Type of culture

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Type of culture


 Ogborn and Nimkoff discuss two types of culture –


  Material culture and

 non-material culture.


  1. material culture

Under the physical culture, it consists of all the physical and tangible things which have been created for humans, and which we can see and touch.  The number of material culture is more in modern society than in primitive society, Prof.  Beersteed has tried to make it more clear by dividing all the elements of material culture into the main 3 classes i Machines 1.  Equipment iii.  Pottery iv.  Buildings v.  Roads vi.  Bridge vii.  Craft objects viii Artistic items ix.  Clothing x.  Vehicle xi Furniture xii.  Food items xiii drugs etc.


 The characteristics of material culture are as follows

  1. Material culture is tangible.

  2 .  It keeps on increasing continuously.

  1. Material culture can be measured.
  2. Changes in fundamental culture are quick.
  3. Its usefulness and benefits can be evaluated.
  4. It cannot be accepted without changing the material culture.  That is, there is no difference in its form in moving and adopting it from one place to another.  For example motor vehicle, dress and cloth etc.


2.Non-material culture

Non-material culture includes all the non-material and intangible items which do not have any measure – weight, shape and color etc.  Non-physical culture is transferred from one generation to the next through the process of socialization and learning.  Thus we can say that non-material culture means that culture is in favor, which does not have any tangible form, but through thoughts and beliefs, it regulates, regulates and influences human behavior.  Pro .  Beersteed described ideas and ideal rules as most important under non-religious culture and said that thought is a major part of non-religious culture.  There can be a fixed number of ideas, yet Prof.  Beersteed has presented some set of ideas Scientific Truth Religious Belief Mythology iv.  Anecdote literature vi blind – faith vii.  Sutras viii  All these ideas are part of the non-material culture.  Ideal rules are not related to thinking, but to the ways of behaving.  That is, those rules or methods of behavior which the culture considers its ideal, are called ideal rules.

 Pro .  Biersteed has divided all ideal rules into 14 parts.

  1. Law 2. Act 3.  Rule 4.  Regulation 5.  Practices 6, Democracy 7.  Ethos 8.  Prohibition 9.  Fashion 10.  Sanskar 11.  Karma – Scandal 12.  Ritual 13.  Convention 14.  virtue .


 The characteristics of non-material culture are as follows

  1. Non-material culture is intangible.

  2 .  It is difficult to measure.

  1. Non-physical culture is complex.
  2. Evaluating its usefulness and benefits is a difficult task.

  5 Change in non-material culture is very slow.

  1. When the non-material culture is adopted from one place to another, then there is a slight change in its form.
  2. Non-material culture is related to the spiritual and internal life of man.


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