Bases of Social Stratification

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Bases of Social Stratification


Caste :

A major zoological basis of social stratification is ‘caste’. India is a shining example of this. In this caste stratification, the highest position is held by the ‘Brahmin’ and the lowest position is held by the ‘Shudra’. There are many castes respectively between these two ends. This stratification is very stable and firm.



Wealth has been a major basis of social stratification since ancient times. The more wealth people have in society, the higher their status is considered. They are successful in amassing many amenities of life. Conversely, the less wealth the people have, the lower their status. This is the reason why poverty is statusless.



Occupation is also a major basis of social stratification. On the basis of the high and low status of business in the society, the position of the people associated with it is decided. For example, some business is considered high and prestigious in the society. Administrators, doctors, professors etc. come in this. Then on the other hand some occupations are considered low, such as shaving, shoe making etc. In this way, those who are associated with administration, medicine and education have a high status. Then the condition of people associated with shoe making is low.




The oldest basis of social stratification is gender discrimination. In most societies the position of males is considered higher than that of females. As much facilities and freedoms are available to men in different areas of life, women do not have as much.




The second zoological basis of social stratification is considered to be age. Age usually reflects the mental maturity and experience of a person. That is why in most societies, older persons are given more respect, respect and special facilities.



On the basis of species variation, stratification of high and low is seen in the society. It is believed that the best among the species is the white species (Caucasian) because its color is white, high blood level, high mental ability and the spreader of civilization. After this, according to the merit, the yellow species (Mongoloid) and at the bottom are the black species (Negroid).



Religion has been the basis of stratification in religion-oriented societies. Those who are more attached to religion, religious knowledge, religious rituals and beliefs, their status is higher than the common people. Religious Gurus in India. The basic reason for the high status of priests and religious-knowledgeables etc. is their association with religion.



An important basis of social stratification is called politics. In whose hands is the reins of the government. Their status is high. Also, under the system of governance, there is a stratification of high and low on the basis of state power. For example, in India, the highest position is held by the President under the system of governance. Then after that the Vice-President, Prime Minister, Vice-Prime Minister, Cabinet level Ministers and Ministers of State etc. come respectively. Thus it is clear that there are many bases of social stratification.




Forms of Social Stratification


Closed Stratification:

Closed stratification is that stratification in which the status of a person is determined on the basis of birth. Also, there is no movement of any kind in it. According to this system, the work, status and convenience and inconvenience of a person is determined by birth. The best example of such a level is the Indian caste system. The caste of a person is determined by birth. But the status and status of one caste is higher or lower than that of another caste. For example, the position of a Brahmin is from the top to the bottom. There are many castes and sub-castes between these two ends. Then there is a change in their position. That is why caste is defined as a closed class. Closed stratification is known as caste stratification. _

Open Stratification:

Open Stratification is that stratification in which the status of a person is determined on the basis of their ability, ability and work-skill. Mobility is a delivery characteristic of such stratification. According to this system, a person can achieve high or low status by his efforts. Also, the situation once attained, it is not necessary that it should continue. It is possible to change that. The best example of such stratification is the class system. The basis of class is karma, by karma a person can be an industrialist, laborer, professor and student. Accordingly, the class of a person is determined. Also the square is the open group. A person can change his/her class membership. With birth one gets the class-status of his family. But on the basis of his ability and ability, he can increase his status. In this way, it is possible to reach from higher group to lower group, lower to higher group under class-system. That is why some people also call open stratification as class stratification.

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