Characteristics Of Indian Social Organization: New Bases

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Over time, the basis of Indian social organization also changed and many new oils were developed.  With the passage of time, the needs and experiences of the people with historical background also change.  As a result new ways of behaving develop.  Presently, due to industrialization, urbanization, western civilization and culture, modern education and new social values ​​in Indian society, some new basis has developed in place of the traditional basis of society.  Now people do not believe in the principle of Purushartha, nor is there any importance left to the Ashram-system.  Today, the perception of debts and PanchMahayagna have also weakened.  Now the various rites also do not have the importance that was till some time ago.  Today many people do not even believe in the principles of karma and rebirth.  Presently, caste-system has replaced varna-system and caste-system is also changing.  Today joint families are also on the verge of disintegration.  The new foundations of the present day Indian society have developed as follows:


Religion – Secularism

Secularism means having the same attitude towards all religions and not having any discrimination or favoritism on religious grounds.  The state does not discriminate against anyone on religious grounds and all are equal in their eyes, no matter who believes any religion.  Dr.  Srinivas has named this base as Secularization.  Until some time ago, the religious basis of various activities related to life was predominant, but now the importance of logical basis is increasing.  Dr.  Srinivas has written that secularization includes that what was previously considered religious is no longer considered to be.  Another essential element of secularization is rationalism.  Reasoning in rationalism – According to the principle of intelligence, all irrational things are eliminated as soon as possible.  The effect of secularization process is clearly increasing in the educated section of Indian society.  Now social values ​​of secular type are developing here.  Now, people of the intellectual class take a decision after considering every action or behavior in terms of their usefulness.  Now the values ​​of Sacred Society are becoming weaker in Indian society and the values ​​of rationality are increasing in importance.

Due to the spread of ideas, the importance of equality and freedom as a new basis of Indian society is increasing.


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  Class – System – Today in Indian society, the importance of Achievement at the place of birth is clearly visible.  Now the status of a person is being determined on the basis of his qualification, experience, income, wealth and position.  In such a situation, instead of caste, class-system is increasing in importance as the basis of Indian society.  Today, three classes are found mainly in the form of upper class, middle class and working class.  At present some of the members of the same caste are counted in the upper class, some in the middle class and the rest in the laborer or lower class.  Today the trend towards social contact, food relations and marriage, etc. with people of their own class is increasing.  A person can now move from one class to another on the basis of his achievements, but in theory it is not as easy as class change looks, in practice.  Yet the importance of class-system in urban communities is increasing especially.  The caste-system in rural societies still has considerable influence.  It is so important that class-system is becoming more effective today as an emerging base.  In addition to the above mentioned three new foundations in Indian society, two processes are going on especially which are affecting the social system here in some degree.  These processes are: Sanskritization, and modernization.



The development of cities, the spread of industries, the mechanization and modern education began to change the caste-system during the British rule.  People started thinking from the point of view of liberal, democratic and individual equality, but a connection is found in the caste-system.  Here one caste is considered high or low in the fry of another caste.  In order to elevate their status as an ethnic group or to gain the same prestige as any higher caste building, here to follow the way of life or the entire way of life of any higher caste or castes in lower and m level castes.  Is found  To express this situation, Dr.  M .  But Srinivas proposed a concept called Sanskritization.  This process has influenced the various social groups associated with the Indian social structure in different ways.  Pro .  Defining ‘Sanskritisation’, Srinu wrote, “Sanskritisation is the process by which a lower ‘hit caste or a tribe or some other group moves their customs, ritualistic ideology and way of life in the direction of a higher, often Dwij’ caste.”  Changes. “Next you have written,” Ordinarily, after such changes, the lower caste starts claiming a higher status in the system of caste system than the traditional status in the local community. “As a result of this process caste –  The traditional structure of the system has changed a lot.  Now the social distance between different castes has reduced considerably compared to some time back.  Nowadays social contacts and food relations between people of different castes keep increasing.



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Yogendra singh considers modernization as a cultural concept that includes Rational Attitude, Universalistic View, Empathy, Scientific World View, Humanity, Technological Advancement  ), Etc.  Dr.  Singh considers modernization not the right of any one ethnic group or cultural group, but of the entire human society.  Dr.  s .  C .  Dubey considers modernization free of values.  You do not consider any specific model or route for this.  You have said that in India, we have adopted democracy, secularism and socialism in the political field and have considered the West as a model, while we have considered Russia and China as models for the Equalitarian Society.  “As a result of modernization, people grow in logic, perception, mobility and participation.


Dr.  Dubey mainly involves three things in it:

(i) Use of inertial power to solve human problems.

(ii) This is done collectively rather than individually, resulting in complex organizations.

(ii) Changes in personality, society and culture to run this type of complex organization


  Necessary .


Dr.  Dubey considers education to be a powerful means of modernization, as it leads to the growth of knowledge and changes in values ​​and perceptions which are very necessary to reach the objective of modernization.  Today, as a result of modernization in India, more freedom has been demanded in every sphere of life.  As a result of the process of modernization, people are losing their faith on many ancient religious beliefs and the importance of rationality and work-related relationship is increasing rapidly in social institutions.  It is clearly known from the above discussion that today the importance of the traditional foundations of Indian society is becoming less and new grounds are being developed.  Although India is moving from Sacred Society to Secular Society, various sociological studies show that there is no clear opposition between Tradition and Modernity.  Here both of them are walking together.  In the actions or behavior of the same person, sometimes the influence of tradition, sometimes modernity and sometimes both can be seen in a mixed form.  It is so important that the traditional basis of Indian society has changed due to many reasons and changes and many new grounds have developed.


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