Reference Group

Spread the love



Herbert Hyman (HH Hyman) first discussed the group, in his book The Psychology of Status in 1942.  Subsequently, Sheriff,  T. Newcomb Stouffer and Murton expressed their views.  Mainly for the creation of reference groups.  Two bases


 1 Aspires

 2 Relative Deprivation


This concept was used by Hyman to refer to the study of school children.  The concept of reference group was mentioned in psychology by Hyman while the credit for bringing it into the field of sociology first goes to Robert Kigsley Merton.  The concept of reference group is particularly useful for us because it relates to the psychology of the members. In order to understand this mental basis, we need to go into some depth of this topic – will have to go .  For this purpose, the following two types of groups can be mentioned.


 1 membership group

  2 references


The group of which a person is actually a member and takes an active part in the functions of the group which he believes to be his, is called Membership Group.  But it also maintains its relationship with such a group psychologically.  And includes in its conduct its normative rules (norms), values ​​etc. which it is not actually a member of.  Such groups are called reference groups.  A person’s reference group This group is in the sense that in this context, he changes his attitudes, thoughts and attitudes to a great extent.  He is not actually a member of this group.  This reference – group is also in the sense that in this context we can get real and practical knowledge of the behavior, attitude, thoughts, values, ideals etc. of a person.  This context is made even more clear by some definitions of the group.




 Meaning and Definition of Reference Group

The concept of a reference group draws our attention mainly to the fact that some non-membership groups often play an important role in human behavior and the development of its personality.  Which Hyman called the reference group.  These are called reference groups because the groups present such a reference to a person on the basis of which that person not only assesses himself or her position but also evaluates the status of others.  The reference group is in fact the result of a higher aspiration of the individual.  For example, if a student prepares for IAS and wants to become IAS .In the same situation, IAS . He is a reference group because he wants to join the same group.  Most individuals, in analyzing, analyzing their behavior, motivate themselves to refer to other groups outside the group, the problem of the concept of the reference group is centered around the problems of converting them to other groups of which they are not themselves members.


In fact, under the general principle of a reference group, both membership groups or non-membership groups should have a description of both the concepts, but here the main theme of this suffix is ​​to find out the processes by which individuals  Attempts to become a member of groups that they are not currently members of The principles of reference groups in general are intended to organize self-appreciation and evaluation as the basis for the defined elements and outcomes of those processes.  By which one takes the values ​​and established standards of other individuals and groups as a comparative reference.  Hence it can be concluded that the principle of reference group is the idea that the thoughts, feelings and attitudes of the individual are determined by those groups.  In which individuals participate.  According to Shaarif and Shaarif, reference groups are groups with which a person belongs to him as part of a group.  Or aspires to be psychologically concerned.  In everyday colloquial context, in colloquial context – a group is a group with which a person identifies or aspires to do an identity.  The sheriff has thus said two things about the reference group –


  1 Establish a relationship with a person of the membership group to the ultimate group.

  2 Having the desire to establish a relationship with another group.


According to the sheriff, the reference group is a mental state in which members of any group are considered superior to another group.  They add their mental connection and evaluate themselves with that other group.



 Essential Elements of Reference Group

It is clear from the views of different scholars and different definitions that the reference group has the following essential elements by which one connects oneself to the reference group and considers a group to be its reference group:

1 Many members of the society may consider themselves related to the same group.  And there can be many reference groups in the same society.  That is, there can be different reference groups for different people and there can be one reference group for many people.

2 The origin of the reference group is the result of the high aspirations of the person, under whose influence the person wants him to belong to a group or to assume that he has a reputation in the society, therefore, Shareef and Shareef expressed this view  It is said that reference group has a psychological basis because unless the person has the desire to psychologically relate to or agree with a group, there is no question of the reference group to flourish.

3 Socially the context of a person – a group is of a higher status than its own group because every human has a natural desire to elevate himself from the status and environment in which he is actually residing.  That is why he wants to enter a higher group from his group and considers it to be his reference group.

4 The existence of a reference group depends on the attitude of the person whom he considers ideal.  Therefore, the group which is ideal for one person may not be ideal for another person, which group will be the reference group for one person, it depends on which group of values ​​and ideals.  Willing to adopt In fact, the person sets such goals for his life which can be fulfilled at any other time outside his group.

5 For a person, a particular group does not always remain its reference group – that is, a person who considers his group as his reference group today, will continue to consider it as a reference group in future.  It is not the case that according to different time situation, location, psychological and intellectual status, one person can abandon one reference group and accept another reference group.  Thus the reference group is a relative group related to the person, position, place, etc.

6 Each reference – The group will also be an ideal group from the point of view of society. It is not that the group is ideal only for the person who considers it as their reference group.



 read more


  Functional Type Of Reference Group


Reference groups present a context by which a person evaluates himself and builds his habits.  Therefore, as a part of the study of reference behavior, systematic study of the processes by which one person assimilates the values ​​of another group.  That is, the construction and evaluation of attitudes should find a place under reference group studies.


 Merton has given two major types of reference groups in his book.

The first is the Normal Type, which sets the standard ideal patterns for the individual, which determines the standard ideal parameters for the individual, and the second is the Comparision Type which provides a comparative reference.  These two types can be distinguished from the analytical point of view as the same reference group can perform both types of functions.  Unlike the types of these two reference groups, a reference group is mentioned by Turner, whose members determine only the circumstances in which they have to act. They are termed as the Interection Group by the Turner.  .  Which are only a part of a person’s social environment which he has to keep in mind in terms of achieving his objectives but it is not important from a comparative or idealistic point of view.


Reference – Group Behavior


In relation to how the person adapts his behavior according to his reference group, different scholars have presented their ideas in different ways.  Here the mention of the views of some scholars is as follows.


 read more

Views of Hymain

Hyman first used reference groups and said that it is not enough for us to know that he is a member of a group and in any discussion related to the Behaviour Pattern and its status.  What is the real situation of that person, but it is also necessary for us to know what that person is psychologically

Belongs to the group and with which group does it match.  This group plays an important role in determining the behavior of a person, not only their attitudes.  In fact the reference group is the ideal group for the individual.  And that’s why the person wants to be the same as the real members of the reference group are. That is why the person tries to adapt himself to them and maintain his position as imaginary or real.


  Views of Sheriff and Sheriff

 Context – In explaining group behavior, Shariff and Sheriff have written that when one person’s motivations are similar to those of other individuals and that group is formed to form a group structure that is an integral part of the other.  When interacting with people, at that stage, he also adopts the values ​​ideals – norms, ideologies etc. of that group because that group is his own group and the ideas, ideals, values ​​etc. of that group are his own  Ideas become ideals and values, that is, with the thoughts, ideals, values ​​and behavior of a group, a person establishes a new equation of his own, each person has his own group.  Whom he is a real member and due to this, he gets so insulted with that group that he considers the values, ideals, rules etc. of that group as his own values ​​and ideal rules, he is proud that he  Is a member of the group and is an integral part of it.  Therefore, in every behavior, a person becomes active by considering the ideal of the group in front of him, because the ideal – rules, values, behavior patterns, etc. of that group become an invaluable asset of his personality, so his experiences and behavior make the ideal rules and values ​​of the group  Does only on the basis of  He also evaluates the behavior of individuals of other groups by the parameters of his group.  In the same perspective, the same group is the reference group of the individual.  Which is its ideal group.  And of which he himself is a member.


In modern complex societies the reference group is not limited only to its group.  Which means that the person would actually be a member because the scope of a person’s modern life and behavior (interactions) is not limited to his group only.  Therefore, the behavior of a person is not controlled and directed only by the group to which he is actually a member.  It is also possible that his experience, thoughts and behavior are regulated and governed by a group which he does not really belong to, and in spite of that group, he tries to adapt his behavior to that group’s real members.  .  For example, a boy from a poor family wants to be like a wealthy class in his behavior, behavior, dress and interest and presents himself to the other accordingly.  In such a state, that rich class is the reference group for that boy.  Because he equates his thoughts, ideals, values ​​etc.  Or aspires to do.  In fact, the concept of reference group has evolved to make sense of similar groups.  Context in this sense – a group is a group that the person may not actually be a member of, but which is a very important cause or power in determining a person’s behaviors and experiences.  In fact, in a modern complex society, the life of a person is not limited to his own family, neighborhood, class, caste, but becomes associated with many other such groups of larger society.  That which he would actually be a member, but whose views are constantly influenced by ideal values ​​etc.  This group is its reference group.

Shaarif and Shaarif have also mentioned the functional differences found between Membership – Group and Reference Group in this regard.  Normally, to meet the real needs of multiple groups, one has to actually become an actual member of multiple groups.  He is a real member of the family as a son, a school or college as a student, a sports group as a player, and a club for entertainment.  Similarly, he is a real member of an office, class, neighborhood, economic organization, nation and many other such groups.  All these groups are memberships – groups of that person.  And it is through these groups that the behavior, attitudes, values, values ​​etc. of a person, that is, the regulation and determination of their various reactions.  But on a practical level, the scope of inter-acting and reactions of a person can be much wider than this.  A person can actually be a member of one or a few groups – specials.  But psychologically (ie mentally), he can consider himself to belong to a different group and can regulate his attitudes and aspirations in the context of that group.  For example, a member of Middle Class or Working Class Working Class may consider themselves consciously or unconsciously related to a higher class and may also try to develop their living and experiences in conformity with the same class.  .  In such a state, that person’s group (middle class or working class) will be called his membership group.  Whereas the upper class with which that person is mentally related.  And on the basis of whose ideals, values ​​and behavior patterns, he tries to mold his behaviors and experiences.  It will be called the reference group.  Therefore, it is not necessary to regulate and determine attitudes, behaviors, experiences etc. according to the principles, values, and norms of the group of which the actual member is an actual member.  – Determination and regulation of his behavior pattern can also be done by the values, ideals, etc. of that particular group which he is only a psychological member. This is the context – the secret of the group and the behavior set by it.

 read more

Views of Klineberg


Prof. Klineberg, while writing about reference group behavior, has mentioned two main features of such groups –

1 Context – Groups can also be imaginary when we behave in a way that we consider to be similar to the behavior of the best people, then we believe that in relation to the behavior of the best people  Anything known is not at all real, but it is imaginary.  For example, when the people of lower economic class want to become upper class people, then whatever behavior they conduct in that endeavor, the behavior of the upper class people is not a real but imaginary form of the model.  In relation to an important topic like our Moral Standard or a simple subject like how to hold a cup of tea, we can make our behavior similar to that of a group that does not exist or that is exactly  Does not behave like we are doing.

2 Prof. Klineberg states that the reference group can also be negative, there are some groups from which we want to have a close relationship but there can be some such groups.  From which we want to stay as far as possible because the policy of such a group is supportive of a particular type of values, on this basis, we are trying to form our behaviors, ideals and values ​​which are completely different from that group,  This opposite group will be a negative reference group, because in the context of this group, we would like to give the opposite form to our behavior.  And will make conscious efforts for this, for example, in modern times, Soviet Russia represents a positive reference group for most of the US residents.  Same thing for the people of Soviet Russia.  Applies in relation to America.

Therefore, according to Klineberg, in reference group behavior, it is not necessary that we have clear and direct knowledge about the group we are copying or what we are considering as our ideal, nor is it necessary that the actual existence of that group is the same.  It is also not necessary that the reference group will always be an ideal group for us.  That group may represent an opposite ideal for us.  Nevertheless, that group is our reference group.  Because in the context of this group we want to turn our behaviors, values, and values ​​in the opposite direction and maintain an opposite value (Opposite Standard).



 Views of Newcomb

Prof. Newcomb is of the opinion that reference groups can actually exist, for a person, that group may be a reference group that the member has never been or that has expired long ago.  In this sense, context can be partly or wholly imaginary group – in this sense context or not the actual existence of the group is not as important as it is that the ideal values, ideas, etc. of the reference group are actually the behavior, values,  Affect ideals etc.

A member’s membership group, that is, the group to which he or she is actually a member, can also be a reference group, that is to what extent the membership group of a person will also remain a reference group.  It depends on how much satisfaction or dissatisfaction he gets from the membership of that group. Newcomb has said that members of a group differ from each other on the basis of their qualifications, abilities, personal needs, personality structure, etc.  That is, there are individual differences in different members of the same group.  Therefore, as a member of that group, they also get different amounts of satisfaction.  Not only this, a person can also get dissatisfaction from his membership group.  Dissatisfaction occurs because in a group whose person is actually a member, which is less than the facilities and opportunities of its members, in modern dynamic society it is very easy for one person to leave the membership of the group and the membership of the other group  Can take.  This is the reason that as a member of a group different people experience different amounts of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with that group. When the feeling of dissatisfaction becomes more, then at least mentally they are associated with that group.  It fits.  So that he hopes to get more satisfaction, thus the person,Membership is mentally separated from the group and in that state that group ceases to be its reference – the group becomes a reference – the group of the person with whom the person associates themselves real or imaginary.  He tries to adapt his behavior, values ​​and ideals to the same group by considering him as his ideal because he believes in his mind that by doing so he will get more satisfaction.

Newcomb also envisages that the real membership group can function as a reference group for both individuals in various forms of Positive and Negative.  For example, a Hindu can be respectful to the maximum common attitudes, values ​​and norms of his family and may also accept them as a directing factor in his conduct or behavior.  In this way, his family serves as a positive reference group for him, but it may be that the same youth refuses to support some ideals and values ​​of his family.  For example, he marries within the endegrny rule, even openly opposing this ideal and intercaste marriage, in which case his family becomes a negative reference group for him.  goes .  Similarly, that group can also become positive or negative reference group of a person.  That person is not actually a member



 read more


 View of Merton.

The credit for conducting the first scientific analysis of the reference group in the field of sociology goes to American sociologist RK Merton.  In a work called The American Soldier, Robert Kigsley Merton and Rosie have tried to explain the concept of the reference group, their conclusion being that the reference group of an individual can be his or her own inner group, that group.  Is that it is actually a member (Membership Group or In – group) and can also be an external group which is not a member (Non – membership group or Out – group) In the first stage, the In – Group was its own  The members of the same group act as the frame of reference while in the second stage the members of the Out – Group or other group are selected for this frame of reference.  Therefore, according to Merton, the theory of reference groups tells us how a person considers the inner group or external group to be the director of his behavior and establishes his reference to that group.  Based on the above study, Merton has tried to explain his ideas related to the reference group in this way.  .

  Multiple Reference Group – Under this, Merton mentions two types of reference group.


Conflicting Reference Group – Sometimes there are multiple conflicting reference groups in a person’s life and in that case he has a problem with whom he chooses from them or which group he considers his ideal.  The individual is often influenced by the similarity of the situation and the group is completely unknown and different.


  Mutually Sustaining Reference Group – Merton concludes that according to the income group or group of marital status or educational level, the person keeps in constant contact according to their attitudes.  Merton believes that the group with which a person’s social relationship will be continuous and long will affect the life of that person more.


  Second Significant Others – Merton states that in front of every person there is a talent of some other reputed people who can be called Significant Others, these people are ideal in that person’s eyes.  And so he wants to establish symmetry with these people, that is, they want to be like those other special people. That is why in these people he sees his own image and evaluation, his values ​​and ideals.  Takes it so that he can also become unique in comparison to those other people.  This is the reason why the people of the lower group not only see the higher group as a group of influential and prestige, but also try to reach the higher group by climbing the social ladder while embracing their values, ideals and practices.


 Conformity and Non – Conformity – Merton’s statement that a reference group has its own functional significance is that it motivates a person to establish symmetry with him, which in turn leads to that person’s behavior, ideal and  The value differs from the values, ideals and practices of the group that is actually a member, that is, its disharmony arises from its own group.  But doing this means that reference – establishing symmetry in the group and unevenness in your group will be considered desirable to the extent that it is not dysfunctional to the social system but it is not necessary to be with the group of which it is not a member.  Establishing symmetry must be morphological. Much will depend on how much it will hurt the established values ​​of its own group.


  Function and Dyprivation of Reference Group – Reference K. Merton established the concept of reference group in society. He discussed the reference group based on the study of American Soldier on the basis of Relative Deprivation.  .

If a person is added to his intended group then it is functional for him because it increases his efficiency and efficiency, which is where the Mutter explains Anticipatory Socialization but if the person is not mixed in the intended group then its bad effect  Does matter .  He has a low sensitivity.  This is where the Marginal Man is discussed.


Membership and Non-Membership Reference Group – According to HM Johnson, sometimes a person tries to treat his own group as an ideal group and behaves unnaturally, it is called membership reference group when the other group is referred to as their group.  If accepted as an ideal, it is called a vandalism reference group.  RK Murter said in the discussion of reference group that these people want other groups to be their reference group


Those who are qualified skilled and capable of moving forward.

 Those who suffer from a feeling of Relative Deprivation.

 read more

Relative Deprivation is the mental state in which a person is not content with his state for real or necessary reasons and wants to make a positive change in his state.  Therefore, Murter has used this notion in the context of upward social mobility.  Murter cited Staffer’s study as an example of the kinds of jails that can arise in officers and officers who wanted prisoner advancement and were not content with their current state, and they accepted the group of officers as the reference group.  When earlier there was a process of Sanskritisation in India, the same thing was applicable with the culturalist castes.  Regarding the process of Rajputisation of Gado by Surjit Sinha, Majumdar has said the same in relation to the barbers of Rampur or FG Bielig in relation to the panes of Basipada.  Culturalizing caste groups were comparatively strong and due to satisfaction from their present stage tended towards culturalisation to rise up the ladder of social prestige.


  Consequences of Reference Group – Due to the absence of reference group, social mobility is simplified and this reduces stress in the society. Merton said that if deserving and able people are not given the opportunity to go up, then dissatisfaction  Will increase which is fatal to the stability of society.  Merter states that primary membership and agglomeration have an effect on the individual and on the other hand secondary incivility and outgroups also influence his behaviors and tendencies.


 Normative and Comparative Reference Group – All types of reference groups in society are ideal in this.  These are the groups that determine the norms, values ​​and behavior for their members. In Indian context, there are many groups for the Dwij castes who insist on the prohibition of drinking, non-vegetarian food, etc. These groups have their own behavior.  There are norms and if the members do not adhere to the ideals set by the group of remembrance, then there is a provision of punishment for this.  Comparative reference groups are those whose individuals consider their own or others’ behavior to be a comparative basis.  Such groups are helpful for evaluating an individual’s own or other behavior. Rural groups when comparing their groups to the norms of behavior set by the urban group are essentially friar assessments.  In this way, where idealized references motivate the group to this effect.  While they accept the norms and values ​​of their groups, they can be validated, while comparative reference groups are helpful in comparatively evaluating the behavior of individuals.


 Positive and Negative Reference Group – Prof. Newcomb has divided the reference group into positive and negative reference groups. Positive and negative reference groups are those to which a person aspires to join but negative reference groups are those from which a particular distance.  Used.  For example, for a bank clerk, a group of peons is a negative group, while a group of officers is a positive reference group.


  Real and Unreal Referance Group – Jonson says that reference groups can be real as well as imaginary.  Example of imaginary group – class society for Marxists and Ramraj for Gandhians etc. – 2 Similarly in Hindu, heaven and hell are imaginary positive and negative reference groups.

 Selection of a reference person or reference group – According to the American sociologist Robert Kingsley Merton, a person can be selected not only as a group but also a person as his reference – how both of them are selected by Merton in this way  Has explained.

1 Reference – The person is selected on the basis of Role – Modal It happens that one person likes some roles of another person and he considers them to be ideal only but those roles in his life  Also tries to refine.  For example –If a student likes the way of teaching of one of his teachers and how to deal with the students, then later on adopting the profession of teacher, that student considers the same teacher as his reference person.  And tries to enhance his practices and roles as a teacher in his life as well.

2 References – Selection of group in social life. 3 Selection of group motivated by the desire to see oneself more distinguished in social life. [It is the desire of the person to move up the social ladder.  It needs a basis, so it chooses a group which is ideal and has more prestige in its eyes, from this it is clear that the desire for social prestige is motivating the person to choose another group.  Of which he is not a member.


 read more



Reference – Facts influencing the selection of Reference Group – Merton has presented a list of facts that influence the selection of reference groups

  1 Clear or unclear social definitions or rules for membership of groups.

  2 The amount of involvement of members in a group.

  3 Actual Duration of membership in the group.

 4 Expected duration of membership in the group.

 5 Expected duration of group survival.  .

  6 The actual period of existence of the group.

  7 Open or Closed nature of group.

 8 Relative size of a group or its forming organs.

  9 Ratio of real and important members.

 10 The absolute size of a group or its forming organs.

 11 Quantification of social discrimination.

 12 Shape and height.  .

 13 Types and quantities of social unity.

 14 group unity.

 15 Nature of group social relationships.

 16 Social interactions within groups.

  17 Limit of relative homogeneity to normative rules of the group, tolerance for path corrupt practices.

  System of 18 idealized controls.

  19 Volume of evaluation of group roles.

  20 Ecological structure of groups.

  21 Autonomy of the group or the amount of dependence.

  22 The amount of durability of a group’s structural context.

  23 The amount of durability of a group.

  24 Methods for Establishing Stability of Groups.

  25 Relative social status of a group.

  26 Relative power of group.


 Functional Aspects Of Reference Group – The reference group motivates the individual (to establish symmetry with the group that causes the individual to bring his or her reference group’s values, ideals and behaviors) into their lives.  As a result, a person’s personality only includes many new values, ideal behavior patterns, thoughts, images, etc., but there is also the possibility that his social status will also be elevated.  To prepare in advance or to take the initiative in the future. For example, by becoming a teacher, imitating the teacher or adopting teacher behavior.


 The reference towards Anticipatory Socialization of the person – Function of the group is remarkable.  Anticipatory socialization occurs only as a function in the Open Social Structure in the closed social structure, taking the form of dysfunction in the closed social structure.  Because such a society is bound by the traditional rules, ideals and values, it is considered bad by one member of one group to abandon the values ​​and behaviors of another group and adopt the values ​​and behaviors of another group and it is also opposed to the AC situation.  A situation of tension and disintegration may arise in social life.  Therefore, even after adopting the values ​​and behaviors of another group, it is not possible for the person to fulfill his aspirations.  In this context, Merton has drawn our attention to the truth that the proportion in which a person establishes his resemblance to the values, ideals, and attitudes of another group (reference group) is in that proportion.  Keeps away from the practices and if other members of his own group do not like this, then between that person and the rest of the group.  Social relations begin to deteriorate in that system, even if a person wants to return and adopt the values ​​and conduct of his own group, he is not given an opportunity to do so.  Therefore, once the process of adopting other groups’ values ​​and practices starts, it keeps accumulating and the person gradually separates from his group in the field of his attitudes, values ​​and social relationships, even in the end  One becomes completely alienated from his group and completely accepts the reference group.  This is especially the case when his own group again refuses to accept him as its member.  In this context, it is necessary to mention that Merton states that when a person adopts the context – the behavior, conduct, rules of the group, then he / she begins to separate from the group and psychologically become attached to the context.  If he is not able to join the reference group, then in such a situation, he becomes a Marginal Man.


 Marginal Man – That person is neither a reference – a group or not his group, in such a situation, the person does not feel like working even in his group.  Further, Matan says that if a person becomes a reference group then his creativity, ability to work increases.  For example, if a person wants to become an IAS, then IAS is his reference group. If he becomes an IAS, his ability to work also increases.  If it is not made, “the frontier becomes human and his creativity decreases.


 Veblen’s views

In the field of sociology Thurstein Weblan in his book ‘The Theory of Leisure Class’, the theory of leisure class) laid down the concept of luxury class.  The luxuriant class is the class that accumulates most of the benefits of capitalist society.  The lifestyle of this class is boisterous, extravagant, lazy, greedy, full of snappy consumption.  Introducing it, the reference group is indirectly mentioned.  According to him, even in the luxury class, there is a very low level of wealth, people who are high in both wealth and lineage, they consider themselves higher than the class who are weaker than them in relation to wealth or descent.  An elevation is seen from below.  Each class considers the class above itself to be its ideal (or reference-group) and makes every effort to follow the same top class in relation to luxury and consumption, in this way imitating ideal price behavior etc.  It is considered a matter of honor or pride because by this a person can compare himself with the top class, which automatically elevates his position in the eyes of other people.  That is why members of a group or class try to reach their reference – standards of behavior and values ​​as much as possible, especially in relation to food, clothing, clothing etc. on the occasion of Teej festival.  The upper class is copied and that is why it is often seen that on such Teej festival many families spend more than their status and even on such occasions by taking loans, their food and dress is high  Efforts are made to bring the same class.  The exemption of following one’s own reference group is also expressed in the form of people of lower class or middle class whose income is not high.  By saving in the internal subjects of our home or household expenses, we try to keep the external chatter at the highest level as possible.  Similarly, the expression of the tendency of this equation is also in the behavior of the members to maintain the prestige of the family of their husband or father by decorating themselves with more and more fine ornaments and costumes and adopting the Behaviour pattern.  It takes a psychological effort.


 read more



Leave a Comment

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.