Higher Education System in India

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Higher Education System in India:

Current Scenario


Contemporary times have seen students opting for higher studies with little interest or being careless. Moreover, there are very few institutes in India which are providing quality inputs to develop the learning skills of the students. The higher education system in India needs a lot of development as compared to developing/developed countries. The percentage of students pursuing higher education is barely 13% while six
The same varies between 28 to 90% worldwide. The lowest is 28% and is as high as 90% in developed countries. On one hand we claim that India will be third among all countries in education by 2020. If the overall ranking of the respective institutions is seen, it is observed that in the year 2000, 2 Indian universities/institutes out of 500 were included in the list, and 1 institution was from China. Now after almost a decade the tables have turned in 2010, with only 1 institute featured from India and 32 institutes featured from China. This strongly suggests how far we are in terms of total percentage of higher education institutions, number of students pursuing higher education. We lag behind not only in terms of GDP, exchange of foreign exchange by developing and developed countries but also in terms of number of students pursuing higher education.

Budget allocation by the government. As per 2012 plan India has around 6% which is not going to be enough, and hence allocation should be done appropriately, i.e. minimum 10% to improve the scenario. Basic education should reach more and more children from different sections of the society to enable them to pursue higher education. Over and above, the institutes should also focus on giving quality inputs to the students. Institutes should focus on constantly updating the curriculum to help students adapt with the changing times

market scenario. Initially they may consider liberalizing education, introducing new methods and doing applied research; Frequent updating of course syllabus. If such developments take shape in true sense in our country then students will be attracted to pursue higher education which in turn will meet the corporate expectations. Efforts should also be made to guide, mentor the students and parents to develop and maintain interest in the students. Apart from the above, the curriculum also includes sports, hobby classes, vocational skill development programmes, employability enhancement and soft skill development programmes, entrepreneurship development modules, specialization wise clubs and societies, practical work related to their field, industry interface related modules Must join. such as internships, industry visits, guest lectures/ workshops/ conferences, participation in summits, management quiz etc. with evaluation/ monitoring system to ensure continuous improvement.

Special emphasis should be laid on communication and presentation skills, especially for students coming from rural background/remote places and for students studying in local languages, so that they can perform well in the corporate world across the globe. The institutes should also develop multitasking abilities among the students, foreign languages, advanced IT knowledge so that they can perform better in the chosen field. Student exchange, cultural exchange should be encouraged and various ways and means should be found to increase the interest level and participation of students. Government should also provide adequate funds, annual plans for unaided institutions to increase overall support. Some specific programs of higher education should be developed for the respective sectors, and companies in these sectors should ensure employment through internships/projects and final placements for a win-win situation. These are some of the points if we practice in the near future to increase the percentage of students pursuing higher education, the scenario will definitely increase, and in turn the students will add value to the corporate world and towards the development of our country. start adding. near future.

On the other hand, the higher education sector has seen a tremendous growth in the number of universities/university level institutions and colleges since independence. The number of universities has increased 34 times from 20 in 1950 to 677 in 2014. The region has 45 Central Universities, 40 of which are under the purview of the Ministry of Human Resource Development, 318 State Universities, 185 State Private Universities, 129 Deemed to be. Happen

Universities under MHRD (IITs – 16, NITs – 30 and IISERs – 5), 51 Institutes of National Importance (established under Acts of Parliament) and four Institutes (established under various State Legislations). The number of colleges has also registered a 74-fold increase, from just 500 in 1950 to 37,204 as of March 31, 2013. ,
In India, “University” means a University established or incorporated by or under a Central Act, a Provincial Act or a State Act and includes any institution which, in consultation with the University concerned,

(UGC) may be recognized. ) in accordance with the rules made in this regard under UGC Ac.
Every year, lakhs of students from home and abroad enter these portals mainly for their undergraduate, postgraduate studies while lakhs leave these portals outside the world. Higher education is a shared responsibility of both the Center and the States. The coordination and determination of standards in universities and colleges is entrusted to the UGC and other statutory regulatory bodies.

The Central Government gives grants to the UGC and establishes Central Universities/Institutes of National Importance in the country. The Central Government is also responsible for declaring an educational institution as a “Deemed-to-be University” on the recommendations of the UGC. Presently, the main categories of university/university level institutions are:- Central Universities, State Universities, Deemed-to-be Universities and University level institutions. Their description is as follows:

A university established or incorporated by a Central Act.
state University:
A university established or incorporated by a Provincial Act or a State Act.
private university:
A University established through a State/Central Act by a sponsoring body viz. A society registered under the Societies Registration Act 1860, or any other relevant law for the time being in force in a State or public trust or a company registered under section 25 of the Companies Act, 1956.
Deemed-to-be University:

A Deemed University Institution, commonly known as Deemed University, refers to a high performing institution which has been declared by the Central Government under section 3 of the University Grants Commission (UGC) Act, 1956 .
Institute of National Importance:
An institution established by an Act of Parliament and declared as an institution of national importance.
Institution under State Legislature Act:
An institution established or incorporated by an Act of the State Legislature.

Governance in Higher Education in India:
Department of Higher Education, MHRD,
The Department of Higher Education, MHRD is responsible for the overall development of infrastructure in the higher education sector both in terms of policy and planning. As part of a planned development process, the department looks after the expansion of access and qualitative improvement in higher education through world class universities, colleges and other institutions. The vision, mission, objectives and functions of the department are as under:-

Vision: To fully realize India’s human resource potential in the higher education sector with equity and inclusion.
• To provide greater opportunities for access to higher education with equality to all eligible persons and particularly to the weaker sections.
• Expand access by supporting existing institutions, setting up new institutions, supporting state governments and non-governmental organizations/civil society to supplement public efforts aimed at addressing regional or other imbalances that currently exist.
• Initiate policies and programs to strengthen research and innovations and encourage public or private institutions to help push the frontiers of knowledge.
• Enhancing the quality of higher education by investing in infrastructure and faculty, promoting academic reforms, improving governance and institutional restructuring towards inclusion of hitherto excluded communities.

• All-round expansion of the higher education sector To increase the Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) in higher education from 15% by 2011-12 to 21% by 2016-17 and 30% by 2020.
• To expand the institutional base of higher education (including technical, professional and vocational education) by creating additional capacity in existing institutions, setting up new institutions and encouraging State Governments and NGOs/civil society.
• To expand the institutional base of higher education (including technical, professional and vocational education) by creating additional capacity in existing institutions, setting up new institutions and encouraging State Governments and NGOs/civil society.
• To provide opportunities for higher education to socially disadvantaged communities and address inequalities by promoting the inclusion of women, minorities and differently-abled persons.
• To remove regional imbalances in access to higher education by setting up institutions in illiterate and underprivileged areas.
• To enhance plan support for infrastructure and faculty development in institutions of higher education and to attract talent towards careers in teaching and research.
• Creating conditions for knowledge creation through better research facilities in universities and colleges.
• To promote cooperation with the international community, foreign governments, universities/institutes and regional and international institutions for the advancement of universal knowledge and wisdom
real property rights.
• To promote the development of Indian languages.
• Promoting autonomy, innovations, academic reforms in institutions of higher education
• Institutional restructuring to improve efficiency, relevance and creativity in higher education.
• Increase in Gross Enrollment Ratio by expanding reach in all modes.
• To promote the participation of those sections of the society whose GER is less than the national average.
• in quality

to improve and promote academic reforms
• Establishment of new educational institutions and capacity expansion and improvement of existing institutions.
• Use of technology in higher education.

• Development of vocational education and skill development.
• Development of Indian languages.
• International cooperation in the field of education.


University Grants Commission
The University Grants Commission is a statutory organization established by an Act of Parliament in 1956 to coordinate, determine and maintain standards of university education. Apart from providing grants to eligible universities and colleges, the commission also advises the Central and State Governments on measures that are necessary for the development of higher education. It functions from New Delhi as well as from its six regional offices located at Bangalore, Bhopal, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Kolkata and Pune.

inter-university center
Under Section 12 (CCC) of the UGC Act, the UGC establishes autonomous inter-university centers within the university system. The objectives of setting up these centers are:
• To provide common advanced centralized facilities/services for those universities which are not able to invest heavily in infrastructure and other inputs.
• To play a vital role in providing the best expertise in each field to teachers and researchers across the country.
• To provide access to the research and teaching community to state-of-the-art equipment and excellent library facilities that are comparable to international standards.
The Center for Nuclear Sciences (now called the Inter University Accelerator Center) in New Delhi was
First research center established in 1994.

As of today, six Inter University Centers are functioning under the University System, which are as follows:
• Inter University Accelerator Center (IUAC), New Delhi
• Inter University Center for Astronomy and Astro-Physics (IUCAA), Pune
• UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research (UGC-DAECSR), Indore
• Information and Library Network (INFLIBNET), Ahmedabad
• Consortium for Educational Communication (CEC), New Delhi
• National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC), Bangalore
• Inter University Center for Teacher Education, Kakinada

Association of Indian Universities (AIU)

Association of Indian Universities (AIU) is a registered society under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 with membership of Indian Universities. It provides a forum for administrators and academicians from member universities to exchange views and discuss matters of common concern. It serves as the bureau of exchange of information in higher education and publishes a number of useful publications including the “University Handbook”, research papers and a weekly magazine called “University News”. The current membership of the association is 527 including seven associate members. Kathmandu University, Kathmandu, Nepal, University of Mauritius, Mauritius, University of Technology, Mauritius, Royal University of Bhutan, Thimphu, Open University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Middle East University, United Arab Emirates, and Semey State Medical University, Semey, Kazakhstan . The association is financed largely by annual subscriptions from member universities. The Government of India, Ministry of Human Resource Development provides grants to meet a part of the maintenance and development expenditure, including research studies, workshops, training programs for university administrators, orientation programs and the Data Bank of Global (of which the University (Preliminary) Document access to global universities is complete.AIU has Evaluation Division, Student Information Services Division, and Publications Sales Division, Sports Division for sponsoring Inter-University Tournaments and World University Games: 2007, Youth Affairs Division, Library and Documentation Division, Finance Division, Administration Division, Computer Division and Meeting Division. AIU is also empowered to grant Associate Membership to the Universities of neighboring countries of India.


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a) Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)
The Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) was established in 1969 to promote social science research, strengthen various disciplines, improve the quality and quantity of research and its use in national policy making. To achieve these objectives, ICSSR envisages institutional development
infrastructure, identifying research talent, formulating research programmes, supporting professional organizations and establishing links with social scientists in other countries. ICSSR provides maintenance and development grants to various research institutes and regional centers across the country. Regional centers have been established

As extended arms of ICSSR to support research and development of local talent and its programs and activities in a decentralized manner. Since 1976, ICSSR has been conducting research surveys in various social science disciplines. With a view to lay special emphasis on promoting social science research in the North Eastern Region, initiatives have been taken at ICSSR to support research proposals and other activities.
b) Indian Council of Philosophical Research (ICPR)

The Indian Council of Philosophy Research (ICPR) was established in 1977 by the Ministry of Education, Government of India as an autonomous organization to promote research in philosophy and allied disciplines.
The Indian Council of Philosophy Research (ICPR) was established in 1977 by the Ministry of Education, Government of India as an autonomous organization to promote research in philosophy and allied disciplines.
भारतीय दर्शनशास्त्र अनुसंधान परिषद (आईसीपीआर) की स्थापना 1977 में शिक्षा मंत्रालय, भारत सरकार द्वारा दर्शन और संबद्ध विषयों में अनुसंधान को बढ़ावा देने के लिए एक स्वायत्त संगठन के रूप में की गई थी।
The Council of Philosophy Research (ICPR) was established in 1977 by the Ministry of Education, Government of India as an autonomous organization to promote research in Philosophy and allied disciplines.
दर्शनशास्त्र अनुसंधान परिषद (आईसीपीआर) की स्थापना 1977 में शिक्षा मंत्रालय, भारत सरकार द्वारा दर्शनशास्त्र और संबद्ध विषयों में अनुसंधान को बढ़ावा देने के लिए एक स्वायत्त संगठन के रूप में की गई थी।
ICPR was born out of the firm belief that the Indian philosophical tradition deserves to be a distinct and specialized agency in the country. The Council has a broad-based membership that includes eminent philosophers, social scientists, representatives of the University Grants Commission, the Indian Council of Social Science Research, the Indian Council of Historical Research, the Indian National Science Academy, the Central Government and the Government of Uttar Pradesh. , The Governing Body (GB) and the Research Project Committee (RPC) are the main authorities of the Council. These bodies are vested with well defined powers and functions.

c) Project on the History of Indian Science, Philosophy and Culture (PHISPC)
PHISPC was launched under the aegis of the Indian Council of Philosophical Research (ICPR) in the year 1990 with the basic objective of undertaking interdisciplinary studies to understand in detail the inter-relationships between science, philosophy and culture as developed over the long history of Indian civilization. can be extracted. From April 1, 1997, PHISPC was officially separated from the Indian Council of Philosophical Research (ICPR) for greater autonomy to complete the project within the stipulated period, and is now affiliated to the Center for the Study of Civilizations (CSC). Is. The Government of India has recognized CSC as the nodal agency for the purposes of funding the ongoing research project, PHISPC. PHISPC’s major program is to publish several volumes on the topics described in the ‘Introduction’.
d) Indian Council of Historical Research (ICHR)
The Indian Council of Historical Research is an autonomous organization established in 1972 under the Societies Registration Act (Act XXI of 1860). The main objectives of the Council are to give proper direction to historical research and to encourage and promote the cause.

Scientific writing of history. The broad objectives of the Council are to bring historians together, to provide a forum for exchange of ideas among them, to give a national direction to an objective and reasoned presentation of history, to sponsor historical research programs and projects and to promote institutions and organizations engaged in the same. To help organizations. In historical research. It has a broad view of history so as to encompass in its fold the history of science and technology, economy, art, literature, philosophy, epigraphy, numismatics, archaeology, socio-economic formation processes and allied subjects with a strong historical bias and content . ICHR has established two regional centres, one in Bangalore and the other in Guwahati, to reach out to the remotest areas of the country.
e) National Council of Rural Institutes (NCRI)
National Council of Rural Institutes is a registered autonomous society fully funded by the Central Government. It was established on October 19, 1995 with its headquarter in Hyderabad. Its main objective is to promote rural higher education on the lines of Mahatma Gandhi’s vision for education to meet the challenges of micro planning for the transformation of rural areas as envisaged in the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986. For its purposes, NCRI is identifying various programs to be assisted and provided financial assistance by suitable institutions including voluntary organizations.


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