Population Policy in India 

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Population Policy in India 


Meaning and Definition of Population Policy

By population policy, we mean all those actions which are taken to reduce the increasing result of population and increase the productive qualities of the existing population. The policy adopted by the state to stop the growth of population and increase its productive qualities is called population policy. The need for a population policy in India The justification for the need for a suitable population policy in India can be substantiated on the following grounds:

1. National Income and Per Capita Income – Since independence, the Government of India has been making continuous efforts to increase the national and per capita income. So far five Five Year Plans and 3 Annual Plans have been completed.

2. Lack of food – Despite continuous efforts in India, there is a constant balance between population and food supply. Due to the rapid increase in population, the food problem of the country is becoming serious day by day. A suitable population policy is necessary in India to solve the food problem of the country.

3. Education, Medical and Health Services- The problem of education, medical and health services in India remains a worrying issue even today. A large part of the government’s income is spent on these items.

4. Unemployment- The Government of India has been continuously striving to solve the problem of unemployment of the country, but due to the rapid increase in population, there has been an unexpected increase in unemployment. The number of unemployed is continuously increasing.

5. Housing problem – Food, clothing and shelter are basic needs of human beings but the lack of all three in India is shameful and sad in itself. Population growth has made the housing problem more serious.

6. Capital formation- In a semi-developed country like India, due to low level of income and savings, the rate of capital formation is very low, due to which the lack of capital remains an equal obstacle for the economic development of the country.

7. Standard of living – The standard of living of the Indian people is very low due to decrease in per capita income, increase in prices, unemployment, poverty, lack of goods. It has been estimated that more than 40% of India’s people live in pathetic conditions of poverty, living under the poverty line, suffering from hunger and malnutrition.

 Critically evaluate the Indian population policy.

 In fact, the work of population planning is done only through population policy. It is thus clear that the success of population planning depends on the appropriateness of population policy and its proper implementation. It is true that in the beginning, the problems of population were not given full attention. But due to its gradual intensification, important changes were made from time to time in the population policy of India.

In the Fourth Five Year Plan, top priority was given to family planning programs. In the fifth plan, a national population policy was announced by the Government of India on April 16, 1976, in the emergency, in which the birth rate was reduced from 35 per thousand to 25 per thousand by the end of the sixth plan and the population growth rate was reduced to 1.4 percent. aimed to do.

During the rule of the Janata government, instead of ‘compulsivity’ and ‘force’, the principle of ‘voluntariness’ was recognized. Although the policy of 1976 was made the basis in these policies, but by removing the elements of compulsion and coercion, special importance was given to “voluntary public cooperation and public awareness”. Following are the salient features of the present population policy.

Present Population Policy and its Salient Features Family planning programs are now actually known as family welfare programs and the current population policy of India is based on the policy of 1976, but it has ‘compulsory’. Instead of ‘the principle of voluntary’ has been recognized. The salient features of this policy are as follows

1. Basis of Representation in Lok Sabha In order to encourage effective schemes of population control by the states, till the end of this century, the representation of states in the Lok Sabha will be based on the population of 1971 and not on the actual population. This will boost population control in the states. Along with this, the central assistance will be increased keeping in view the success of the states which will take effective steps for population control.

2. Promotion of research – Under the population policy announced by the Government of India, research works related to population control and family planning are encouraged.

3. Promotion of Voluntary Organizations – Under the population policy by the Government of India, not only state assistance is provided to the voluntary organizations promoting family planning program.But they are also encouraged by income tax exemption and other incentives on the gifts received.

4. Voluntary sterilization – In emergency, there was a system of sterilization on the basis of compulsion and coercion, but now the principle of voluntary sterilization has been recognized. A salary increment benefit has also been provided to government employees.

5. Increase in the minimum age of marriage – The Government of India has increased the minimum marriageable age from 18 years to 21 years for boys and from 15 years to 18 years for girls by special legislation. This will improve the health of children and mother along with prudent maternal parenthood.

6. Increase in sterilization and family welfare facilities – Under the current population policy, necessary emphasis has been laid on increasing sterilization and family welfare facilities in rural and urban areas. Along with this, there is also a provision for the increase of mobile-medical sterilization centers.

7. Primary importance – Under national programs, primary importance has been given to family welfare and family planning, so that explosive growth can be prevented through effective control of population.

8. Wide publicity – The government is doing active work through advertisements through newspapers, radio, television as well as through plays and folk songs in rural areas to promote the business of family planning and to make children aware about it. has been In fact, by giving top priority to family planning, the policy of the Government of India is to promote the business of cheap and easy means of contraception, which has given importance of voluntary instead of compulsion.

 Criticism of Indian Population Policy 

The population policy of the Government of India has been severely criticized by some scholars. Some of its facts are as follows
1. Difference between words and deeds – Due to the huge difference between the words and deeds of the government, not enough success is being achieved in this direction.
2. Slow progress- The progress of the state governments is slow in terms of implementing the population policy of the Government of India. In the absence of adequate grant, they do not take special interest in implementing it.
3. Abandonment of the notion of compulsory sterilization is unjustified- In India, sterilization after three children should be compulsorily law bound. In the present policy of the government, it seems unreasonable to abandon the right of compulsory sterilization.

4. Neglect of sex education – The government has completely neglected sex education in its population policy which is not important. In fact, sex education should be made an essential part of the curriculum so that marriageable young men and women should be alert in advance.

5. Policy of Monetary Induction Faulty – As a result of the policy of monetary inducements, sometimes people cheat ignorant people for economic gain, this gives a chance of side effects.

6. Unrealistic Target – By the end of the Sixth Plan of the Population Policy, the target is to reduce the birth rate to 25 percent and the population growth rate to 1.4 percent, but the real rates will be very high and these targets will remain incomplete.

7. Theoretical more, less practical – The policy of the Government of India appears to be very beneficial from the theoretical point of view, but it is quite impractical to implement it in the current political and social conditions. But in spite of the above criticisms, it can be said that if the government implements population policy at the level of strictness, efficiency and top priority, but if we accept the above definition, then in reality all economic policies are under “population policy”. Will come

Population also benefits from the increase in investment. We cannot take all these tasks under population policy, otherwise all economics will become population science. In the words of Dr. Terao, “Only the steps taken to solve the problem of population can be taken under population policy.”

Here it is necessary to understand that when the population has to be done according to the economy, then it will come in the population policy. In the words of Mr. Terav, “The problem of unemployment due to recession is not a problem of population policy, but the problem of unemployment of surplus manpower in less developed countries is a problem of population.” In the words of J. K. Spengler, “We will include all those policies of the state under the objectives of the National Population Policy. “Population policy can have both short-term and long-term goals. Most urgent problems are solved in the short run.

According to Frank W. Notestein, “The main goal of today’s population policy (in less developed countries) is to reduce the time lag between the fall in the death rate and the fall in the birth rate. The success of the population policy To be desirable economic social environment will have to be created.” Area of ​​Population Policy – Under population policy, we mainly studied facts like birth, death rate, population rate, distribution, regulating population distribution and improving the structure of population etc. goes .

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