Social Change in Rural India

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Social Change in Rural India

AR DESAI has identified four trends for this rural transformation

The transformation of an agrarian society from a traditional subsistence based society to a market based profit oriented society with the use of modern urban technology from a scattered, loosely developed agricultural system to the national Attempt to integrate into the economy as a whole. If we take a holistic view of the whole situation, we will find that rural India is an important


It is going through a period of transformation and fermentation. Its technological base, economic structures, social institutional structure which has been based on caste system and joint family, its political organization and ideological orientation and value system are undergoing qualitative transformation. The factors which do not help in bringing change in rural social life

The most important role has been played by the ‘State’ in them. Some such important factors can be calculated on the following basis:


Attempts to cripple or eradicate certain sections of the agricultural society, and the emergence of various societies and institutions influenced by and closely related to urban influences in agricultural societies, changed the land tenure system, land reforms and rural development. Program Rural – Urban continuum The effect of urbanization and technological change, the effect of market economy, the effect of mass media, the social consequences of the Green Revolution and land reforms are so important aspects of these changes that they should be studied separately. In the study of social change in rural India, while on the one hand the lamps of prosperity are visible, on the other side there is widespread poverty and the pauperization of small farmers and agricultural laborers.

 Along with these, the changing economic and political equations of the newly emerging peasant classes are also visible, which have important socio-economic-political implications. Even an ordinary person can appreciate the important role of the state in the developmental transformation of rural India.


 The most important step taken by the state is ‘adult suffrage’. This single factor created a wave of change and made rural India socially and politically influential. Other steps taken by the government include steps to improve the economic system, land reforms, innovative seeds, important irrigation projects, availability of chemical fertilizers, regularization of personal money lending system, providing institutional finance, development of blocks, cooperative institutions. The formation of, the steps taken for the development of small and cottage industries, Panchayati Raj etc. are also important. Apart from this, by taking steps to spread education, special schemes for scheduled castes, tribes and other backward castes, special empowerment for the exploited sections of the society, especially women, the state brought a wave of change in the rural India social system.


 Impact of Education and Mass Media The medium of education and mass communication brought important changes in the social system of rural India and took it forward on the path of modernization. Education has an important role in bringing changes in the social and economic system. This led to the development of an educated class which was very keen on social and cultural change. This one change broke the bonds of traditional society and included it in the race of modernization. Due to education, awareness of their rights increased among the poor and weaker sections of the society. Radio, TV among the most uneducated rural society. And films have played an important role as tools of change and empowerment and have created a medium of information and education even without books.


In the atmosphere of widespread illiteracy, folk songs, folk dances, puppets, etc., continued to be used as the medium of education and information, but after the advent of technological changes, many new ideas for exchange and dissemination of information, communication, entertainment ideas. The medium appeared. Radio reaches almost 99% of rural India and TV reaches almost 99% of rural India. Has reached almost 60% of the population. Both are reaching people in regional languages ​​as well. Most of the rural areas are central places where people sit together and listen to radio and TV. got from




exchange information and debate. Here there is a detailed discussion on everything from seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and agricultural produce to new technology and living conditions. Modernity is reaching remote villages through these mediums. Especially TV For the use of advanced technology in school education and farming, it is proving to be a special help. While the way of development has been opened by the use of these modern resources, fanaticism and other disorders are also taking birth from irreligious beliefs and mythology. Changes are visible in all the clothes, language, style, living habits, social values. Movie theaters, videos etc. on the go are now visible in most of the villages. Today it can be imagined that in reality how small and big technological changes have given birth to social revolution in the new era.


Green Revolution and its Social Consequences


The important parameters of the country’s progress set after independence, on that scale, the major agricultural revolution or the Green Revolution itself, when the country itself was starved of hunger and food shortage in 1984, in the drought affected areas of sub-Saharan Africa. It was a proud moment for India when it was announced to send one lakh tonnes of food grains for the purpose of providing relief. The whole world appreciated it with admiration.


It was also important because a short time ago the position of India was more or less to spread its hand in the field of food production. All this was possible due to the positive thinking and policies of the government, from the working farmers of the country, from the agricultural scientists working day and night to lead the country in the path of development, from the workers and laborers engaged in development and most importantly from this determination-power of the country. Which created the strength to get the country from a food-deficient importer country to a rich food-producing exporting country.


 Although achieving this goal is important

But at the same time the objective of making the country at par with developed countries in the consumption of food, fat, sugar, vegetables and other food items was also in front. The Green Revolution ushered in a new era in agricultural relations. While on the one hand, production increased on large agricultural holdings, on the other hand, economic inequality also increased between smallholder farmers, agricultural laborers and large farmers. In many areas of the country there was an increase in the number of ‘peasant proletariat’. The Bhumihans began to organize and in response to this the Bhumihan Bars also organized themselves. Due to this, the migration of landless farmers and laborers to land rich and high productivity areas also started on a large scale. Migration of agricultural laborers from Bihar and Eastern Uttar Pradesh etc. to Punjab and Haryana can be placed under this category.





As a result of the Green Revolution, some new sovereign castes came into existence on a very large scale. This happened especially in the middle-level ‘backward castes’. With improved agriculture, they now came up a lot due to their prosperity in the local caste system.


Sociologists and social anthropologists believe that the socially backward castes benefited more from land reforms in the changing environment as a result of the Green Revolution.


The traditional landless, scheduled castes could not take much benefit from this, these backward castes were more intelligent and strong farmers, so when it came time to increase the yield with the use of land reforms and scientific technology, they took full advantage of this opportunity. They were already numerically powerful, lacking only the status equal to that of the upper castes in the social system, which they were gradually improving through sanskritisation.


Jats of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh, Ahirs, Kurmis and Gujjars of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh, Marathas of Maharashtra, Patels and Patidars of Gujarat, Kammas and Reddys of Andhra Pradesh, Lingayats and Vokkalingas of Karnataka and some other farmers Castes are an example of this category. These castes going towards grading were completely successful in taking advantage of the Green Revolution.


Through cash crops and commercial farming, not only did these groups acquire movable and immovable property in rural areas, but they also made substantial gains in terms of property in the surrounding urban areas. Green Revolution played an important role in the changing social environment in different parts of the country. Another important aspect of the Green Revolution has also been that due to scientific agricultural technology and other resources, the power centers were transferred to the new generation instead of the old generation.


Under the Green Revolution, new techno-economic exchanges, institutional finance, use of advanced seeds and plants, little English knowledge, a modern thinking, etc., were many such reasons which pushed the old generation back a bit. Due to this, new thinking of the new generation and better and stronger participation in decision making and process came to the fore. Due to the Green Revolution, new market forces emerged for the sale of cash crops, due to which the old jajmani system was greatly affected.


The relations between the traditional jajman and the working class changed greatly. Those who had land were now more interested in paying cash to work on the land than in sharing the produce of the land. As a result, instead of giving traditional food grains in the Green Revolution, the practice of giving wages increased. Now caste relations were no longer traditional.



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