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There is no society in the world where there is no family name.  It is definitely found in some form in every society.  Whatever needs of human beings are fulfilled by family, it is not possible by other groups or institutions.  This is why man feels the need of family and stays in the family.  A person is born helpless in this world, but he is maintained in the family and gradually he learns the customs of the society.  That is, socialization of a person takes place in the family itself and becomes a social animal.  By the way, a person keeps on learning something for a lifetime, but in the family, he gets the initial education of social life.  Hence the family is the most important center.  The existence of a society depends to a large extent on an institution called family.  Every society has its own culture, which the family transfers from one generation to the next.  The work of maintaining the continuity of society and its culture is done by the family itself.  Thus the family as a universal institution is found in every society.

The word family has originated from the word ‘Famulus’ in the Latin language under which parents.  Children, servants and slaves are also included.  In general, parents and their children are included in the family.  Different words have been used for the family in different societies.  There is no consensus among sociologists regarding the definition of family.  Various scholars have expressed their views in their own words.  Some important definitions are mentioned here.

 According to Maclver and Page, “A family is a group based on sexual relationships. It is small in size and it arranges for the birth and upbringing of children.”  There have been – () groups based on sexual relations (ii) limited size (iii) birth of children and (iv) upbringing. This definition also gives information about the family structure and its functions.

 According to Ogburn and Nimcoff, “The family is a permanent union of spouses with children or a permanent union of a woman or man living alone with children. In this definition the family is defined as a union in which the spouses are  And there are children or a woman or man lives with a child, that is, a union with children is called a family even if one of the husband and wife is not there.

 Kingsley Davis has given the definition of family, stating that the family is a group of individuals, in which people are related to each other on the basis of marital relations and they are also related to each other.

 Gisbert also defined the family as similar to Augburn, stating that “a man and woman in a family generally have a permanent relationship with one or more children.”

  According to Burgess and Locke, ‘a family is a group of individuals, organized by marriage, blood, or adoption relations, forming a household, consisting of husband – wife, parent, son –  Daughter and siblings interact with each other for their social work and build and maintain a common culture.

It is clear from the above definitions that family is a group of persons organized by marriage and blood relations.  There are direct and primary relations between them.  It is a permanent organization, in which the needs of the people are fulfilled and they are bound by the spirit of each other.  In its definition, Makeiver described sex as the basis of family.  Marriage – Through the institution, the husband and wife are allowed to have sexual relations in the family, which results in the birth of children and the continuity of society.


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Characteristics of Family


  Emotional Basis – Emotional relationships are found between family members.  There is a feeling of love, cooperation, sympathy, sacrifice and affection among them.  These qualities are not seen in any other committee or organization.  The family rests on these emotional grounds.  It is also the basis of close relationship between all the family members which gives it stability.


 Limited Size – Family size is limited.  Generally, the family consists of husband and wife and their children, but in addition to these there are other nearby blood-related people.  The size of the family depends on the structure of the society.  The size of the family is relatively large in rural and simple society, but in modern and complex society the size of the family is getting smaller by the day.  Only husband and wife and their unmarried children lived in it


  Eormative Influence – Family has constructive effect.  The family plays a very big role in the creation of the element of the person.  Every society has its own rules and methods which one learns through family.  Family makes the person friendly to the society.  It transforms a person from a biological being into a social animal.  At the initial stage of life, a person does not forget the habits and behaviors he adopts throughout his life.  It becomes a quality of his personality.  All members of the family exert constructive influence over each other.

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  A mating relationship – It is only through marriage relationship that men and women form a family.  This relationship is for a short time or for a lifetime.  There is a form of marriage in different societies of the world.  Through marital relationship, men and women are tied up as husband and wife and fulfill the obligations of the society.  Disintegration in the family arises when marriage is broken


  A form of marriage – Every society has a form of marriage.  It is found in different forms in different places.  For example, there is a prevalence of a married family in a society, then a polygamous family in a society.  It is clear that marriage is a form of institution, which is prevalent in a particular society.    A system of nomenclature is known by each family name.  This name is called a surname or ancestry.  Family is the basis of a person’s descent.  This dynasty runs on the basis of ancestry of father and mother.

 A common habitation is the common residence of each family, where all its members reside.  Only by residing in a common place, mutual relations and intimacy between them remain.  A sense of duty and responsibility also remains active among them.  Due to residing in the common place, the husband and wife are able to birth and raise children.  All members of the family act inspired by the spirit of ‘Hum’.We feelings


 Universality – The family is a universal group.  Any society in the world, whether modern or traditional, urban or rural, complex or simple, a family is definitely found there.  There can be differences in the form of family in different places, but it is definitely found in some form or


the other.  Without family, human society cannot be imagined.  Through this, the basic needs of man are met, which is not possible by any other group.  Hence the family is a universal group

  Permanent and temporary nature of the family When a family is considered a group of individuals, then it is temporary and if it is considered a collection of rules then it is permanent.  Keeping in mind the rules of the family, such as the rules of marriage, succession of property, etc., we find that these rules are always present.  In this sense the family is of a permanent nature.  But when keeping the membership of that person, then its members can be destroyed and destroyed, such as marriage, separation, death etc.  From this point of view the family is temporary.  This is to say that the family is as permanent as the institution and as temporary as the association..


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