Education and Development

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Education and Development


Granted that education has its own definite value, yet it must be asked what role can be assigned to it in national development. Educational systems are costly and must be weighed against other potential development projects in listning priorities for developing countries. Therefore, it is necessary that the link between education and development is clearly established.

During the past two decades there have been at least four major changes in the way development theorists and economists understand this relationship. An understanding of these changes is important if one wants to understand the changes in development policy in the Third World over the past twenty years, and in particular educational decisions.
It should be noted that there was an era when development was generally identified with economic growth. This is shown by the fact that the most common indices of “development” during the 1960s and earlier were:

1. Increase in Gross National Product,
2. Rate of technological advancement and industrialization,
3. Better standard of living.

Current philosophy, however, is less inclined to view development as simply a form of economic growth. The meaning of development is broadening to include more than just economic growth. While this may be an extension of one term, the task of defining a changing relationship is not an easy one when the meaning of one of the terms of the relationship itself is changing.


Disregard for Education:

In the years following the war, education was generally neglected as a factor in the economic development of what would later be known as Third World countries. While education was always considered humane and popular for all people, it was seen as a luxury for countries that were struggling to produce enough to feed their populations.
The real imperative for these countries was increased productivity, and that meant modernizing productive methods—factories, resource use, and so on. The main means of achieving this was the creation of sufficient capital in the country to allow industrialization and infrastructure development. accumulation of savings within the country, or substantial inflow of foreign aid from abroad, were prerequisites for economic

Development. Several studies (the most popular of which was Rosto’s Stages of Economic Development) were to demonstrate the close relationship between capital formation and economic growth in the industrialized nations of the West. This was found to be equally true for non-industrialized, more traditional countries elsewhere.


Investment in Humans:

In the early 1960s, the theory of evolution underwent a remarkable change. More rigorous studies of economic growth showed that only a part of it could be explained by the amount of capital investment. Other factors appear to be at least as important in development. One correlation that was prominent in studies by economists at this time was between education levels and economic growth.
Some found a close relationship between early education and gross national product; Others said that higher education was the deciding factor; Still others argued that general literacy was the key element. Recognizing that the level of education bears a causal relationship with economic growth, economists viewed “investment in human resources” as a necessary condition for economic growth. In practice this meant that foreign aid to developing countries was to be allocated primarily to hospitals and schools rather than factories.

This inversion of development theory is explained as follows: there can be no economic development in a society unless people adopt values conducive to modernization and progress and unless they are trained in the basic skills needed in a transitional society Is.
The “crust of tradition” needs to be broken before change can happen. Traditional attitudes that discouraged growth had to be properly shaken, and there was no better way to do this than by wheting the material appetites of the people. It would take them just in time to turn to Western methods of production and resource use. For other theorists, education’s primary place in development was a matter of recognizing the value of capital investment in human beings. Gunnar Myrdal, whose Asian drama reflects in large part the thinking of this period, quotes a representative statement: “Countries are underdeveloped because most of their people are underdeveloped, with no opportunity to expand their potential capital in the service of society. Not there.”

Thinking on economic growth had undergone this change: the cause of economic growth was seen as “the ability to create wealth rather than the creation of wealth itself”. Thus, each graduate of a school in a developing country was considered a valuable resource capable of making a significant contribution to economic development. Over time, the investment in their education will be returned to the country many times over.



rejection of the panacea

By the late 1960s it had become clear that in comparison to capital formation, investment in education and health by itself did not ensure development. Education, once neglected in development, has since been given a leading position in aid programs for developing countries. Neither approach proved to be an impressive success. Critics soon sought to take education out of the context of the many more complex forces at work in society and

Warned of giving it too much importance in development. He warned that some
There was no need for pesticides, tractors and education to increase agricultural productivity. Other types of institutional reform—for example, land reform programs—were recognized as essential components of development. If education was a prerequisite for economic development, it was by no means the only one and perhaps not even the most important one.

Critics of the “invest in humans” theory of development point out that education can hinder rather than promote economic growth. A case study from Kerala, one of India’s states, has shown how educational expansion can lead to political instability, social unrest and, in some circumstances, slowing of economic growth. The old idea governing educational acceleration in developing countries – “You can never have too much of a good thing.” – was now being criticized from several quarters.

In its place came the idea of “controlled education” for developing countries. Educational expansion must take place within the limits imposed by capital formation in the country. It should not reduce the capacity of the economy to absorb its products. This raised another question. If education can indeed hold back economic development, shouldn’t it also hinder social development in some cases? A balance was needed between educational emphasis and the development of other institutions in the Third World. Otherwise, education may be counterproductive in terms of overall development. Hence, education was no longer seen as a worthless commodity.

Education as a barrier to development

By the beginning of this decade a small but growing number of social critics were heard saying that formal education was not a mixed blessing at all for Third World countries; It was a real hindrance to development. For Ivan Ilyich, Paulo Freire, and others who were at the forefront of the movement, “evolution” took on a new definition. The measure of growth was no longer increased productivity and more dollars. National and personal wealth was now seen as secondary to a sense of power—the ability to make real choices and shape one’s own future. A certain level of national prosperity is a condition for achieving this power, provided it does not lead to the hegemony of the rich world powers. Just as development means freedom from national impotence, it also means freedom from powerlessness for all social groups within the country. In this concept of development, special importance is given to the eradication of social inequality. And it is here that formal education, as embodied in the Western school, comes under serious attack. By sorting people into their own self-made categories (PhD, AB, high school graduate, dropout), it leads to class stratification and actually promotes social inequality.

The formal education system, critics allege, creates a sense of dependence and helplessness among those they seek to help. People learn to distrust their own power to engage in meaningful learning outside of school. The Western school, says Illich, is the product of an industrial society – and therefore as inappropriate for many developing countries as the skyscraper and the fast express train. Their quarrel is not with education, but with the expensive type of formal education that consumes a large portion of the national budget for the benefit of an elite representing only a small fraction of the national population. Others argue that the purported economic benefits from education are largely illusory. As the consumption of the educated eventually exceeds their productivity, education is no less expensive than the goods they learn to consume. The result is a society that is pushing itself to meet educational demands. In the final analysis, the system of formal education transplanted from foreign shores to developing countries is self-defeating as a means of achieving development.

It would be hard to imagine a greater ups and downs in principles than have taken place in the last twenty years. Education, which was earlier ignored as a force in development, then became the magic key to achieve economic growth. not long after it was

Mysterious, although still given an important place in national development. Now, as disillusionment with the results of development grows during the 1960s, education (or at least the formal education with which we are most familiar) is, in the eyes of some, a real barrier to more broadly defined development. . One of the purposes of studying history is to help us relativize the dogmas of a particular era so that we can understand what is of lasting value. This is especially important for us as we try to focus on the meaning of education in holistic development. Our schools in Micronesia were built on the limited theoretical foundations of the early 1960s, and they are under attack from other limited campuses
We work from today. It is impossible for teachers to ignore the important question of the relationship between education and holistic development, and it is unwise for us to look at just one small question. Perhaps this survey will help us gain a greater perspective.
• Sociology of education is the study of whether
Such public institutions and individual experiences influence education and its outcomes. It is mostly related to the public schooling systems of modern industrial societies, including the expansion of higher, further, adult and continuing education.
• The scope of sociology of education is vast. It deals with general concepts such as society, culture, community, class, environment, socialization, internalization, accommodation, assimilation, cultural gap, subculture, status, role, etc.
• Every society has its own changing socio-cultural needs and education is needed to meet these needs. Conservation of resources, environmental protection, global citizenship etc. is the need of the day. So education fulfills these various needs. As the needs of the society change, so does the education
• The basis of sociology of education is different from the concept of educational sociology which is seen as the application of general principles and findings of sociology to the administration and/or processes of education.








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