socialization and education

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socialization and education



Man keeps on learning something or the other from birth till death. When a person is born, at that time he is only a living effigy of flesh and bones. At the time of birth, he has social qualities and not antisocial. He was not even aware of his body. The only reason for this is that ‘self’ does not develop in him. But gradually he becomes a social animal growing up in the midst of society and culture. That is, a person learns to behave according to the traditions, customs, beliefs, customs of the society. Thus, the process by which a biological being turns into a social being is called socialization. Through this process man learns the norms of the society and becomes an active member of the society by behaving according to them. The process of socialization takes place in every society, be it the civilized society of America or an uncivilized wild race. It is through this that the personality of a person develops. Different sociologists have explained the process of socialization in different ways.
According to Johnson, “Socialization is a learning process by which the individual performs social roles. In this definition, Johnson has shown that a person learns the values, ideals, customs of the society and plays his roles and cooperates in social work.

According to Fichter, “Socialization is the process by which the individual accepts the patterns of social behavior and learns to adapt to them.” Fichter, like Johnson, has described socialization as a process of absorption.
According to Kuppuswami, ‘Socialization is an interactive process by which the child’s behavior is shaped according to the expectations of the members of the group to which he belongs.
According to Bogardus, “Socialization is the process of working together, developing a sense of collective responsibility, and being guided by the need for the welfare of others.” – Bogardus, in his definition, emphasizes the interaction effect in the process of socialization But in this, he has emphasized only on the positive initiative. That is, he published only virtues under socialization. This is the biggest weakness of Bogardus’s definition. In fact, through the process of socialization, a person does not only acquire virtues and good things. Learns, but also learns some opposite things or demerits from them.
According to Kimball Young, “Socialization is the process by which an individual enters the social and cultural sphere and becomes a member of various groups in the society and by which he is motivated to accept the values and ideals of the society.
It is clear from the analysis of the above definitions that socialization is a process by which a person learns to behave according to social customs and conventions. According to the different conditions of social life, the development of a person’s personality takes place only through socialization. Self-consciousness in the individual by socialization. Self-determination, a sense of who we are. The qualities of social self-control and social responsibility come

Characteristics of Socialization

The characteristics are becoming clear on the basis of the definitions given by various scholars regarding socialization. Some of the key features are as follows
(i) Socialization is a process of learning.
(ii) Social customs, traditions and ideals are learned through this.
(iii) Through this process the individual changes from a biological being to a social being.
(iv) Socialization is a lifelong process, that is, it continues from birth till death.
(v) Socialization develops self-consciousness, self-determination and sense of belonging in a person.
(vi) It inculcates the qualities of self-control and social responsibility in a person.
(vii) The process of socialization passes through different levels. ,
VIII) The process of socialization takes place through various means.
(ix) The process of socialization takes place in all societies.

Aims of Socialization

Bom and Ceznik have mentioned four main objectives of socialization.
1. Basic Discipline – Socialization is necessary to keep human life regular. Through the process of socialization, a person learns the customs, ideals and values of the society. Thus he becomes an active member of the society. As a result of socialization, he establishes harmony with other people in the society.
2. To instal aspirations – The purpose of the process of socialization is to create aspirations in the individual and help in their fulfillment. It means to say that desires are born inside a person with socialization. Aspirations are created from these desires and then these are also fulfilled through the process of socialization.
3. To teach the responsibility of social roles: Every person has a status in the society and there are roles associated with that status. It is necessary to fulfill these roles. type of socialization

It makes a person aware of his social responsibilities. It is through this that a person learns social customs, as a result of which he becomes successful in performing his roles.
4. Development of social skills – The process of socialization develops those abilities within the individual which help him to adjust successfully in all spheres of social life. Through socialization, those qualities come in the person, who are with the society. Adaptation helps.

Stages of the Process of Socialization

Johnson has divided the process of socialization into four levels.
(i) Oral Stage
(ii) Anal Stage (iii)
Identification Stage
(iv) Adolescence

1. Oral Stage – This is the first stage of the process of socialization. In this state, the fetus remains comfortably in the womb. This stage lasts for one to one and a half years. In this stage, all needs are generally physical and verbal. In this stage the child does not know anyone in the family except his mother. In fact, he does not feel himself separate from the mother. According to Parsons, a child is an asset to other members of the family. It is called the oral stage because it learns to signal for its care. The infant begins to express gestures through its face. In this stage, children feel physical pleasure. This situation is called by Freud as primary identification. In this condition, children feel hungry, feel cold or hot, and experience discomfort in every task. These inconveniences cause distress to the child and he cries and screams. Samajkamakoma kaiteemchalat.
2 . Anal Stage – The stage of infancy starts from one and a half years and ends in the third or fourth year. In this stage the child is given toilet training. The child is taught to wash hands with soap and keep clothes clean. In this stage the child starts reacting in every way. Not only does he desire to love the mother, but he himself also starts giving affection to the mother. In this level, the child’s actions are classified as right or wrong so that he can understand the difference between right and wrong. He is praised for the right actions, and on the other hand, scolded for the wrong actions. In this way he starts behaving according to his family and culture. In this stage the child comes in contact with other family members apart from the mother and gets influenced by them. Now he starts talking and walking a little. In this way, the nature of imitation is developed in children. When family members show anger, protest, love and cooperation, children also start showing feelings of tension and love. Thus the child starts playing dual roles.

3. Identification Stage Generally, this stage lasts from three to four years of age till twelve to thirteen years of age. Johnson told that in this stage the child becomes attached to the whole family and starts recognizing all the members. The main feature of this stage is that the child is not familiar with sexual practices, but many sexual changes start taking place in his body. At this time the child starts identifying its gender (i.e. whether it is a boy or a girl) and its interest in the opposite sex starts increasing. In this stage the child is expected to behave according to his/her gender. If he behaves according to his gender, he is encouraged. In this way he gradually learns gender discrimination. In this stage, sexual development in children becomes to such an extent that they become jealous of their parents. In the beginning the child is not able to establish complete identity with his gender and situation. Because jealousy and anxiety are more in him. But he gradually learns to control them. In this stage, children develop complex emotions. Boys are unconsciously attracted towards the mother and girls towards the father. Boys’ attraction towards their mother is called Oedipus complex and girls’ attraction towards their father is called Electra complex. The stage of identification is also known as Latency stage.
4. Adolescence (Adolescence) Puberty often begins in this stage. In this stage, children aspire for more independence from their parents. This stage lasts from 13 years to 18 years only. This stage is very important. It happens, because in this stage boys and girls experience serious tensions. The reason for this tension is the physical changes in boys and girls. At this time, children are expected to take necessary decisions related to their lives on their own. For example, choice of life partner, choice of occupation, etc. Children often get confused while taking these decisions, but they are expected to take these decisions keeping in mind their family traditions and cultural values. Make decisions. But usually it is the interest of teenagers
Forests are unfavorable and are made due to mental stress. The process of socialization at this stage is influenced by the incest taboos of the society which have special significance in the culture. In this stage, children have to adjust with neighbors, playmates, friends, teachers and newcomers apart from their family. In such a situation, they get new experiences by facing new situations. In this stage, children also learn to generalize situations. In this state, the feeling of super ego develops in them, due to which self-control arises in them. The process of socialization does not end in these four stages. But they are important and noteworthy from the point of view of personality building. After this, the processes become easier, because the language and those abilities are developed in the person, due to which he can easily understand and assimilate a situation.
Even after adolescence the process of socialization goes through three major stages

(i) youth
(ii) adulthood
(iii) old age

(i) Youth – In this stage the person attains many positions, such as father, husband etc. According to all these posts, the person works and fulfills the important responsibilities of the family and the society. He has to face a situation of role conflict in performing the roles related to different types of positions.
, ) Adulthood – In this stage the burden of social responsibilities increases on the individual. He also has to bear the burden of education, initiation, marriage and business etc. of his family and children. As a senior officer or servant of the office, new responsibilities have to be handled. In this way he gets new experiences in different situations.
Old age – In this stage, physical, mental and social changes start becoming evident on the person. Now they play many important roles as Dada, Nana etc. job holder
The person retires from service at this stage. In general, now he has to depend on others. At this time he has to adapt to many new circumstances. It is clear that the process of socialization continues in one form or the other throughout life. After adolescence, this process becomes relatively simple. Johnson has discussed three reasons for this. First, the adult is generally motivated to act for the attainment of a goal which he himself has seen. Second, the new role he wants to internalize has a lot in common with the roles he has played before. Third, he easily understands new expectations through language. Thus the process of socialization continues automatically after adolescence.

Agencies of Socialization

Family – Family has an important place in the means of socialization. Man remains in the family from birth till death. Therefore, it plays a very important role in the formation of personality. When a human being is born, then it is just a living effigy of flesh and bones. Gradually he comes in contact with the family members and changes from a biological being to a social being. Parent-child relationship in the family, parent-child relationship and mutual relationship between children also affect the process of socialization. We can understand their effects in the following way
(a) Parent-Parent Relationship – The role of parents is very important in the families of all societies. The father provides instrumental leadership to the children and the mother provides expressive leadership to the children. The father is the owner of the farm and business as a seeker leader and is also the leader in the hunt, while the mother acts as the mediator in the family. It is only the mother who does the work of making a compromise and removing quarrels and disharmony. Along with this, she is affectionate, close, benevolent and emotional towards children. Son wants to be like father and daughter wants to be like mother. In this way, it can be said that the influence of parents is immense on children. If a rift or gap arises in their relationship, then it affects the personality of the children. In a family where there is quarrel and discord between the parents, there is a lack of balance in the children of that family. If husband and wife maintain a relation of love and cooperation in the family, then it has a very good effect on the children and they become successful in living a balanced life. The development of children’s morality also takes place in the family. In the families where the parents give emphasis on moral ideas, in those families only high morality is developed in the children.
(b) Relationship between parents and children – Not only the relationship between parents in the family, but the relationship between parents and children also affects their personality. When parents give enough love to children, pay attention to their needs and requirements, then they feel secure. If the parents do not give enough love to the child, do not fulfill their needs, then they feel insecure. parents if

Children are looked upon with disdain and neglect, then the feeling of inferiority develops in the children.
Children are looked upon with disdain and neglect, then the feeling of inferiority develops in the children.
बच्चों को तिरस्कार और उपेक्षा की दृष्टि से देखा जाता है तो बच्चों में हीन भावना विकसित हो जाती है।
If children are looked upon with disdain and neglect, then the feeling of inferiority develops in children.
यदि बच्चों को तिरस्कार और उपेक्षा की दृष्टि से देखा जाए तो बच्चों में हीन भावना विकसित हो जाती है।
Sometimes they also become vindictive in nature and a feeling of revenge towards the society awakens in them. On the contrary, excessive pampering makes children careless and irresponsible. They expect from others, but become selfish and self-centered. Sometimes it is also seen that parents do not see all their children equally, they discriminate against them. This kind of behavior with children affects their personality. The one who gets more love becomes a scoundrel and the one who is not favored becomes destitute and shy. Along with this, the feeling of jealousy and rivalry develops among the children. Kimball Young has said in this context, “The basic socialization of the child takes place in the family only. All the basic ideas, healthy, skills and norms are acquired in the family only.”

(c) Mutual relation of children – Mutual relation of children is also important. The mutual relation of children means the relation between brother-brother and sister-sister. Apart from this, the effect of birth order of children also affects their personality. It is often seen that the first child of the family wants to enjoy all the facilities alone.

The only reason for this is that for a long time he alone gets everyone’s love. Enjoys all kinds of comforts, as a result of which he also becomes selfish. On the contrary, the youngest child of the family is loved by all. Since there is no other child to share his love, the childishness of such children slowly fades away. Middle children become of competitive tendency. The main reason for this is that these children sometimes compare themselves with older children and sometimes with younger children. All the time they feel that the amount of love they are getting is not enough, it gets divided into big and small. If a child in the family indulges in delinquent behavior, it has a bad effect on other children as well. On the contrary, if a child goes ahead, other children also try to move forward. The social status of the family also has an impact on the development of the children. It is clear from the above discussions that the family is the basis of socialization. Davis also clarified the role of the family in socialization and said that “the initial stages of socialization begin in the home.” According to Samuel, “It is primarily the home where the heart opens, habits are formed.” The intellect is awakened and good or bad character is molded. In the family, the child gets such education, which helps him to become an ideal citizen and also helps him in different situations of the society and teaches him to adjust.
Play-Group (Play or PeerGroup) – After the family comes the place of play-group, which plays an important role in the process of socialization. Sports – The group is also called sports or group of friends. Leaving the family, the child plays with other children of his age. In this play group, the child learns to follow the rules of the game, which in turn teaches him to be in control and follow discipline. As a result, he remains restrained and disciplined in different areas and situations of life. This quality makes him a guide to others. In the family, children get security and love, but in the play group, they develop the ability to adapt to adverse situations. The habits, interests, attitudes and thoughts of the children in these groups differ because they come from different families. Through play, children establish rapport with everyone. If he loses during the game, he acts with restraint.

As a result, through this he learns to remain self-controlled even after the difficulties and failures that come in life. When a child violates the rules of the game, other children oppose him. Together they emphasize on following the rules of the game. This behavior controls and directs the behavior of children. Leadership, ability to take responsibility, performance of duty in the child while playing with his playmates; The habit of accepting one’s mistake etc. qualities are developed. All these qualities provide the basis for the personality of the child. Rijman says that the sports group is an important group for socialization in the present time, because nowadays the person depends more on the same age people for guidance and direction. This is the reason why most of them give more importance to the advice of friends for their decisions. Children who do not get a group of friends, they do not play, they do not develop independently.
Neighborhood – The third place comes after the family and the sports group. Children learn a lot by coming in contact with neighbours. Their thoughts, ideals, beliefs, actions and suggestions have a deep impact on the personality of the children. Neighbors have special affection for children. So from time to time 10 praise or criticize their behavior. Neighbor’s medium of humor and sarcasm
Children learn to behave according to the traditions and customs of their society. This is the reason why people consider it necessary to have good people in their neighborhood. Children imitate the behavior of people in the neighborhood. The neighborhood takes the form of an extended family in a way.
Kinship Group – Kinship group includes all those relatives, who are related to each other by blood and marriage ties. For example, parents, brothers and sisters, husband and wife, mother-in-law and father-in-law, Sister-in-law, brother-in-law, uncle-aunt, maternal uncle-aunt etc. The thoughts, behavior and suggestions of these relatives have an effect on the personality of the children. On coming in contact with them, the children keep on learning something or the other. While playing roles, he learns with whom to have close relationships, with whom to joke and joke or distance. He learns from these relationships that of which status to give respect, love and affection. Cooperative life after marriage Learns. Thus his overall personality develops. All these are the primary means of socialization. Apart from these secondary means also have an important place. Some of the important institutions which contribute as secondary means are as follows
Educational Institutions – Schools, colleges and universities etc. come under educational institutions. The main medium of education is the book. Which develops new knowledge and intelligence in children. During this period the habits of children are formed. which is necessary for life. Educational institutions have their own rules and procedures, which students have to follow. Students try to mold themselves according to their standards. The mental and intellectual abilities of the children are developed by the studies there. Through books, they get knowledge of different works and different cultures and their achievements. Individuals from educational institutions are appropriate – inappropriate. Practical is able to get the knowledge of theoretical distinction. The importance of educational institutions has been going on since ancient times. Earlier people used to get education by going to the house of the Guru, now people go to schools and colleges and acquire knowledge. Thus it is clear that educational institutions have always been playing an important role in the process of socialization.
, Cultural Institutions – Cultural institutions also have a lot of contribution in the process of socialization. The work of cultural institutions is to play a major role in the socialization of the individual and in the disorder of his personality and to introduce him to the culture of the society. Knowledge, world practice, ethics and law under culture. Ideal values etc. provide a special direction to a person’s personality. In fact, the qualities, thoughts and behavior that man learns under the process of socialization, they all come under culture. Culture refines human behavior. With the help of culture, a person takes birth as a living being and becomes a human i.e. a social being. Robert Beerstead has said in this context, “We are not human by birth, but become human by acquiring our culture.” In this way, culture and cultural institutions are very important in the socialization of an individual.
The Occupational Group also imbibes the values of the occupation a person is engaged in. He comes in contact with many people in the course of his business and knows their qualities and characteristics and also imbibes them. In this way, every person related to business, whether it is officer or agent, manager or customer, learns something or the other from everyone, due to which his behavior is refined.
Caste and Class: The role of caste and class in the socialization of an individual cannot be denied. Each caste has its own practices, traditions, beliefs, thoughts, feelings and behavior patterns related to food, drink, living etc. This is the reason why there is some difference in the personality of people of different castes. The rituals of different castes are also different, due to which their socialization is done differently. Similarly, the lifestyle, behavior, thoughts and feelings of each class are different, which affect the personality of the person. Thus it is clear that caste and class give direction to the process of socialization in their own way.
Political Institutions – Political institutions also have an important contribution in socialization. The state affects all aspects of human life. Political institutions introduce a person to law, governance and justice system. Makes a person aware of his rights and duties. In modern complex societies, where mutual relations between individuals are formal and indirect, the role of the state is very important in determining, regulating and controlling the behavior of individuals. In the modern era, many important functions of the family are being fulfilled by the state. As a result, the importance of the state is increasing day by day. Along with the state, it also has its judiciary, by which the person who rules and regulations of the state

violates it, he is punished. Because of this, people try to live in a disciplined manner.
Economic Institutions – The role of economic institutions in socialization cannot be denied. Economic institutions enable a person to live. Economic institutions are related to the system of production, productive forces, nature of production, nature of consumption, distribution system, standard of living, business cycle, economic policies, industrialization, division of labor, economic competition etc. The effect of all these is on the person’s interpersonal relationships, thoughts. It depends on beliefs etc. For example, economic competition is not found in agricultural economy, whereas fierce economic competition is found in industrial system. The economic conditions of the society have an impact on the type, size and function of marriage and family. Thus it is clear that economic institutions influence the process of socialization of the individual.

Mass Media:
From the earliest forms of print technology to electronic communication (radio, TV etc.), media have been playing a central role in shaping the personality of individuals. Since the last century, technological innovations such as radio, motion pictures, recorded music and television have become important agents of socialization.

Television, in particular, is an important force in the socialization of children throughout almost the entire New World. According to a study conducted in the US, the average youth (between the ages of 6 and 18) spends more time watching ‘the tube’ (15,000 to 16,000 hours) than studying in school. Apart from sleeping, watching TV is the most time consuming activity of the youth.

In relation to the other agents of socialization discussed above, such as the family, peer group, and school, TV has some distinctive features. It allows for imitation and role play but does not encourage more complex forms of learning. Watching TV is a passive experience. Psychologist Yuri Bronfenbrenner (1970) expressed concern about the ‘insidious effect’ of TV in encouraging children to forego human contact for passive viewing.

Religious Institutions – Religious institutions have a deep impact on a person’s life. The concepts of sin-virtue, karma-rebirth and hell-heaven come under religion. Religious institutions inspire a person to do proper, virtuous and religious works and not to do improper, sinful, irreligious and anti-social works. Religious institutions inculcate purity, peace, justice, good character and peace in a person. As they develop the qualities. Religion makes a person follow the social rules by showing fear of supernatural power. Davis says that religion helps in the coordination of society and personality. Religion as a means of socialization plays an important role in the development of personality of an individual.

Stages and stages of professional socialization of teachers



There are various models of occupational socialization. They are as follows;

simpson model
Stage 1: Proficiency in specific job functions.
Stage 2: Attachment to significant others in the work environment. Step 3: Internalizing the values of the professional group and adopting the behaviors prescribed by it.
violence model
Stage I: Transition of Anticipated Role Expectations to Role Expectations of the Social Group.
Stage II has two components: Component One: Attachment to significant others. Component Two: Ability to note inconsistencies presented by expected roles and their significant others. This stage can involve strong emotional reactions to conflicting sets of expectations. The resolution of conflicts is successful if their role models display appropriate behavior and show how conflicting systems of norms and values can be integrated.
Stage III: Internalization of role values/behaviors. The degree of internalization and the extent to which conflicts are resolved are variable.
The professional socialization process is often defined by three phases: Recruitment.
vocational preparation
organizational socialization

The first two stages are regarded as pre-service or advance socialization stages occurring before and during the vocational education period. Organizational socialization is considered to be the in-service period during which the individual interprets and assumes the role of a qualified professional in a given work environment.

(Olensen and Whittaker 1970). Staton and Hunt (1992) developed a chronological model of teacher socialization process. The model has three categories: biography, pre-service experience, and in-service experience. The initial role is played by the first two processes: biography and pre-service experience which can be considered as the initial form of socialization of the teacher. Many authors, including Wright (1959) and Wright and Tusca (1967), argue that the kind of relationship teachers and essential people had in childhood influences their choice of work as teachers in the future. Teachers generate stereotypes that influence their behavior and role as teachers. For some this role model would become a guide to what a teacher should be like.

Weidman, Tweel, and Stein (2001) conducted a comprehensive review of graduate and professional socialization in higher education. he made a model

Which provides a useful basis for explaining socialization in the higher education system. The model is presented in Figure 1.
Thus vocational socialization is a two-stage process that is formal and informal in which the skills and values acquired in training must be adjusted according to the demands of the work setting.

According to learning style theory, learning is a four-stage process: “concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation” (Kolb, 1974). To be a high achiever, a student must be encouraged through learning,
ie through teaching, to join, integrate and make a great effort

academic work. (Astin 1984; Kuh 1996; Pascarella and Terangini 1991). Thus, students should be encouraged by faculty members to participate in student activities, integrate into the major program, and participate in research projects. According to McKinney, et al (1998), activities outside the classroom lead to the process of socialization of students.
“Professional socialization” or informal socialization such as: independent research papers, volunteer service, informal interactions with faculty members and teachers… may be seen as unimportant by some but considered important to others. McKinney, et al, (1998) emphasized that “providing learning opportunities and experiences, as well as knowledge and skills, helps students understand the workings of college life, the importance of a fulfilling academic experience, sociological imagination, and the ethics and standards of our discipline.” Other authors define these activities as “other” or “informal” curriculum activities outside the traditional classroom. (Kuh 1993; Kuh, et al, 1994). According to Weidman (1989), both formal and informal socialization influence students’ values, aspirations and career choices.

The importance of professional socialization outside of class room activities was discussed by McKinney, et al. (nineteen ninety eight). He argued that: Professional socialization encourages active rather than passive learning, a process that essentially breaks the ice for diverse student populations and serves as a remedy for declining enrollment. Hence, it works on retaining top students and preparing them for graduate programmes. On the other hand, Brooks (1997) considered professional socialization as a solution to the problem of isolation caused by the use of technology in the teaching and learning process.

Many positive associations exist between professional socialization and student outcomes. Neapolitan (1992) studied the effect of a small-scale internship program on the clarity of students’ career plans. They concluded that students who participated in internship programs were more confident about their career choices and majors. Pascarella (1980) suggests that a positive relationship exists between informal socialization and students’ satisfaction with the college experience, greater educational aspirations, intellectual development, academic achievement, and persistence in college. In addition, “more student-faculty interaction, interaction with faculty members outside of the classroom, or working with faculty members on research outside of the classroom” positively correlates with student satisfaction with the institution (Astin 1993), persistence (Grosset) found related to 1991), educational aspiration (Hearn 1987; Pascarella 1985), academic development (Terrizzini and Wright 1987), knowledge acquisition (Kuh 1993; Springer et al. 1995) and career interest and selection (Astin 1993). Other researchers studied the effects of “student involvement in extracurricular activities”. Results showed a positive correlation with students’ persistence (Carroll 1988; Christie & Diham 1991; Pascarella & Chapman 1983), academic growth (Terrizzini & Wright 1987), and level of intrinsic interest in learning (Terrizzini et al. 1995).

According to McKinney, et al (1998) most students defined professional socialization “in terms of learning what behaviours, norms or roles are expected of them in their filed or future employment”. Talk about speaking up. Having a conversation, and dressing professionally.” The same students suggested a variety of measures to improve professional socialization. He talked about: “improving internship programs, providing more information about career options, access to mentoring and more interaction with faculty members”. On the other hand, faculty members defined professional socialization as “involvement of students in research, pro-seminars, capstone courses, informal contact with faculty members, taking students to professional conferences, participating in faculty-student social events, and/or or as defined by the Dept. research symposium, and/or field trip, and/or career day, and/or departmental newsletter…”

Despite the fact that most researchers encourage informal socialization because of the various benefits it provides, several barriers still exist. Many faculty members complain of extra work which requires extra time and extra efforts
l As an additional cost to the institution promoting such socialization. Other

The problems relate to the resistance to change that may occur because some faculty members and chairpersons are unwilling to accept reform. Another opposing party could be parents and legislators. In this case, students may not be able to cope with such an environment or may not be motivated to do additional work, plus the faculty award structure may be unable to evaluate each faculty member’s job and thus accordingly can compensate, which fact can be another demotivator. (McKinney, et al, 1998)

In his quest to find the characteristics of an excellent teacher, Collinson (1999) defined three types of knowledge that an excellent teacher should possess. It is no longer a matter of professional knowledge or the degree to which the teacher has control over his subject, but also of interpersonal and intrapersonal knowledge. Interpersonal knowledge is defined as “people skills”, “the relationship and interaction of the teacher with his or her surroundings”. Howe and Collinson. (1995) supported the importance of cross-learning as it makes teachers more tolerant of criticism from different viewpoints and motivates them to accept new approaches to learning and teaching. Sternberg and Howard (1995) emphasize the link between successful informal socialization in its various forms and interpersonal knowledge. On the other hand, intrapersonal knowledge, defined as “who we are”, is related to “ethics of care, work ethics and disposition to learn”. A teacher’s ability to translate his or her own ethics and temperament to students will certainly affect student performance, commitment, and confidence.

In short and according to Weidman (1989) both formal and informal socialization influence students’ values, aspirations and career choices.


The distinction between education and socialization has been made in many ways and these concepts are also considered by some to be more or less synonymous. The distinction generally views socialization as the process of preparing an individual to become an efficient social agent in society, and education as something in addition to this, which may include being able to reflect critically on a particular society or This can include several types. More or less sophisticated cultural achievements whose value may be obvious to the individual but whose value to society at large is less obvious. Underlying most of the distinctions is an assumption, though it is perhaps not so clearly put forth—that anything that can reasonably be called socialization involves a desire and tendency to make people more equal, and in education The opposite impulse and tendency is to make people more specific.
• The distinction between education and socialization has been made in many ways and these concepts are also considered by some to be more or less synonymous. The distinction generally views socialization as the process of preparing an individual to become an efficient social agent in society, and education as something in addition to this, which may include being able to reflect critically on a particular society or This can include several types. More or less sophisticated cultural achievements whose value may be obvious to the individual but whose value to society at large is less obvious.
• As Durkheim says, “Man is really man only because he lives in society”. Being socialized is the process of fitting into a complex social environment and in this process a certain limited set of human abilities are developed and actualized from an indeterminately large range.
• But Dewey’s use of “education” for the process of development in social life is no less than that of Durkheim. Those who want to separate education from socialization need to define two terms. But for Dewey “the concept of education as a social process and function has no definite meaning until we define the type of society that we have in mind”.
• The idea of a separate process of socialization leads to the danger of a narrowly conceived scheme of vocational education to perpetuate the divide between rich and poor. The means of overcoming these threats was to relate both formal instruction and vocational education to the lived reality of current social experience.
• Everyone understands the difference between learning how to use a tool in a utilitarian way and using a tool to create an aesthetically satisfying product. What is wrong with some parts of the traditional form of education is that this distinction has been complacently accepted and treated as if it is considered perfectly fair to children.

The masses must be taught in a utilitarian way – if indeed an acceptable proportion can be taught to use tools, read, calculate etc., adequately to the demands of their job and social role – and to educate others Suitable .
• In general, it can be said that the whole society is the agency for socialization and that every individual with whom he comes in contact and interacts is an agent of socialization in one way or the other. Socialization occurs in all interactions, but the most effective interactions occur in specific groups that are subjected to a process of socialization.

It is called Jansiya.

If one’s view of society is so broad as to include all aspects of life and their meaning for all members of society, then education may be seen as part of a more general socialization process, or synonymous with socialization. will be seen as If one’s idea of society consists primarily of a set of economic, industrial, legal, political, commercial transactions and the relationships they determine, there is nevertheless a distinct cultural world of knowledge, understanding, and appreciation that characterizes particular societies. provides pleasure that transcends the relationships and transactions of particular societies at particular times, one would probably want to separate initiation into “society” by “socialization” and initiation into the cultural sphere by “education”. One might perhaps say that the significance or otherwise of the distinction depends on one’s response to what is called
“The problem of the culture-limitedness of meaning”.

This chapter explores why some people consider the distinction important and why others consider it unimportant, and why others again do not consider it important. It also considers whether it is fair to make such a distinction and, if so, the proper way to make it.

Durkheim, Dewey and Socialization

Durkheim’s Thoughts:
Durkheim makes no distinction between socialization and educating: they serve as synonyms for him. He does not accept anything that is of human value that is outside society, and therefore any initiation into any aspect of human life must be socialized. By stressing the absolute importance of a society for man and the role of education in educating the youth in particular societies, incidentally, he is trying to expose the shallowness.

Notions of education – such as those of James Mill – focused on the cultivation of the individual, as if people had free choice as to what characteristics they would encourage in youth: “even those qualities which at first glance seem so innocuous” which seem desirable, the individual seeks only when society invites him, and he seeks them in the form that it prescribes for him”. But this does not mean that society hinders the development of the individual; Society both makes this possible and, given the social nature of man, it is only within a collectivity that the individual can properly develop: while we have seen society fashioning individuals according to its needs, the fact that It may seem that the individual was submitting to an intolerable tyranny. But in reality they themselves are interested in this compliance; What is new is that collective influence, through education, is thus built up in each of us, representing what is best in us. , tends to draw conclusions about the rights and duties of “society” in controlling the education of individuals that may make others downright bumpy.

Thus, since education is essentially a social function, the state cannot be indifferent to it. On the contrary, everything related to education should be subject to its influence to some extent. Even in private schools, “the education imparted in them should remain under (state) control.” The alternative to this extensive state control is, according to Durkheim, an education disaster: if (the state) is not always there to assure that educational influence is exercised in a social way, the latter must be forced into the service of private beliefs. will be levied, and the whole country will be divided and broken into a jumbled mass of small pieces in conflict with each other.


One of the contributions of sociology is the extent to which we become recognizable human beings by being raised in a society. As Durkheim says, “Man is really man, only because he lives in a society”. Being socialized is the process of fitting into a complex social environment and in this process a certain limited set of human abilities are developed and actualized from an indeterminately large range. The limited set is that which is shared by the other members of the society in which the child is being initiated: “Society can survive only if there exists a sufficient degree of uniformity among its members; maintains and strengthens. social life is concerned not only with the basic necessities of physical existence and governing the customs of the group, but also with what we call our culture “Almost nothing survives of what an animal has been able to learn during its individual existence”. possible only through that”. Nor is it only basic information that is passed on in socialization, but also how knowledge and those skills and understandings are interpreted: “Society often requires that we One must look at things from a certain angle and feel them in a certain way. The initiation of children by adults into society, in this general sense, is what Durkheim calls education: “education consists in a systematic socialization of the younger generation”.

The history of schooling in the West over the last century and a half

One way of viewing it is as a generally successful struggle waged by centralized states against the interests of church, family, region and class for control of schools. Prominent in the arms of the state are the slogan “equality of opportunity” and Durkheim-like arguments. However, we may be wary of Durkheim’s easy move from his usual, normative
The positivist conception of society tends to see specific centralized nation-states as an instantiation of that normative conception. The problem with that move is summed up by Dewey (though not specifically mentioning Durkheim): “Social

The purpose of education and its national purpose were identified, and the result was a clear blurring of the meaning of a social purpose”.


Davy’s thoughts

Some may think that a lot of confusion could be avoided if Durkheim and Dewey used the distinction between education and socialization. The preceding quote could then be written as: “Education was confused with socialization and the result was a clear obscuration of the meaning of education.” But Dewey uses “education” no less than Durkheim to refer to the process of development in social life. Those who want to separate education from socialization need to define two terms. But for Dewey “the concept of education as a social process and function has no definite meaning until we define the type of society that we have in mind”. For someone who wants to differentiate between education and socialization, Dewey’s claim may be true for socialization but not for education. Those philosophers of education who labor to articulate their “concept of education” without a stable context of the specific social context in which it is to be embedded are, in Dewey’s view, engaged in a futile scholarly exercise. His aim in Democracy and Education was to show that education was not the kind of process that could be defined apart from social experience and to show that if it was allowed to be free from that experience the individual could become “an unreasonable scholar”. and will be left with the formal notion”. From this point of view, a society in which education and socialization can be easily distinguished is one in which the elite will be educated and the rest will be socialized. We see everywhere – the division into ‘cultured’ people and ‘workers.’ Rather, what we have to do is describe the properties of a truly democratic society such that socialization for such a society would include everything that any education wants to be included in the proper concept of social life. Not only is social life like communication, but all communication is educative.

Given such a vision of social experience as continually educating, the desire to separate socialization from educating threatens to separate those aspects of social initiation that Dewey was most concerned with keeping together. The idea of a specific process of education “involves the enduring danger that the content of formal instruction will be the mere subject matter of schools, separate from the subject matter of life-experience”. The idea of a specific process of socialization leads to the danger of a narrowly conceived scheme of vocational education.

Perpetuating the divide between rich and poor. The means of overcoming these threats was to relate both formal instruction and vocational education to the lived reality of current social experience. Thus in order to preserve the social character of all education the educational recommendations which were subverted or distorted in the program of progressivism are followed.

In the literature of progressivism, the traditional distinction between education and socialization is absent because education is viewed as essentially social in character. Its role is seen as preparing people to live at home in a social world that is constantly coming into existence to “naturalize, humanize, every new social and technological development”. To pay no attention to that social reality and to attempt to “educate” children in a dead or dying culture is to pledge to the preservation of ignorance and helplessness for many, and inhumane exploitation for some. Likewise the institution which is chiefly charged with the more or less formal part of this initiation needs to be closely integrated with the experience of the society; It should not be an isolated place where students undergo an artificial and difficult initiation to a culture that does not survive in society at large. Society must continually raid the school so that children can grow in that social experience by doing directly the things that are part of its reality.








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