies in California who reject the values of materialism and achievement and seek fulfillment in Transcendental Meditation. This applies equally to the unemployed Black American who joins the Black Muslims. Both feel the absence in the context of their respective particular point of view. Cults can therefore be seen as a possible response to relative deprivation.

Cults arise during periods of rapid social change. In this situation traditional norms are disrupted, social relations lack coherent and consistent meaning and the traditional ‘universe of meaning’ is weakened. Thus Brian Wilson sees the rise of Methodism as a response by the new urban working class to ‘the lawlessness and uncertainty of life in the newly settled industrial areas’. He argues that, ‘newly emerging social groups, at least in the context of a society in which a religious view of the world dominates, need and develop new patterns of religious belief to accommodate themselves to their new situation. There is a possibility’. In the face of change and uncertainty, the sect provides the support of a close-knit community organization, well-defined and firmly accepted norms and values, and the promise of emancipation. It provides a new and stable ‘universe of meaning’ that is legitimized by its religious beliefs.



  saint / saint

A saint, also known as a hallow, is one who has been recognized for an exceptional degree of holiness, purity, and virtue. While the English word “saint” originated in Christianity, the term is now used by historians of religion “in a more general way to refer to a state of special sanctity that many religions attribute to certain people”. , “Jewish tzadik, Islamic sage, Hindu sage or guru, and Buddhist arhat or bodhisattva are also called sages. Depending on the religion, saints are recognized through official church recognition or popular acclaim.

In Christianity, “saint” has a wide variety of meanings, depending on its use and denomination. The original Christian usage referred to any believer who is “in Christ” and in whom Christ dwells, whether in heaven or on earth. In Orthodox and Catholic teachings, all Christians in heaven are considered saints, but few are considered worthy of high regard, emulation, or respect.

Official church recognition is given to certain saints through canonization or glorification.




general characteristics

The English word saint is a translation of the Greek word (hagios), derived from the verb (hagiazo), meaning “to set apart”, “to sanctify” or “to make holy”. The word appears 229 times in the original Greek manuscripts and 60 times in the King James Version of the Christian New Testament. As used by the apostolic writers of scripture, saint did not refer to deceased persons who have been accorded sainthood, but to living persons who have dedicated themselves to God.

The term in English was originally used in Christianity, although historians now use the term for representatives of all major religions who are considered worthy of respect for their sanctity or purity. Many religions also use similar concepts, but different terminology, to refer to individuals worshiped as worthy of respect in some way. John A. Coleman SJ, Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, wrote that saints from different cultures and religions have the following family similarities:

  1. Exemplary model;
  2. Extraordinary teacher;
  3. wonder worker or source of benevolent power;
  4. advocate;
  5. A life often denied of material attachments or comforts;
  6. The right to a special and revelatory relationship with the sacred.

While there are similarities between these (and other) concepts and sainthood, each of these concepts has specific meaning within a given religion. As well, newer religious movements have sometimes taken to using the term in cases where the people named would not be considered saints within mainstream Christianity.

In an article about Sattva Sai Baba, anthropologist Lawrence Babb asks the question “Who is a saint?” To whom a certain moral presence is often attributed. this saintly person, he

They claim to be “central points of spiritual force-fields” that “exercise powerfully attractive effects on followers, but also transform the inner lives of others.”



In the Anglican Communion and the continuing Anglican movement, the title of saint refers to a person who has been elevated by popular opinion as a holy and pious figure. Saints are seen as role models of piety to emulate, and as a ‘cloud of witnesses’ that strengthen and encourage the believer throughout his or her spiritual journey. Saints are seen as elder brothers and sisters in Christ. The official Anglican creed recognizes the existence of saints in Heaven.

As for the invocation of saints, one of the Church of England’s Articles of Religion of Purgatory condemns “Romish Doctrine”.

The invocation of saints “as” is a dearly invented thing in vain, and bears no warranty of Scripture, but is rather repugnant to the Word of God. However, each of the 44 member churches in the Anglican Communion is free to adopt and authorize their own official documents, and the articles are not officially authentic in all of them (for example, The Episcopal Church USA, which calls them ” alleges to “historical documents”). Anglo-Catholics in the Anglican provinces often distinguish between “Romanesque”, using the articles. and a “Patriotic” theory, related to the invocation of the saints, allows the latter.

In high-church contexts, such as Anglo-Catholicism, a saint is generally someone who has been attributed a high degree of sanctity and holiness. In this usage, a saint is therefore not a believer, but one who has been transformed by virtue. In Roman Catholicism, a saint is a special sign of God’s activity. The veneration of saints is sometimes misconstrued as worship, in which case it is derisively referred to as “hagiolatry”.

Some Anglicans and Anglican churches, particularly Anglo-Catholics, pray to saints individually. However, such a practice is rarely found in any official Anglican form of worship. Unusual examples of this are found in The Korean Liturgy 1938, The Liturgy of the Diocese of Guyana 1959 and The Melanesian English Prayer Book.

Anglicans believe that the only effective mediator between the believer and God the Father in terms of redemption and salvation is God the Son, Jesus Christ. Historical Anglicanism has made a distinction between the intercession of saints and the invocation of saints. The former was generally accepted in Anglican doctrine, while the latter was generally rejected. However, there are some, within Anglicanism, who advocate for saints. Those who implore the saints to intercede on their behalf make a distinction between “intercessor” and “intercessor”, and claim that asking for the prayers of saints is no different from asking for the prayers of living Christians. Anglican Catholics approach sainthood in a more Catholic or Orthodox way, often praying to saints for intercession and celebrating their feast days.

According to the Church of England. A saint is one who is holy, as translated in the Authorized King James Version (1611).

Arise now, O Lord God, with the ark of your strength in your resting place; O Lord God, your priests are the first to be saved.

Live, and your devotees rejoice in the cause of goodness.

Eastern Orthodox

In the Eastern Orthodox Church a saint is defined as any person who is in heaven, whether recognized here on earth or not. By this definition, everyone except Adam and Eve, Moses, various prophets, angels and archangels are given the title of “saint”. Sainthood in the Orthodox Church does not necessarily reflect a moral model, but communion with God: there are countless examples of people who lived in great sin and became saints through humility and repentance, such as Mary of Egypt, Moses The Ethiopian and certainly Dismas, the repentant thief who was crucified. Therefore, a more complete definition of what a saint is has to do with what the saints, in their humility and their sacrifice for mankind, Through love, having saved the whole Church within itself, and loved all people.

The Orthodox faith holds that God reveals himself to his saints through answered prayers and other miracles. Saints are usually recognized by a local community, often those who knew them directly. As their popularity increases, they are often recognized by the entire Church. The formal process of recognition involves deliberation by the Synod of Bishops. If successful, this is followed by a service of glory in which the saint is given a day on the church calendar to be celebrated by the entire Church. However, this does not make the person a saint; The man was already a saint and the Church eventually recognized it.

It is believed that one of the ways a person’s purity (purity) is revealed is through the state of their remains (remains). In some Orthodox countries (such as Greece, but not Russia) gr

Due to limited space aves are often reused after 3 to 5 years. The bones are washed and placed in an ossuary, often with the person’s name written on the skull. Sometimes when a body is exhumed, something miraculous is reported to have happened; Bones exhumed from a grave are claimed to have given off a scent, such as that of a flower, or a body is reported to be free of decomposition, despite not having been embalmed (traditionally Orthodox do not excrete the dead) and have been buried for some years. Earth.

The remains are considered sacred, because for the Orthodox, the separation of body and soul is unnatural. Both body and soul comprise the individual, and in the end, body and soul will be reunited; Therefore, the body of a saint participates in the “sanctification” of the saint’s soul. As a general rule only clergy will touch the relics to transfer them or carry them in procession, however, in respect worshipers will kiss the relic to show love and respect for the saint. Every altar in every Orthodox church contains relics, usually of martyrs. The interiors of the church are covered with icons of saints.

Because the Church makes no real distinction between the living and the dead (saints are believed to be alive in heaven), saints are referred to as if they were still alive. Saints are worshiped but not worshipped. They are believed to be able to intercede for salvation and help mankind, either through direct communication with God or by personal intervention.





In Hinduism, sadhu (skl lk/kq sadhu, “good: good man, pious man”) refers to an ascetic – ascetic monk. Although most sadhus are yogis, not all yogis are sadhus. The sadhu is completely devoted to attaining Moksha (liberation). The fourth and final ashrama (stage of life), through meditation and contemplation of Brahman. Sadhus often wear ochre-coloured clothes, which symbolizes their sanyasa (renunciation).

Word – medium

The Sanskrit words sadhu (“good man”) and sadhvi (“good woman”) refer to ascetics who have chosen to live a life apart from the fringes of society in order to focus on their own spiritual practice.

The word comes from the Sanskrit root sadha, meaning “to reach one’s goal”. “Straighten”. or “get more power”. This root is used in the word sadhana, which means “spiritual practice”.

Sage Rituals

Sadhus are sanyasis, or renunciates, who have left behind all material attachments and live in caves, forests, and temples throughout India and Nepal.

A sadhu is generally known as a baba by the common people. In many Indian languages, the word baba also means father, grandfather or uncle. Sometimes the honorific suffix -ji can also be added after baba. Give more respect to Tyagi. It is also a term of endearment for little boys.

There are 4-5 million sadhus in India today and they are widely respected for their sanctity and sometimes feared for their curses. It is also believed that the penance of the sadhus helps in incinerating their karma and that of the community at large. Thus seen as benefiting society, sadhus are supported by the donations of many. However, the reverence for sadhus is by no means universal in India. Historically and contemporarily, sadhus have often been viewed with some degree of suspicion,

Especially among the urban population of India. today. Especially in popular pilgrimage cities, posing as a hermit could be a means of earning income for unrighteous beggars.

The naked Nagas (Digambaras, or “sky-clad”) are sages who are non-bearded and wear their hair in thick coiffures, and Jatas, who carry swords. Aghora sadhus may claim to live with ghosts, or live in cemeteries as part of their sacred path. Indian culture emphasizes infinite paths to God, such as the sadhus, and the variations that come within the sadhus have their place.


Sadhus engage in a variety of religious practices. Some practice extreme austerity while others focus on prayer, chanting or meditation.

There are two primary sectarian divisions within the sadhu community: Shaiva sadhus; Sannyasins dedicated to Shiva, and Vaishnava monks dedicated to Vishnu and/or his avatars, including Rama and Krishna. There are a small number of Shakta sadhus, who are devoted to Shakti. Within these general divisions are a number of sects and subspecies, reflecting different lineages and philosophical schools and traditions (often referred to as “sects”).

The Dashnami sect is clever; Sadhus in the sect take one of the ten names as an appeal upon initiation. The sect is said to have been founded by the philosopher and ascetic Adi Shankaracharya, believed to be in the 8th century AD, although the full history of the sect’s formation is unclear.

While sadhus apparently leave traditional caste behind at the time of initiation, the caste background of initiates influences the sects into which they are admitted; Some ascetic groups, such as the Dandis within the Darshan

  The Ami sect is composed only of men of Brahmin birth, while other groups accept people from a variety of caste backgrounds.

Women monks (sadhviyans) exist in many sects. In many cases, women who take up a life of renunciation are widows, and such sadhvis often lead a secluded life in ascetic compounds. Sadhvis are sometimes regarded as goddesses, or forms or forms of the goddess, and are revered as such. There are many charismatic sadhvis who have risen to fame as religious teachers in contemporary India (such as Anandamayi Maa, Sharada Devi, Mata Amritanandamayi and Karunamayi).

to become a monk

The procedures and rituals for becoming a monk differ from sect to sect; In almost all sects, a monk is initiated by a guru, who gives the initiate a new name. Also a mantra, (or sacred sound or phrase), which is generally known only to sadhus and gurus and may be repeated by initiates as part of meditation practice.

Becoming a monk is a path followed by millions of people. It is considered the fourth stage in the life of a Hindu after studies. Being a father and a pilgrim, however, is not a practical option for most. To become a monk, a person needs disinterest. Vairagya means the desire to achieve something by renouncing the world (cutting off family, social and worldly bonds).

One who wants to become a monk must first seek a guru. There, he should do ‘guruseva’ which means service. The guru decides whether a person is fit to take sanyasa or not by looking at a shishya (a person who wants to become a monk or sanyasi). If the person is eligible, ‘guru updesh’ (meaning education) is performed. Only then that person transforms into a Sanyasi or a monk. There are different types of ascetics in India who follow different sects. But, all sadhus have a common goal: to attain moksha (liberation).

Living as a monk is a difficult lifestyle. Sadhus are considered dead to themselves, and legally considered dead to the country of India. As a ritual, they may be required to attend their own funerals before following a guru for several years until they have gained the experience necessary to relinquish their leadership. They do small things.

While a life of renunciation is described as the fourth stage of life in the classical Sanskrit literature of the Hindu tradition, and members of some sects – especially those dominated by initiates of Brahmin background – generally lived as householders before becoming a monk. Many sects are composed of men who have renounced early in life, often in their late teens or early 20s. In some cases, those who choose the hermit life are fleeing family or financial situations that they find untenable, so if there is a worldly debt that remains to be repaid, the tyagi is encouraged by his gurus to pay it. Will be done. Those loans before becoming a monk.





The rigors of the ascetic life deter many people from following the ascetic path. Practices such as the mandatory morning bath in the cold mountains require detachment from the usual luxuries. After the bath, sadhus gather around the dhuni, or sacred fire, and begin with their prayers and meditations for the day.

Some sadhus heal the local community, remove the evil eye, or perform marriage rituals.

blesses. He is a moving reminder of divinity to the average Hindu. They are usually allowed free travel on trains and are a close-knit organization.

The Kumbh Mela, a mass gathering of sadhus from all parts of India, takes place every three years at one of the four points of sacred rivers in India, including the holy river Ganges. In 2007 it was held in Nashik, Maharashtra. Peter Owen-Jones filmed an episode of “Extreme Pilgrim” there during the event. It happened again in Haridwar in 2010, this reunion was attended by sadhus from all sects. Millions of non-sadhu pilgrims also attend the festivals, and the Kumbh Mela is the largest gathering of humans for a single religious purpose on the planet. Another Kumbh Mela was held at Allahabad on 27-January-2013.

There is considerable variation in the lives of sadhus in contemporary India. Sadhus live in the middle of major urban centres, in huts on the fringes of villages, in caves in remote mountains, in ashrams and temples. Others live a life of constant pilgrimage, moving non-stop from one city to another, from one holy place to another. Some gurus live with one or two disciples; Some sannyasins are solitary, while others live in large, communal institutions. For some sadhus, the brotherhood or sisterhood of sadhus is very important.

The rigor of the spiritual practices in which contemporary sadhus engage also varies greatly. Apart from the very few who engage in the most dramatic, striking austerities – for example, standing on one leg for years or remaining silent for a dozen years – most sadhus engage in some form of religious practice: devotional worship. , hatha yoga, fasting etc. for many sadhus

Religious significance is given to the consumption of some forms of Bhang (Bhang). Sadhus have a unique and important place in Hindu society, being more closely associated with tradition, especially in villages and small towns. In addition to giving people religious instruction and blessings, sadhus are often called upon to settle disputes between individuals or intervene in conflicts within families. Sadhus are also living incarnations of the divine, images of human life in Hinduism, in fact – about religious illumination and liberation from the cycle of birth and death.

Although some ascetic sects have properties that generate revenue to sustain members, most sadhus rely on donations from the layman; Poverty and hunger are an ever-present reality for many sadhus.





A shrine (Latin: scrinium “case or chest for books or papers”; Old French:

escrin “box or case”) is a sacred or sacred space dedicated to a specific deity, ancestor, hero, martyr, saint, demon, or similar figure of praise and honor, at which they are worshiped or venerated. Temples often have idols. Relics, or other such objects being worshipped. A shrine to which offerings are made is called a vedi, which means that on which religious offerings are made. Shrines are found in many of the world’s religions, including Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Chinese folk religion, and Shinto, as well as in secular and non-religious settings such as war memorials. Shrines can be found in a variety of settings, such as a church, temple, cemetery, or in the home, although portable shrines are also found in some cultures.

types of pilgrimages

shrine of the temple

Many temples are located within buildings specifically designed for worship, such as a church in Christianity or a temple in Hinduism. Here a temple is usually the center of attention in the building. and given a prominent place. In such cases, followers of the faith gather within the building to worship the deity in the temple.





domestic pilgrimage

historically. In Hinduism, Buddhism and Roman Catholicism, and also in modern religions. such as Neopaganism. A temple can usually be found within a home or shop. This temple is usually a small structure or a set of images and sculptures dedicated to a deity that is part of the official religion, to an ancestor or to a local household deity.

Small home shrines are very common among the Chinese and peoples of South and Southeast Asia, whether Hindu, Buddhist, Hist or Christian. Usually a small lamp and small prasad are kept in the temple everyday. Buddhist household shrines should be on a shelf above the head; Chinese temples are supposed to stand straight on the floor.




courtyard shrine

Historically, small outdoor yard temples are found at the sites of many peoples practicing different religions, including Christianity. Many contain a statue of Christ or a saint, either on a pedestal or in a cupboard, while others may be elaborate booths without a roof, some include paintings and architectural elements, such as walls, ceilings, glass doors and ironwork. Fence, etc.

In the United States, some Christians have small yard temples; Some of these are similar to side altars, as they are made of a statue placed in a niche or grotto; This type is colloquially called a bathtub madonna.



religious shrine

Shrines are found in most, though not all, religions. As distinguished from a temple, a temple usually houses a particular relic or cult image, which is worshiped or venerated.

Is the object of, or is made to set aside, a site that is regarded as especially sacred, as kept for the sake of convenience. of the worshippers. Shrines therefore attract the practice of pilgrimage.


Shrines are found in many, though not all, forms of Christianity. Roman Catholicism, the largest denomination of Christianity, has many shrines, as do Orthodox Christianity and Anglicanism.

In the Roman Catholic Code of Canon Law, canons 1230 and 1231 read: “The word shrine means a church or other holy place which, with the approval of the local ordinary, is caused by special devotion by the faithful as a pilgrim. A For a shrine to be described as national, approval of the Episcopal Conference is required.

Another use of the word “shrine” in colloquial Catholic terminology is a niche or alcove in most – especially large – churches used by parishioners when praying privately in church. They were also called Bhakti Vedi. Since they can look like small side altars or by-altars. Temples were always centered on some image of Jesus Christ or a saint – eg. Statue. painting, mural or mosaic. and behind them there may be a reredos (without any Tabernacle).

However, Mass would not be celebrated on them: they were only used as an aid to prayers or for visual attention. The side altar, where Mass could actually be celebrated, was used by the PA in a similar way to the shrine.

The side altars were specifically dedicated to The Virgin Mary, Saint Joseph and other saints.


According to the classical main sources of law and jurisprudence in orthodox Sunni Islam, primarily the Qur’an and Hadith texts (and especially the Salafi school of thought and practice of early Muslims), the construction of tomb-based structures is entirely forbidden. It is understood to be based on legal evidence where the Prophet Muhammad ordered the demolition of all structures at graves and forbade worship at the cemetery (apart from the funeral prayer), including calling upon others other than Allah. It is commonly misunderstood that the tomb of the Prophet is an exception to this rule, although historically the tomb was originally located in Aisha’s house and the mosque was enlarged due to lack of space for the growing number of worshippers. The tomb was included.

 It was narrated that Abu-Hayaj al-Asadi said: ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib said to me: “Should I not send you on the same mission on which the Messenger of Allah sent me? Do not leave, and do not leave any raised grave unleveled. (Narrated by Muslim, 969).

 It was narrated that he (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “May Allah curse the Jews and Christians, because they took the graves of their prophets as places of worship.” Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) said, “He was warning against what he had done.” (Narrated by al-Bukhari, 1330 and Muslim, 529).

 And when Umm Salama and Umm Habiba told him about a church that had idols, he (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “When a righteous person dies among them, they pray over him.” Make a place of worship, dig a grave and put those idols in it. They are the worst of men in the sight of Allah.” (Sahih, agreed upon. Narrated by al-Bukhari, 427 and Muslim, 528).

 And the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Those who came before you made the graves of their prophets and righteous people a place of worship. Do not make graves a place of worship – I forbid you to do that. ” ” (Narrated by Muslim in his Sahih. 532, from Jundab ibn ‘Abdallah al-Bajali).

 From Surah Al Jinn “The places of worship are for Allah (Alone): so do not call upon anyone except Allah.”

There is a clear prohibition of raising graves in the name of worshiping the dead as this may lead to shirk as narrated in the story of the people of Noah, quoting from Surah An Nuh 71:23:

“And they have said: ‘Don’t leave your gods, don’t leave neither Wadd, nor Suwa’, nor Yaghut, nor Yakub, nor Nasr (these are the names of their idols).

Ibn Abbas commented on this, saying, “These are the names of the pious among them. After their death, Satan inspired their people to stand in the place where they used to sit, and call them by their names.” They called. They did. So, although at this point, they were not worshiped until that generation had died and the new generation had been deified.”

In contrast, however, a deep cultural tradition of pilgrimage worship has developed in all parts of the Islamic world. Although classically orthodox Islam forbids worshiping or worshiping around graves; Various movements and sects take the stance that it is permissible to pray with the ‘tawassul’ or intercession of a deceased holy person (Sufi/wali). For these groups, shrines hold a significant place and are regarded as places to seek spiritual guidance. Most of the revered shrines are dedicated to various Sufi saints and are widely spread across the Islamic world. For them it is seen as a tradition to commemorate the death of the saint.

Comes, in the memory of his life by organizing a festival at his tomb. In many countries, the local temple is a focal point of the community, with many localities specifically named after a local saint.

In some parts of the Islamic world, such as Pakistan, these festivals are multi-day events and even attract members of the Hindu and Christian minorities, often to honor a Muslim saint, such as the famous Lal Baz Qalandar Temple. In the case of Sindh, Pakistan – a striking example of religious syncretism that blurs the distinction between members of different religions. Sufi shrines in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan organize every Thursday a commemorative night of Mahfil Sama (Qawwali) and ‘Zikr’. Some academics claim that such practices were influenced by Hinduism much earlier, when Muslims and Hindus co-existed in the sub-continent.

In Turkey, the famous Sufi whirling dervishes perform their circumambulation at the shrine of Jalalud-Din Rumi in Konya, while in Morocco and Algeria, brotherhoods of black African Sufis, the Gnauia, perform elaborate chants at the shrines of their saints.

Many temples were located in early days in Saudi Arabia. However, due to the revival of Islamic orthodoxy by Muhammad ibn Abd al-


They were destroyed by local authorities, who identified them as a source of shirk and as reprehensible innovations in Islam or ‘bid’ah’, against the cultural practices developed by the Wahhab (clinging strongly to the Hadith texts and the Qur’an). Other important shrines were once found in Central Asia, but many were destroyed by the Soviet Union.

There are many temples dedicated to various religious figures important in Shia history, and many elaborate shrines dedicated to Shia saints and religious figures, especially in Karbala. Najaf and Samara in Iraq. and Qum and Mashad in Iran. Other important Shia shrines are Mazar-i-Sharif (“Noble Shrine”) in Afghanistan and Damascus, Syria.





In Buddhism, a temple refers to a place where worship is centered on a Buddha or one of the Bodhisattvas. Monks, nuns and laymen all make offerings to these revered figures at these shrines and also meditate before them.

Typically, Buddhist temples contain either an image of the Buddha, or (in the Mahayana and Vajrayana forms of Buddhism), one of various bodhisattvas. They usually also contain candles, as well as offerings such as flowers, purified water, food, and incense. , Many temples also contain sacred relics, such as the supposed tooth of the Buddha kept in a temple in Sri Lanka.

Site-specific temples in Buddhism, especially those containing relics of the deceased Buddha and revered monks, are often traditionally known as stupas.



Hindu religion

In Hinduism, a temple is a place where a god or goddess is worshipped. Temples are usually located inside a temple known as a mandir, although many Hindus also have a home shrine. Sometimes a human is worshiped alongside a deity in a Hindu temple, for example the 19th-century religious teacher Sri Ramakrishna is worshiped at the Ramakrishna Temple in Kolkata, India.

At the center of a Hindu temple is an idol of a deity, known as a murti. Hindus believe that the deity they are worshiping actually enters the idol and resides in it. It is given offerings such as candles, food, flowers and incense sticks. In some cases, especially among devotees of the goddess Kali in northern India, animal sacrifices are offered to the deity (animal sacrifice is not a part of Hinduism).

In a temple, the congregation often gathers in front of a shrine and, led by priests, make offerings and sing devotional hymns.



The line between a temple and a shrine in Taoism is not fully defined; Temples are usually smaller versions of larger Taoist temples or smaller spaces in the home where yin-yang symbols are placed amid peaceful settings to encourage meditation and study of Taoist texts and doctrines. Taoists place less emphasis on formal appearance and ritualistic worship than other Asian religions, formal temples and structures of worship came into Taoism mostly to save followers of Buddhism from being lost. Frequent features of Taoist shrines include features similar to full temples, often including any or all of the following: gardens, running water or fountains, small burning braziers or candles (with or without incense), and Taoist Copies of texts such as the Tao Te Ching, Zhuangzi or other texts by Lao Tzu, Chuang Tzu or other Taoist sages.

As with all Taoist worship, Taoist shrines are organized around a sense of nature appreciation and sunsounding that is based on the Tao (“way” or “path”, the concept of living harmoniously with one’s natural surroundings). and the environment) and the Three Gems of Taoism (different from the concept of the Three Gems of Buddhism)—compassion, restraint, and humility.

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