Problems of urbanization

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Problems of urbanization

Due to the increase in the pace of urbanization, many problems have arisen in the country, in which the following are the main ones. These are also called the effect of urbanization.

Problem of houses – Due to rapid urbanization, the problem of houses has arisen in the cities, due to which lakhs of people are living on the side of the roads. The reason for this is the lack of construction of houses at the rate with which the population in the cities is increasing. Due to this the rent of houses in the cities has increased manifold.


Health Services – Due to the rapid growth of population in the cities, another problem has arisen in health services. Although there are hospitals in the cities, but in view of the population, the number of doctors and other facilities are less there.

Education – The third problem is that of education. The number of people seeking education facilities is increasing in cities, but the number of schools and colleges is limited and the places of admission there are also limited. Due to this many youth are deprived of getting admission here.

Unemployment- The fourth problem of cities is unemployment. Unemployment is also increasing here at a fast pace. At the end of the year 2007, the names of more than 3 crore 99 lakh persons were registered as job seekers in the employment offices of the cities.


Slum settlements – Due to the increase in population, many places in the cities have become dirty settlements where there is neither drinking water facility nor roads and sanitation, etc. At the same time, the slums have become places of committing various types of crimes, which has made the task of police administration difficult.


Peacekeeping – Maintaining peace in the cities has become a problem. Sometimes there are strikes in factories, sometimes rallies of political parties or Jail Bharo agitations or dharnas, and sometimes lock-outs by the owners. All these disturb the peace of the cities. And chaos ensues.


Literacy Ratio: The higher the literacy ratio in a country, the more it will facilitate the development of that country. According to Chester Bowles, “Education is the most powerful tool among the various tools which help in the control and conformation of natural forces and in the construction of an orderly, dynamic and just society. “From this point of view the situation in our country is not satisfactory, although the percentage of literacy is increasing equally here.


According to the 1951 census, the literacy rate in India was 18.33, which increased to 28.30 in 1961, 34.45 in 1971, 43.57 in 1981, 52.21 in 1991, 64.8 in 2001 and 74.04 in 2011. Thus the literacy rate has increased four times in the last 50 years. Other features regarding literacy ratio are as follows:


Literacy rate of females is less than the literacy rate of males – • Literacy rate of females is lower than that of males. According to the 2011 census, the literacy percentage of females is 65.45 percent while that of males is 82.14 percent.


Difference in the literacy rate of rural areas and urban areas – Literacy in rural areas is less than in urban areas.


Difference in literacy percentage of different states – The percentage of literacy is not the same in different states of the country. According to the 2011 census, the state of Kerala in India is the state with the highest literacy percentage of 93.91.


4. The lowest literacy rate in India is in Bihar, which has a literacy percentage of 63.82. The literacy percentage of all the remaining states lies between these two limits.


Literacy rate in Uttar Pradesh is 69.72%, which is 79.24% among males and 59.26% among females.


Life Expectancy refers to the age of living that the residents of the country can expect at the time of birth. The same thing can also be said in this way that in a country “when a child is born, how many years is he expected to live”? This expectation of survival is called expected age or average age. If If the death rate is high or death occurs at a young age, then the expected lifespan is low. Conversely, if the death rate is low, then the life expectancy of individuals is high and thus the expected life is also high.


About 100 years ago, the expected age in India was 24 years but it has gradually increased. The expected age of the previous years was as follows – 24 years in 1911, 32.1 years in 1951, 46.4 years in 1971 and 58.7 years in 1991 and 66.1 years in present (2010-11).


The expected life expectancy in India has increased more than two and a half times in 100 years. Due to its increase, there is a rapid reduction in the general mortality rate and child mortality which is the result of education, medical facilities, increase in the standard of living, etc., but still the expected age of India is much less than other countries. For example, the expected age is 83 in Japan, 82 in Switzerland and 81 in Canada, 78 in the US, 80 in the UK and 73 in China. 7. Birth Rate and Death Rate Birth Rate – Birth rate means the birth of children per thousand population in a year, equal reduction in birth rate in India It keeps happening. Between 1910-11, this rate was 49.2 per thousand, which increased to 41.7 per thousand between 1961-71, but it has further decreased due to adoption of various family planning programmes.

Therefore, it has been 29.5 per thousand between 1990-91, whereas in the present year 2010-11 it is  is 21.8 per thousand.
h is 21.8 per thousand.
h 21.8 per thousand.
It is much higher than other countries. Average birth rate is 15 per thousand in Australia, 10 per thousand in Germany, 13 per thousand in UK, 16 per thousand in America, 15 per thousand in Canada and 13 per thousand in Fr

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