Neo Evolutionist

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Neo Evolutionist

Thus, there are three sub-schools of classical evolutionists and two sub-schools of neo-evolutionists, which can be discussed one by one.

British Classical Evolutionist

1) Although there are many Victorian scholars in Great Britain who spoke of a linear form of development of culture, but here Edward Burnett Tylor (1832-1917), R.R. Marett (1866–1943), James Fraser (1854–1941), McLennan (1827–1888), Henry Main (1822–1888), Herbert Spain • Ser (1820–1903) etc., whose writings on the development of various social institutions Not only has enriched the world anthropology, but has also enriched anthropology itself. A distinctive place for British anthropology on a global scale.

2) (E.B. Tylor (1832-917):

3) Tylor was not an anthropologist by training.

4) (ii) Tylor on the science of culture history

5) Tylor was of the opinion that the study of culture is essentially a historical study, as culture is essentially a historical process. According to him, anthropology is the study of the development of man in the course of history. Tylor’s definition of culture, given below, removed all earlier misinterpretations, and is considered the first scientific way of defining culture, the central theme of anthropology.

6) Tylor says, “Culture or civilization, taken in its broad ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and other capabilities acquired by man as a member of society and Habits are included” (1871). His science of culture history was based on a philosophy of cultural progress which consisted of three phases.


7) Savagery, barbarism and civilization. He suggested that these were three universal stages of cultural progress, but he did not consider it to be the driving force of history, but rather used it as a tool for the reconstruction of past conditions.

8) (iii) Tylor’s contribution to the study of primitive religion

9) Although Tylor embraced the whole field of anthropological inquiry, his most extensive treatment was in the field of primitive religion. He began to define religion in such a simple way as to include all its forms, such as “belief in spiritual beings”. He asserted that religion is a cultural universal.







american classical evolutionist

Lewis Henry Morgan (1818–1881)


1) Born in 1818 in Auriera, New York, Lewis Henry Morgan studied law in Albany and settled as a lawyer in Rochester. He studied the Iroquois Indians in detail and later formed a society whose members are the guardians of the customs and manners of the Iroquois. The members of this society, under the chairmanship of Morgan Ann, arranged meetings, in which they all wore Iroquois-Indians costumes and costumes.



2) Since Morgan was in close contact with the Iroquois and many of them often met him, Morgan felt that the cultures of the Iroquois were changing rapidly and that their cultures should be recorded and published before it was too late .


3) Thus, visiting and interviewing many Iroquois Indians, Morgan collected a large amount of data and then published in his book “League of the Iroquois” (1851). After the publication of this book, Morgan now occupied an important position in America and came to be regarded as a full-fledged evolutionist.


4) His writings brought Morgan an international name and fame and he was universally recognized as an evolutionist. He divided all history into three main phases. (a) barbarism, (b) barbarism and (c) civilization. All these three stages were further linked with economic and intellectual development. According to Morgan, Vandalism was the period before pottery; Barbarism began with the Ceramic Age and civilization came after the invention of letters and writing. Morgan further wrote about this period that “each of these periods has a distinct culture and exhibits a mode of life, more or less, special and peculiar in itself” (1877).


5) Continental Evolutionary

6) Among continental evolutionists, who talked about various aspects of the origin of culture, special mention is made of Johann Jakob Bachofen (1815–1877), Adolf Bastian (1826–1905), Karl Marx (1818–1883) and Friedrich Engels can go. (1820–1895).


7) Neo-evolutionary

8) The classical evolutionists of the nineteenth century mainly talked about or laws, but their conclusions and approaches were modified by the evolutionists of the twentieth century in the light of their new researches and methodological approaches to the origin of culture and hence They are known as Nava. Evolutionary. Among those neo-evolutionists, three scholars can be specially mentioned.


9) v. Gordon Childe (of England), U.S.A. Julian Steward and Leslie White, who have made significant contributions to the study of cultural evolution and their research, have recently shed a new light on the various dimensions of the origin of culture.

10) V. Gordon Childe (1892-1957)

11) V.V. Gordon Childe described development in terms of three major

12) Events eg. Invention of food-product ion, urbanization and industrialization. Thus, these “revolutionary

Analyzing the transitions that took place under the influence of “them”, Child presented a holistic view of the evolutionary process delineating its common factors.

13) V. Gordon Childe classified the stages of cultural development with reference to the archaeological findings as follows:



  1. No. Archaeological Period Cultural Development
  2. Paleolithic Savagery
  3. Neolithic barbarism
  4. Dwaparayuga high barbarism
  5. Early Bronze Age Civilization


Julian. H. Steward (1902–1972)

1) Julian Steward’s contribution to the study of cultural evolution is unique, as he first gave a comprehensive typology of evolutionists based on his methodological studies of different cultural regions of the world. Steward states that cultural evolution can be broadly defined as the search for cultural regularities or laws and further states that there are three specific ways in which evolutionary data can be handled. For example, Unilinear Evolution, Universal Evolution and Multilinear Evolution:

2) Leslie A. White (1900–1975)

3) Leslie White is considered to be America’s most controversial and neo-evolutionist. Though he was a student of Franz Boas, he was a great admirer of Tylor and Morgan and hence, from the very beginning he believed in the progressive course of evolution. In searching for a universal principle to explain the order of evolution, he went a step further than Childe and Steward and considered “energy” for the same.

4) White was of the opinion that culture is basically a survival mechanism and energy is needed to provide man with the things necessary for his continued existence. In the initial stage of human development, man used his body as the major source of energy, but soon he started capturing other natural sources of energy, and used fire, water, wind etc. for his own purposes. Done for

5) His famous book “The Science of Culture” was published in 1949, which brought about a dramatic change in the thinking of evolution.

6) acculturation

7) processes of change in artifacts, customs and beliefs resulting from the contact of two or more cultures. The term is also used to refer to the results of such incorporation and directed change, which can be distinguished depending on the circumstances under which cultural contact and change occur. The learning of ideas, values, conventions, and behavior that is characteristic of a social group. (See socialization.) Sanskritization is also used to describe the results of contact between two or more different cultures; A new, holistic culture emerges, in which Ome

8) Existing cultural features are added, some are lost, and new features arise. Linton, Redfield, Herskovits, and Hoizer give several examples to define acculturation. According to Herskovits, when a child learns to follow his own cultural traditions in the process of development, it is called acculturation.



9) Within a society, processes leading to change include invention and

10) Assimilation culture loss. Inventions can be either technical or conceptual.

11) The loss of culture is an inevitable consequence of the replacement of old cultural patterns by new ones.

12) Assimilation: Assimilation is the fusion or amalgamation of two different groups into one.

13) Cultural assimilation is the process by which a person or a group’s language and, or culture becomes similar to that of another group. The term is used to refer to both individuals and groups, and in the latter case it may refer to an immigrant diaspora or to native inhabitants who have come to be culturally dominated by another society.

14) Assimilation may involve rapid or gradual change depending on the circumstances. Complete assimilation occurs when new members of a society become indistinguishable from members of another group. Whether or not it is desirable to assimilate to an immigrant group is often disputed by both members of the group and members of the dominant society. Assimilation refers to the absorption and assimilation of culture by another. When the process of assimilation takes place, the people in the two different groups are not in agreement with each other, they become almost indistinguishable.

15) Assimilation is not limited to only one area. It is generally applied to explain the fusion of two different cultural groups. It is a slow and gradual process. The speed of the assimilation process depends on the nature of the contacts. Assimilation is an unconscious process. Mostly unconsciously, individuals and groups discard their original cultural heritage and replace it with a new one. Assimilation is a two-way process. It involves the principle of give and take.

16) Assimilation is possible only when the individual and the group are tolerant of cultural differences o

17) Thers. Assimilation is the end product of social interaction. One factor that helps in complete assimilation is amalgamation which refers to intermarriage of different groups. Complete assimilation is not possible without biological assimilation. Cultural affinities are one of the important factors that facilitate assimilation.

provide the method. Education is another favorable factor for assimilation. Assimilation generally provides a permanent solution to inter-group disputes and differences.

18) spread

19) Diffusionists held that different cultural complexes developed at different times in different parts of the world and later spread to the corresponding parts of the earth. According to him the traits of the culture can lead people to an area where they settle temporarily and can be communicated to the local residents living there. Thus, diffusionists hold that culture has developed in the course of history, not because of evolution, but because of the transmission of culture through historical events and interactions. Such a historical event, which provided a theory for the study of the transmission of culture and the parallels of culture, was called “diffusion”.



For a systematic discussion of diffusionists and their contributions, we can discuss them as follows:

  1. British propaganda,
  2. German propaganda,
  3. American propaganda.

These three sub-schools of Diffusionists made important contributions to the study of • culture-similarities and a historical dimension of culture.


british propaganda

Among the British diffusionists, who mainly pointed to ancient Egypt as the cultural cradle of the world, G.E. Special mention may be made. Smith (1871–1937),

WJ Perry (1887–1949) and W.H.R. Rivers (1864–1922). As his works and findings mainly focused on Egypt, he is also called Egyptologist.


William James Perry (1887–1949): WJ Perry’s main aim was to support the theory of diffusion, which was furthered by Smith, although he did good field work in the Malay region and wrote some important books. Perry also visited Cairo and took an interest in archaeological excavations and gave Smith a blind endorsement of his theoretical notions. Perry was greatly influenced by the remains of the Sun Temple in Cairo. He wrote a book “The Children of the Sun”, which was published in 1923 from London.


After the publication of this book he became very popular and this book was reprinted many times. Time and was widely read. In this book he emphasized that “the transmission of culture is always accompanied by decline” and that “nothing is truly permanent”. He also pointed out that the elders; The only cultural cradle in the world. Perry’s another book “Gods and the Men” appeared in 1927 • in which he highlighted the concept of supernatural powers of early men.

Willam Hulse Rivers (1864-19.22) • W.H.R. Rivers, like Smith, is a medical doctor by profession and was persuaded by this medical doctor by profession and was persuaded by this extreme diffusionism at the end of his life.

A Polean • Druse tribe of the Nilgiri Hills (India), on River’s classic mography “The Todas”, 1906.

German propaganda

Friedrich Ratzel (1844–1904), Fritz Graebner (1877–1934) and the Jesuit Wilhelm Scheinmidt (1868–1954) were the main proponents of this school. German diffusionists are considered superior to their British counterparts. He opposed the oversimplification of evolutionary schemes put forward by classical evolutionists. German



Diffusionists further pointed out that evolution in the universe is not uniform and this is why a group of people with simple technology may have an advanced social structure or a complex form of worship. Thus, Pro • In contrast to the Egyptians, the German diffusionists established polymorphic forms of development of culture.


  Thus, the cultural-historical movement, known as Kulturkreij or “culture circles”, was heavily scholastic. His followers examined all cultural traits in detail and with completeness. Sometimes this school is also called Kulturkreij school as it suggested the concept of culture-complex or culture cycle.


american school of diffusion

American diffusionists drew encouragement and inspiration from their German counterparts and, therefore, it is said that the American “culture field” theory of diffusion was influenced by the “museum method” of German diffusion.

“Cultural zone” became the dominant theme in American diffusion, besides many concepts like “food zone”, “age zone”, “culture center”, “culture-climax”, etc. were also used to explain the nature.


and processes of dispersal in Native America. This school of defuntalism was primarily carried out by Clark Wiesler (1870–1947) and Alfred Louis Kroeber (1876–1947). Both were students of Frans Bose (1858–1942), a leading proponent of evolution in the early twentieth century.



We can define enculturation as the process by which individuals acquire the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values that enable them to become functioning members of their societies. native culture.” The process of sanskritization begins at birth. “!” It is a process that occurs automatically and unconsciously, for the most part.


  Yet everyone agrees that Sanskritization is a very powerful force that changes the context of each individual’s entire life.

The car lays a foundation that influences our life choices in subtle and pervasive ways, for good or for bad. Anthropologists who have studied different cultures have described the various ways that elements of a culture are transmitted to individuals born in that culture. These include things like language use, participating in rituals, telling stories, conveying feelings about certain events, and the day-to-day, moment-to-moment choices and behaviors that one might observe in those around them. .

Cultural assimilation The term cultural assimilation refers to the process of one culture acquiring ideas, technologies, and products from another culture, and therefore implies that this culture may appear to be absorbed into another culture. Cultural integration refers to the interaction of people from different cultures. This integration will involve people with different skills from different religions, professions and ethnic groups. cultural integration

Takes advantage of existing differences to benefit an organization as a whole. Ruth Benedict believed in the integration of culture through its content. A culture is made up of many patterns, he said, moreover, he showed that the patterns of a culture are harmonious so that they can be bound together in some coherent way. According to him, harmony gave the culture a special style – a unique configuration.







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