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There are different purposes of marriage in different societies: for example, in Christian religion, the main purpose is sexual satisfaction, then in Hindu society, to protect religion or to perform religious rites, the purpose of marriage in Muslim societies.

To give birth to a legitimate progeny, while the tribal purpose is a social agreement to live together. But the sociological objective is to give a status to men and women and discharge the roles accordingly. Marriage is an arrangement of union between a man and a woman. This union is based on social acceptance, which is accomplished through various rites and ceremonies. For balance in this system, husband and wife have to perform many roles (tasks) in their lives. Its meaning can be known more clearly through some key definitions, definitions of marriage:


  Bogards “Marriage is the institution of man and woman entering into the family life.”


In the words of Westermarck (E. Westermarck), “Marriage is a relation between one or more men and women which is recognized by custom or law and includes the rights and duties of both the parties entering into this union and the children born to them.” “This definition has highlighted four facts – (a) marriage is a relationship between a man and a woman, (b) this relationship is recognized by custom or law, (c) marriage is a relationship between a woman and a man. or between one man to several women or one woman to several men or several women to several men, and (d) relations of rights and duties between husband, wife and children.


According to R. Lowie, “Marriage refers to those approved organizations which exist even after the satisfaction of sexual relations and later comes as the foundation stone of family life. “This definition reveals four things – (a) marriage is an association in which men and women meet as husband and wife, (b) this association is approved by the society, (c) it is legitimate for sexual gratification. medium, and (d) it is the basis of entry into family life.


  Gillin and Gillin have written, “Marriage is a socially (recognized) method of establishing a procreative family. “This definition mentions three things – (a) Marriage is a method of uniting a man and a woman,


Majumdar and Madan “Marriage gets legal, religious and social sanction. By this two different sexes are recognized to establish sexual relations.


“Johnson” marriage is a permanent relationship in which a man and a woman receive social approval to produce children without losing their status in the community. ,


  Murdock defines marriage as “living together having regular sexual relations and financial support.”


  Gillin and Gillin “Marriage is a socially accepted means of establishing a procreative family.”

  Malinowski defines marriage as a contract.


Lowy has called “marriage a firmer relationship than legitimate partners.” “Marriage is the fountain pen head of the kinship system.”


Lassie Meyer “Marriage is such a combination of a man and a woman in which the child born of a woman is considered the legal child of the parents. “Marriage is a contract for the procreation and care of children. ,

  Against and Groovy “Marriage is the public acceptance and legal registration of living together as partners.” Reverse “The means by which human society regulates sexual relations may be called marriage.”


  Features of Marriage:


-social Security

– transfer of culture from one generation to another

– legal progeny

, To give birth to new rights, responsibilities and roles in parents and children

  , It serves religious, social and cultural purposes. Westermark has considered marriage as a social institution as well as an economic institution.

Marriage is a relationship between two heterosexuals.

.- Marriage is a universal social institution.

Through this, marriage regulates relations.

, Child rearing and socialization

  – economic cooperation

  – Mental Safety



  purpose of marriage


  Murdock has given three purposes of marriage by doing a comparative study of 250 societies.


  (i) sexual satisfaction

  (ii) Economic cooperation

  (iii) Upbringing and socialization of children


  Gillin and Gillin have given five purposes of marriage.


(i) Regulation of sexual relations

(ii) procreation

(iii) Economic cooperation

  (iv) Emotional relationship

  (v) Establishment of lineage and kinship


Malinowski has given three purposes of marriage.


  (i) Zoological purpose

(ii) Cultural purpose

  (iii) Psychological objectives Robin Fox has also given the following three objectives

(iv) Legitimate sexual satisfaction

(v) Protection of culture

  (vi) Emotional satisfaction




  Mazumdar and Madan have given the following four objectives.

  (1) Establishment of the house

(ii) Entering into sexual relations

(iii) breeding

(iv) rearing of children


  Majumdar and Madan, while discussing the objectives, have written that “marriage leads to sexual satisfaction at the individual level or at the physical level and at the psychological level to have children and at the social level to attain position.”









  Marriage has been accepted as a sacrament among Hindus. Kapadia writes, “Hindu marriage is a sacrament. Hindu and

Kapadia writes, “The aims of Hindu marriage are Dharma, Praja (progeny) and Rati (joy).”


  The objectives of Hindu marriage are –

(i) fulfillment of religious functions,

  (ii) getting a son,

(iii) Rati Anand,

(iv) Development of personality,

  (v) Fulfillment of obligations towards the family,

(vi) Fulfillment of duties towards the society.










Forms of Hindu Marriage


Eight forms of marriage are considered among Hindus:

  (1) Brahmin marriage – In this, a well-versed bridegroom, well-versed in the Vedas, is invited to the house and a girl is presented with clothes and ornaments.

(2) Divine marriage – In this, the host donates his daughter to the priest who performs the yagya.

  (3) Arsh Vivah – In this the father takes a pair of cow and bull and donates his daughter to the sage.

  (4) Prajapatya marriage – In this the girl’s father orders that both of you should live together and practice dharma for life. then donates

(5) Gandharva marriage – This is the love marriage of the present.


  (6). Asura Vivah – In this, the bridegroom marries by giving money to the bride’s father.

(7) Rakshasa Vivah – In this the girl is forcibly taken away and married to her.

(8) Paishach Vivah – In this a sleeping, frantic, nervous, inebriated girl is raped and married.






Marriage In Muslims


  (Nikah) is a social contract. In these, marriage is called ‘Nikah’, which literally means sexual intercourse between a man and a woman. Muslim marriage is not a religious ceremony but a contract. Whose purpose is to establish a home, to have children and to declare them valid. ,






Aims of Muslim Marriage


To give valid consent to establish sexual relations between men and women.

  Giving birth to children and bringing them up.

– Giving acceptance to the mutual rights of husband and wife through ‘Mehr’.

In the form of a contract, giving the right to husband and wife that if one party does not perform the contract, the other party can leave it.

Keeping in mind the upbringing of children, recognition has been given to the practice of polygamy in the Muslim society.








  types of marriages

(Types of Marriage)


  Marriage is universal, but its nature, purpose, ideal and form are not the same. The common types of marriage found on the basis of the number of husband and wife are as follows:


  1. Monogamy: When a man or a woman enters into a marital relationship as a life partner, it is called a marriage. Today a marriage is considered the most important thing. The present Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 recognizes monogamy only.


2 . Polygamy: When more than one man or woman establishes a marital relationship, it is called polygamy. There are three forms of polygamy –

(i) polygamy, (ii) polyandry, and (iii) group marriage.


(i). Polygyny: When a man marries more than one woman, it is called polygyny. It was prevalent in the early Hindu society. The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. , After that it has decreased a lot. It is prevalent among Muslims. It is also prevalent in some tribes of India (Naga, Gond, Baiga, Toda etc.).

(ii). Polyandry: When a woman marries more than one man, it is called polyandry. An important example of this is the marriage of Draupadi with the five Pandavas in the Mahabharata period. In modern times, this practice is prevalent among the Nairs of South India.


  There are two forms of polyandry marriage (a) fraternal polyandry and (b) non-fraternal polyandry.


  (a). Fraternal Polyandry: When a woman marries more than one man who is a brother, it is called Fraternal Polyandry. The marriage of Draupadi and five Pandavas is an example of this. Also, it has been prevalent in the Khas and Toda tribes of India.


(b). Non-fraternal polyandry: When a woman marries more than one man, those men are not brothers, then it is called non-fraternal polyandry. Its trend has been in Toda and Nair castes. Group Marriage: When a group of men marries a group of women, it is called group marriage. Evolutionary thinkers believe that this form of marriage may have existed in the early stage of family and marriage, but today it cannot be found anywhere. In this way, many types of marriage have been found, but at present only one marriage is prevalent among Hindus. In special circumstances polygamy is seen.




  due to monogamy


  (i) Equal number of women and men in the society.

  (ii) Avoidance of family conflict or stress

(iii) Economic factors

(iv) The entry of others in married life is not accepted.

(v) Hindu Marriage Act,


By 1955 only one marriage was compulsorily implemented. Benefits of monogamy (i) Best marriage (ii) Husband and wife personally responsible for children (iii) Mutual cooperation between man and woman. (iv) The status of women becomes high.

(v) Reduction in the number of children. (vi) Husband-wife away from mental tension and conflict. According to evolutionary theory, the practice of monogamy is the most recent and modern practice. Westermark has considered monogamy as the primitive form of marriage.


According to Malinowski, monogamy is, was and will be the true form of marriage. Polygamy or polygamy is a marriage in which a man or woman marries more than one woman or man. Its four types are found.


benefits of polygamy

(1) Due to polygamy, the sexual desires of lustful men are fulfilled in the family itself. That’s why corruption and immorality do not increase in the society.

(ii) Marriage of all is possible if the number of women is more.

(iii) When there are many women, the upbringing of children and the care of the house are easily done.


(iv) Polygamy marriages are found in most of the rich and prosperous people of the society. Therefore, the children born from such marriages are physically and mentally strong.


disadvantages of polygamy

  (i) Women’s time is often wasted in quarrels. (ii) Increase in population. (ii) Due to many wives, the husband is not able to take care of all of them properly. (iv) The social status of women falls. (v) Increase in the number of widows. (i) Promiscuity flourishes in the society due to the inability of the male to satisfy all the females sexually.



  reasons for polyandry


  (1) Its main reason is economic activity or poverty. When a single man is not able to maintain women and children, then many men join together to maintain them.

  (ii) Excess of bride-price. Due to the practice of bride price, girls in the ‘Ho’ tribe remain virgins for the longest time.

  (iii) Due to the desire to keep the population limited, polyandry marriage is followed because the number of children in such marriages is less. granddaughter

  (iv) To prevent division of property. Of

  (v) Geographical conditions – Where Toda and Khas live, lack of cultivable land is found.

(vi) Religious reasons – The Khas of Dehradun consider themselves the descendants of Pandavas and they follow the Draupadi marriage system.

(vii) According to Westermark, the main reason for polyandry marriage is an imbalanced form of sex ratio. (viii) ‘Sumner’, ‘Cunningham’ and ‘Saxena have considered poverty as the main reason for polygamy.




benefits of polyandry marriage



  (i) Non-distribution of property

  (ii) less number of children,

  iii) Economic cooperation – Disadvantages of polyandry marriage (i) Development of sterility. (ii) More male children due to which there is a decrease in the number of girls. – Tani (iii) The condition of women is pathetic. (iv) The number of widowers in the society is high. (v) Growth of sexual diseases in women.

Willing Sibling Marriage








  Importance or Functions of Marriage


Basis of Family Life: The family is formed on the basis of marriage. That is why marriage has been called the gateway to the family. Exchange of love and affection becomes possible in the family environment. The family established through the institution of marriage is that unique place where a person fulfills all his physical, mental, social and economic desires and becomes a worthy citizen of the society.


, Helpful in Satisfaction of Sex: Sexual desire is the natural quality of human being, which a person gets with birth. Fulfillment of this desire is necessary in the context of a healthy human being. The fulfillment of this desire of human becomes possible through marriage system. Fulfillment of sexual desire without marriage is to generate lust. Hence, marriage is a socially accepted arrangement for the fulfillment of sexual desire.


, Legitimization of Children: Through the marriage system, children get legitimacy. In this system, the children born as a result of sexual relations between two men and women are accepted by the society. Also, the child and their parents get a certain social status. Children can be born even without marriage, but this child will be considered illegal. Then the child and the concerned parents do not get social prestige. Therefore children born out of wedlock are considered legitimate.


  Helpful in Social Continuity: Every society makes arrangements to bring up the next generation to maintain its existence and continuity. The marriage system performs this important function of the society. In Hindu society, special importance has been given to family growth and family continuity and this work has been linked to religion.


  Development of Kinship Relationships: New relatives are developed through marriage system. This increases the scope of kinship relations of a person. A person before marriage is related to the parent family (in which he was born and brought up). After marriage, he is related to the birth family. As a result, a person connects with his blood relatives as well as other relatives (mother-in-law, father-in-law, brother-in-law, sister-in-law, sister-in-law etc.) after marriage. Marriage as a determinant of kinship co-arrangement by H. M. Johnson

is accepted.


  Social Prestige: Marriage is a sign of social prestige. Marriage – Celebration is the most important celebration of life. The pomp with which the ceremony is organized on this occasion, is indicative of the fact that marriage is a means of achieving social prestige. At the same time, marriage has been considered as the biggest Yagya of the family. After completing this Yagya, the prestige of the family is protected.


  Helpful in Socialization of Individuals: Marriage teaches to adapt to two different ideologies, traditions, living-tolerance, life-style etc. At the same time, it promotes sacrifice and instills loyalty to mutual duty. When two men and women are related as husband and wife through the marriage system, then their socialization starts. This makes family life healthy and strong on the one hand, and on the other a healthy personality is formed. Thus marriage plays an important role in the socialization of an individual. 0 8 . Helpful in Transmission of Culture : Sanskriti






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