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Migration is the third important process affecting population growth. The response of fertility and mortality is slow compared to migration in all three important components of population growth, fertility, mortality and migration. Change in population due to migration is possible even in a very short time.

The data of migration which changes rapidly in the size, formation and distribution of population are found to be more accurate. Although this accuracy remains high at the level of international migration, yet internal and external migration statistics are also kept at the government level, even if not as reliable. In general, migration means movement or migration. Man keeps coming and going from one place to another, as a result of which his usual residence changes. This phenomenon of displacement of population is called migration or migration. Migration means to change one’s natural residence Daved M. Heer “Migration is a form of variation from one geographic unit to another geographic unit by changing the place of residence.” –

It is clear from the above definitions that there is a change in the place of residence under migration and this change is not short term but long term and permanent. Along with this, it is also necessary to cross the geographical unit in migration. Under this, migration in one’s own country can take place in two forms.

In – Migration
and Out Migration

But when there is a change in the country, then going to another country is called emigration and coming to your country from another country is called immigration.


Classification of Migration

The classification of migration or migration is generally done as follows –
Internal Migration

, Internal Migration When the residents of a country move from one place to another within the borders of their country, then their migration is called internal migration. Example ‘ – If a person from Allahabad settles in Mumbai then it will be called internal migration or migration.

Prof. Donald J. Bogg believes that the term In Migration for internal migration and Out Migration for out migration should be used. But if a person from England settles in Delhi, then immigration and a person from Calcutta will be called emigration to settle in America.
You can study internal migration in the following ways
Marital Migration

Inter-District Migration Rural Urban Migration

International Migration – International migration means going from one country to another country. In fact, there is no fundamental difference in the internal or international migration imposed by the movement between one’s own country from another country, only the geographical boundaries of the nations can be called the basis of difference. The effect of internal migration is more extensive than that of international migration.


factors affecting migration

Migration or migration occurs due to various factors. Demographers make main mention of pull factors and push factors in this context.


Attractive or Pull Factors:

Attractive factors are those factors influenced by which a person leaves his place of residence and settles in a place that attracts him elsewhere. Some of the major attractive factors are as follows: –

Better employment opportunities.

Better Education |

Good accommodation facilities

Availability of good means of entertainment.

Healthy climate Improved civilian life.

Push Factors or Repulsive factors are two factors, due to which a person is forced to leave his residence. Those same factors do the above for migration. Some of the major repulsive elements are as follows:

, Lack of employment opportunities at the place of residence. Lack of education, health, housing, training facilities. Lack of entertainment facilities. Lack of opportunities for advancement. Social exclusion Social environment being unfavourable.

terrorism. Political, social, caste and religious discrimination. After knowing the factors of attraction and repulsion, you can now know more about the factors influencing migration from the point of view of study by placing them in the following forms.

Natural Factors People often migrate due to natural or geographical factors. Under this, climate-related changes, natural outbreaks, droughts, floods, famines, epidemics, tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanoes, cloudbursts, sudden flood disasters, etc., which affect migration or migration.

Economic Factors – Economic factors are the most important of the factors affecting migration. People can leave their original residence and go to another country in the longing for a better life. Some of the major economic factors are as follows

(a) cultivable land

(b.) Absence of industrialization. 

(c) Urbanization.

(d) Transport facilities.

(e) To improve financial condition for normal life.

– (f) Political factors also affect migration. Establishment of industries in rural areas is done on the basis of a political decision which controls rural to urban migration. Industrial areas like Noida, Gida, Sida, etc. have been built in India for this purpose, political division of countries or migration of refugees is a prime example of this, which can be said in the context of partition in India and Bangladesh.

Social Factors. Social customs are also responsible factors for migration. Under this, marital migration (i.e., migration of girls to their husband’s home after marriage) and co-migration (moving of the whole family due to transfer or migration of the father) are the main factors. Ambitions and wishes for speedy development encourage migration from villages to cities.

Demographic Factors – The places where the pressure of population is high, there is less or less population migration from that place. The birth rate and death rate also have an effect on migration. Where the male specific birth rate is low, to maintain the balance, youths will have to come from other regions as migrants, due to war, it has been seen many times that due to the decrease in the number of males, the population has become unbalanced, as a result of which the world has become unbalanced. Young people from other countries had to be attracted to settle down.

Religious and cultural factors – For the purpose of propagation and propagation, followers of different religions migrate to different parts of the world. Cultural contact also encourages migration. Prof. Thompson and Lewis believe that the factors responsible for migration can be both economic and non-economic factors, but in these two types of factors, the economic factor is more important. The obstacle in migration or migration is also worth knowing which is the following. 1. distance . Language, culture and customs.

, Attachment to current occupation and place. Road Expenses Migration Capacity Health, age and will of the migrant. travel rules result

impact of migration
The effects or consequences of migration can be both positive and negative. Under the positive effect, the pressure of population on the land is reduced, harmony in the demand and supply of labor, development of a sense of unity, various benefits of urbanization, etc. There are also benefits from a demographic perspective. The standard of living rises. Migration also has negative effects such as increasing mental dissatisfaction, loss of interpersonal relations, class differences, problem of cohesion and problem of population growth and increase in population density etc. In the effects of internal migration, we can study the consequences in such a way that what are the effects on the migrants, from where the migration is taking place and the place where the migrant is migrating, the study of the consequences is important. Is . Both its advantages and disadvantages are worth knowing due to urbanization.

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