Social Stratification

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Social Stratification

The term stratification is derived from geology and it refers to the classification of individuals into different levels in society, in relation to which it is believed that this arrangement of stratification in society is in the same vertical form as that of the earth. Layers/folds are arranged vertically above or below each other. But this geological metaphor also has its limitations. As André Beit (1985) puts it, “The arrangement of individuals in society is much more complex than the arrangement of layers on the earth and social layers cannot be seen with the naked eye as we can see the layers of the land.” Huh . “When we talk about social stratification, we are in a way concentrating on the inequalities prevailing in the society. In a broader sense, social stratification refers to the classification of society into different strata. This stratification refers to the classes arranged on the basis of hierarchy. Many historical and cultural diversity and disparities are found in these classes, in which castes, estates and classes are the most important. 1960 AD Since then, attention is also being paid to ethnic and gender stratification. Some important definitions are as follows.

In the words of Gisbert, “Social stratification is the division of society into permanent groups or categories which are related among themselves by relations of superiority and subordination. It is clear from this statement that social stratification is a system. By this system the society is divided into various permanent groups or categories. Also, these different groups are bound to each other by relations of superiority and subordination.
According to Sutherland and Woodward, “Stratification is generally a process of interaction or differentiation, by which some individuals attain a higher status than others. This definition suggests that social stratification is a There is a process. By this process the society is divided into different parts. In this division some get high status and others get low status.
Parsons (T. Parsons) has written, “Social stratification refers to the division of individuals into higher and lower hierarchies in a social system.” It is clear from this statement that social stratification is a system of division of society into higher and lower classes. Is .

Sorokin wrote, ‘Social stratification means the differentiation of a particular population into hierarchically imposed classes. “It is clear from this definition that by social stratification society is divided into different classes. These classes are below and above each other. That is, stratification is found between these classes.
It is clear from the above definitions that social stratification is a system through which society is divided into many groups and classes. Each class has a certain position which is higher or lower than each other. But, these classes and groups are related to each other.



Characteristics of Social Stratification


Social stratification is a universal process. It has been found in some form or the other in every society. Whether it is a backward society or a civilized, ancient society or modern, simple society or complex, the form of social stratification is bound to be seen. This process is found even in communist societies claiming to be classless societies.

Conscious Process:

Social stratification is a conscious process. Its construction is planned in a conscious state. Generally this work is done by the elite class of the society.

Division of Society:

Social stratification is the system of dividing the society into different classes. Through this the society is divided into many higher to lower classes and each class has a definite status. Along with this, work and facilities related to this position are also available.

Horizontal Division:

There is a horizontal division of society through social stratification. Horizontal division refers to the division where the society is divided into different classes and equality is found in the status of people of each class. For example, under caste stratification, equality is found in the status of people of one caste.
Relationship of Superiority and Subordination: Social stratification divides the society into several classes, upper and lower. But these classes are not separate from each other, but are related. Without one, the other cannot be imagined. For example, a form of social stratification, under class stratification, there are several classes, upper and lower, on the basis of occupation, but they are related by social relations. Similarly on the basis of meaning there are capitalist class and working class and they are related by relation of superiority and subordination.

Individual Process:

Olsen has mentioned this feature. He says that stratification is an individual process. Under this system, the people of one level compete with the people of other level.



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