Scope of Rural Sociology

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Scope of Rural Sociology


After the great development of rural sociology in all the countries, this question has become very important that what should be the field of study of rural sociology? That is, what are those subjects, with which the study of rural sociology should relate itself. There is a difference of opinion among sociologists regarding the area and subject area of ​​rural sociology. Scholars have different perspectives about its subject area on many questions, such as


. Rural sociology should be accepted as a branch of sociology or it should be given the status of a separate science.


. Rural sociology should confine its study scope to rural studies or it should extend to the comparative study of rural and urban life, their mutual relations and effects on each other and such other studies.


. Rural sociology should maintain the status of a pure science or it may also attain the status of an applied science. Rural sociology as a pure science should formulate rules and principles about rural life or study rural economic, social, cultural aspects as a practical science and give suggestive guidance about them and contribute to rural reconstruction.


. In rural sociology, only a related picture of rural society should be presented by being objective, or contribution should be made as a ‘thinking plant’ to reconstruct rural life. These are some of the questions on which there has been a difference of opinion among rural sociologists for a long time. In fact, such differences are not surprising for any new science, but similar and many other differences are also available on the nature of sociology itself.


But despite this, there are many such questions on which all sociologists are of the same opinion. Almost all sociologists have a unanimous opinion on the following questions

1. All sociologists agree that the basic objective of rural sociology is to make a scientific, systematic and comprehensive study of the rural social system, its structure and functions and the trends in its development. On the basis of these studies, rural sociology should formulate rules and principles about rural social life.

2 . All sociologists also agree that both rural and urban are two important aspects of social life. These two aspects also interact with each other, they also influence each other, and yet there is a difference in the fundamental life of these two.

3. All sociologists agree unanimously that the characteristics of rural social life and urban social life are different, so these two social life should also be studied separately.


We will mention here in detail the ‘Field of Study of Rural Sociology’ presented by some sociologists.


Tea . Ale . Smith in his work ‘The Sociology of Rural Life’ has explained the study area of ​​rural sociology by dividing it into three parts, they are

(1) Population – that is, rural sociology is defined as rural population and its distribution, growth, structure, density, physical and mental characteristics. Population settlement etc. should be studied.

(2) Rural Social Organization – Smith explains by dividing rural social organization into three parts.

(A) Institutional Relation of Merd asibunesis to the Land

(B) Social Morphology

(C) Major Social Institutions.


(3) Social Processes -Various organizational and disruptive social processes are placed within it, such as cooperation, management, assimilation, conflict, competition etc. In addition to the above subjects, T. Ale . Smith also includes the study of social change, social mobility and social problems in the scope of rural sociology. In his work ‘Social Structure in Rural Sociology’ by Stuart Chapin, T. Ale . The three points included by Smith, namely population, rural social organization and social processes have been included in the study area of ​​rural sociology. (Amian J. B. Chitambar has also written in support of the above classification, “Rural sociology should study only rural humans and their allied groups, not animals and birds or crops and agricultural implements.”



Laurie Nelson’s classification is more important in this direction. Laurie Nelson in her article (Rural Sociology – Dimensions and Horizons) has mentioned the field of study of rural sociology. This study area has been clarified by dividing it into three-dimensional or three classes. –


1. Study of the relations of rural sentiment – In Nelson’s opinion, the first aspect of the study of rural sociology is the study of the relations of rural human beings. The composition and functions of different types of groups formed by rural man are studied.

2 . Comprehensive study related to Time Perspective – This aspect is related to the ‘comprehensiveness’ of this subject. This science not only describes and analyzes the community on the surface, but it also has to take full care of time and distance. In fact, every community develops through an evolutionary sequence. The present-day rural society is the result of cultural changes taking place over a long period of time. In such a situation, its study should not be confined to a particular period but should be related to the rural characteristics found in different periods.

3. Depth of Study – The third aspect of the study of rural sociology is the depth of study. Nelson says that in rural sociology all those subjects should be studied which affect the rural communities and the rider of the individuals within them. In this way we get various manifestations, malays, marwakankshamos in rural communities. All the aspects related to sympathy, competition or inequality should be studied thoroughly.


Doctor . a . Pre. Desai has clarified the field of study of rural sociology in a broader perspective, indirectly supporting Nelson’s views. According to you, the study area of ​​sociology includes the study of rural social organization, social structure, trends of development and laws of development etc. . .




Ale . Tea . Smith , Strutt Pin , Laurie Nelson and Dr. a . Par, Desai etc. have presented different ideas about the village. The views of these sociologists determine the general direction about rural sociology. In order to clarify the dissemination of this subject, it is necessary that we can include the following subjects in the study area of ​​rural sociology from the synergy of the views of all these scholars.


Study of Rural Community – Rural society studies almost all aspects of rural community. The study of the characteristics, characteristics, forms, characteristics, etc. of the rural community is the study area of ​​the rural community.


The study of rural social structure (Study of Rural Socias The study area of ​​rural sociology includes all the units that make up the rural social structure. Rural life is based on certain traditions, values, customs, institutions and Russians etc. All these are the basic units or factors which constitute the rural social structure.

. Study of Rural Social Organization There are many types of social organizations in the rural social system. In rural sociology, the determinants, differences and functions of all these organizations are studied. Under this, various organizations found in the villages like marriage, family, caste, occupation, class-system, religion, health, administrative organization, educational organization etc. are found.


. Study of Rural Social Groups Man lives in groups by nature. For the fulfillment of his objectives, he forms different types of groups. The study of various types of groups, such as sports groups, entertainment groups, cultural, religious, primary, political, etc., which are found in rural society, is also the material of the study of rural sociology.


. Study of Rural Social Institutions The study of rural social institutions is the main subject of the study of rural sociology. Social institutions are socially accepted methods of achieving collective objectives. Under this, the nature, types and functions of rural customs, people’s customs, customs, customs, laws, rules etc. are studied.


Study of Rural Economic Institutions – Although rural sociology does not study official institutions, this work is of economics, but in its broader form, agricultural relations, agriculture and other occupations have on rural life. The study of effect etc. is done in this.


Study of Rural Political Institutions – Like official institutions, rural sociology also studies political institutions in its broadest form. In this, political institutions like rural leadership, village panchayats, party, factionalism etc. are studied. .


. Study of Rural Social Processes – Various Organizational and Disruption found in Rural Environment



Nature of Rural Sociology


Before narrowing the scope of rural sociology, the question arises whether its content is scientific or not. On this basis we can examine the nature of rural sociology. In order to obtain knowledge related to a particular subject, when we collect facts by scientific method, then such study is called scientific study. Therefore, the basis of science is the scientific method, not the content. Therefore, before understanding the nature of rural sociology, it becomes necessary that we understand the meaning of the scientific method properly. According to Mr. Ludberg – “The scientific method involves systematic observation, classification and interpretation of facts.” On the various stages of the scientific method, Mr. Bernard writes that “Science can be defined by the main processes found under it. These are based on testing, verification, definition, classification, organization and guidance, which also includes pointing to the future and putting them into practice. study and, if possible, try to solve them thoroughly and systematically on the basis of observation, verification, classification and study of social phenomena. This method in its sharp and successful form is often known as the scientific method.” Following are the different stages of scientific method

1. construction of a topical or actionable hypothesis

2 . Selection of instruments or tools of the questionnaire

3. Fact Observation and Fact Computation

4. to record

5. Classification and organization of facts

6. Generalization and rule making of conclusions




To adopt the scientific method, the researchers of social science should have a specific scientific attitude. An ordinary person cannot have this. The main goals of the scientific method are the tendency to study, special enthusiasm, hard work, authoritative thoughts, fair discussion, etc. If we do a physical review of the undertakings done so far in rural areas, we will find that these studies are related to the economic situation. Rural society is studied for many purposes in rural sociology. So we see that the rural sociologist studies various social methods as well as finds solutions to the problems of the villagers.


This decision was taken in the Sociological Conference held in America in 1937. It was believed that all rural problems should be studied in rural sociology based on scientific study. Villagers are purely scientific and it is a social science.


Rural Sociology As a Science


From a scientific point of view, the following steps should be taken in the study of rural sociology (1) the truth of the nature of knowledge, (2) its organization, (3) its method (4) theory formulation. As it is clear from the following description that rural sociology verifies all these four conditions.


. Reliable Knowledge – In order to meet the requirements of the scientific method, the material of a subject should be compiled by such scientific methods whose veracity and reliability have been checked and which have been found to be undisputed. Although sociology is a new science, yet the nature and speed with which its study has started is certainly encouraging. It has provided new knowledge in many fields. For example, population, family, group behavior, development of institutions, method of social change etc. In spite of the many constraints faced in the study of rural sociology, its content is reliable and it is completely unfair to call it unscientific on the basis of some insignificant shortcomings.


. Organization of Knowledge – The organization of science is based on the relationships that interrelate each field of knowledge. There are many interactions in sociology. He has many tools and equipment for further discoveries, although these are sufficient, but still they do not have the ability to study, analyze and synthesize the entire field from him. It is believed that the compilation of ancient knowledge of social relations will ultimately help in such synthesis.


. Sociology as a Method – Just as accurate observations and conclusions are necessary for the study of physics, similar observations and conclusions are also necessary in the study of sociology, however, the observations of physics are based on experiments. and on observational investigation data of sociology. For example, if we want to know whether child mortality is more in low-income families or high-income families, we don’t do that for the mothers of 50 wealthy families, and the mothers of 50 poor families in a single room. Bring me in and start watching child mortality. Instead, we collect facts. But first we have to make an integrated study of their food system, customs of that religious group, and finally their lineage. In the context of child mortality, it has been found out that by increasing the incidence, the rate of child mortality can be reduced.




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