Impact of Development on Educational Outcomes on Higher Education

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Impact of Development on Educational Outcomes on Higher Education


Manpower development has always been the main thrust of higher education. The early development phase of higher education was associated with colonialism. It was only after independence that the state promoted education as a means of social development. Since then we have indeed had a very impressive growth, with the number of university-level institutions increasing from 18 in 1947 to 307 by the end of 2004. Student enrollment has increased from 2, 28,804 in 1947 to 94, 63,821 in 2020. -3. The growth in infrastructure under higher education has been rated as the second largest in the world after the United States. Yet it barely covers seven percent of the population of developing countries such as Indonesia (11%), Brazil (12%), and Thailand (19%). Developed countries, such as the United States, Canada, Australia (>80%) and Finland (>70%), have found a higher percentage of the population with higher education.

The number of students entering colleges is increasing every year in large numbers and thus planners and educationists are faced with the urgent problem of screening deserving candidates for higher education. Greater emphasis on education has led to an increase in the number of students at both the school and college levels, but a decline in the quality of students and the level of academic records. UGC (1996)

has also informed that providing higher education to unfit students is unconstitutional in every respect.



Quality of Higher Education in India:

1. Quality improvement and consolidation in higher education remained the main concern during the Seventh Plan. Student enrollment in 1991-92 was 44.25 lakh, 36.93 lakh in affiliated colleges and 7.32 lakh in university departments. The total number of female students was 14.37 lakh (34.2 percent) and the enrollment of SC/ST students was about 10 percent. The growth of student enrollment which was 5 per cent per annum till 1985-86 has almost collapsed since 1986-87.
4.1 percent. The Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) alone had an enrollment of over one lakh students.

2. The following suggestions were made by the NPE for the development of higher education. (1) Creation of autonomous university departments and colleges. (2) State Councils of Higher Education. (3) Enhanced support for research. (4) Strengthening of open universities and distance education. (5) Consolidation of existing institutions and improvement in the quality of teachers and teaching. (6) Arrangement to separate degrees from jobs. (7) Establishment of a new pattern of rural universities and (8) Establishment of an apex body covering higher education in all sectors.

3. In addition, under the Academic Staff College Scheme for new recruitment and orientation of in-service college and university teachers, 48 Academic Staff Colleges have been established, which have conducted 464 orientation and refresher courses covering 12,970 teachers up to December 1991. Did it UGC provided developmental grant. Central Universities and 95 State Universities besides assisting more than 3000 colleges for general development
4. For the implementation of programs and special programmes. About 295 departments received special assistance under various programs such as Center for Advanced Study (CAS), Department of Special Assistance (DSA) and Departmental Research Assistance. Assistance was provided to 112 departments under the program for Coordinated Strengthening of Infrastructure in Science and Technology (COSIST). To support educational broadcasting, the UGC has set up 7 Audio-Visual Research Centers and 7 Education Media Research Centers for the production of software. 2332 programs were prepared, which are known as nationwide classroom programs. A new organization called the Inter-University Consortium of Education and Communication was established. Programs like teacher fellowship and research fellowship for SC/ST candidates and remedial teaching for weaker sections including minorities were continued. UGC provided assistance to 110 universities and 1216 colleges for installation of mini/macro-computer systems. with the support of

5. In the Department of Electronics (DOE), several courses in Computer Science were run. An information and library network called “INFLIBNET” has been proposed. With a view to providing common research facilities and services of the highest quality, Inter-University Centers in Nuclear Science, Astronomy and Astrophysics and Nuclear Energy were established. IGNOU broadened access to higher education by providing opportunities to learners from disadvantaged groups such as women, people living in backward areas and hilly areas, with an enrollment of 1.64 lakhs as of March 1992. The Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR), the Indian Council of Historical Research (ICHR) and the Indian Council of Philosophical Research (ICPR) also continued their activities related to supporting research in the respective fields. Thus unprecedented reforms have been made in the field of higher education.

Nevertheless, higher education at present suffers from several weaknesses, such as proliferation of substandard institutions, failure to maintain academic calendar, outdated curriculum, uneven quality of education, and lack of adequate support for research.

To deliberate on the future directions of higher education, the Planning Commission organized a ‘brainstorming’ session in which emphasis was placed on the following important areas.

• To make higher education relevant in the context of the changing socio-economic scenario.
• Promotion of value education and
• Strengthening the management system in universities.
• Integrated approach to higher education.
• Excellence in Higher Education.
• Expansion of education in an equitable and cost-effective manner, in the process of making the higher education system financially self-sustaining.

1. The potential of 44.25 lakh students enrolled in higher education is to be harnessed by actively involving them in programs of adult literacy, continuing education, population education and other constructive activities. Such extension activities have to be carried out by the universities and colleges
2. In order to bring greater coherence in higher education, which includes general, technical, medical and agricultural streams, which are fragmented in terms of structures and policies, the NPE envisages the establishment of the National Council of Higher Education (NCHER) which will is in final stage. This will ensure networking, sharing of facilities and development of manpower including teachers training/orientation facilities.

3. Several measures have been taken to promote excellence in higher education. The National Accreditation Council (NAC) was established. In addition to continuing the existing programs of CAS/DAS, COSIST and IUCEC and the proposed INFLIBNET, new inter-university centers were to be set up to provide facilities in emerging areas such as biotechnology, atmospheric science, oceanography, electronics and computer science . Model syllabus for all the subjects has already been prepared. The commission was to be implemented in a phased manner to reform undergraduate courses in the teaching of science and mathematics in Indian universities and colleges.


4. It should be expanded to cover 95 universities and 2500 colleges during the Eighth Plan.

5. It is estimated that there will be 10 lakh additional students out of which 900000 will be at the graduate level. This expansion in higher education, mainly due to the massive expansion of the distance education system keeping in view the current resource constraints and providing equitable and cost-effective methods to large sections of the population, especially disadvantaged groups such as women and people to be adjusted from. Living in backward and hilly areas and measures for resource generation. To meet the learning needs of rural areas, open universities were to introduce programs of a vocational nature for adult learners. However, the quality of education should not be compromised at any cost. Upward revision in fee structure is permitted but at the same time it shows
6. will not be excessive. There is a provision of educational loan for students and scholarship and financial assistance to SC/ST and BPL students.

7. The Planning Commission has constituted a Core Group on Value Education in Education. The recommendations of the group will be considered for implementation in consultation with the Ministry of Human Resource Development, UGC, Association of Indian Universities (AID) and NCERT.

8. There is also a plan to modernize and reorganize the management of the university system. The program of autonomy of colleges and universities is also encouraged. Facilities in universities and colleges including research facilities will be consolidated and strengthened.

9. Further, it was decided that the research activities of ICSSR, ICHR, ICPR, and Indian Institute of Advanced Study (IIAS), Shimla would be given special attention to promote inter-disciplinary research. It was also decided to take steps to support research in humanities which is currently neglected.

10. To differentiate the degree as the need for services, the NPE envisioned setting up a National Testing Service (NTS). It will conduct tests on a voluntary basis to determine the suitability of candidates for specified jobs developing criteria of comparable ability across the country.

11. “Our university system is, in many parts, in a state of disrepair… In about half of the country’s districts, enrollment in higher education is very low, about two-thirds of our universities and 90 percent of our colleges are rated by quality standards But below average… I am concerned that university appointments, including those of vice-chancellors, have been politicized in many states and have become subject to caste and communal considerations, there are complaints of favoritism and corruption.”– Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in 2007 Lion


12. In the present competitive environment, students should not only have adequate knowledge and understanding in their area of specialization but also have interpersonal and communication skills to survive the competitive onslaught.

13. The present era is caught in the trap of GOLIT where globalization, open market economy, liberalization and international technology are what dictate the future course of the world. Another notable feature of the emerging society would be the shift from thrust-directed learning to self-initiated learning.

14. Students as well as parents are now more and more conscious about quality in higher education. they p

The quality of curriculum, instructional delivery, access to learning environment for lifelong learning and improving knowledge are being questioned.

15. During the Tenth Plan period, the UGC selected 47 colleges at the national level and recognized them as colleges with potential for excellence and awarded Rs. 1 crore to each of them for the development of higher education. Similarly Universities selected and recognized as Universities with potential for excellence and Rs. 30 crore each. Mumbai University is one of them.

16. At present, the higher education sector scenario is facing a challenging environment. The competition for excellence is fast diminishing. No doubt, the existing formal accreditation system being operated through various boards and councils provides a basis for implementing the quality system requirements.



Higher Education and Social Ethos:

1. Higher education is perhaps the worst cause of change and has failed to respond to the challenges of our times. It has a lot going for its social relevance and a university degree only adds to the existing wagon of the educated unemployed. Therefore, the question arises that what should be the role of higher education so that the entire education system becomes more responsive to the current political and social issues and also becomes a people-oriented system.

2. At the political level, schools and universities are important agencies of political socialization that promote attitudes and values that can be oriented towards strengthening the political system. But given the level of corruption and criminalization, colleges and universities are also against the entry of politics into their fields.

3. It is not bad to have student politics in a purely democratic way, as it will give them a strong foundation for democratic functioning as responsible citizens in future. But the bitter truth is that political parties are using the temples of education for their narrow interests. Higher education is certainly at a crossroads today. The earlier vision of higher education as institutions of learning is rapidly changing to the status of a market commodity under the influence of the forces of globalization. so there is an urgent need

4. To restore our age-old extraterrestrial values as essential components of the entire educational curriculum including higher education.


India and Higher Education:

Today, almost all the countries of the world are responsible for the share of higher education.
Completely as well as with the state. Furthermore, it can also be said that higher education in most developing countries is largely funded by public subsidies.

The responsibility of the state on the higher education system has increased tremendously. The infrastructure equally offers courses on Master of Computer Application in 750 to 11831 colleges, 250 universities and 729 institutes. There are 820 approved management institutes for MBA courses. In the year 1950-51 there were 27 universities serving 1,74,000 students. But by the end of 2002-03, there were 16 Central Universities and 113 State Universities and 15,437 affiliated colleges serving approximately 92,27,833 students. Higher education in India is made up of regular and distance education. The central and state governments are responsible for the promotion and development of higher education in India. The UGC acts as a liaison between the central and state governments and universities in India.


Impact of Development on Educational Outcomes:

Some of the effects of educational development both in school education and higher and technical education can be summarized as follows.

1. Knowledge of Democratic Process Democracy can be successful only when its citizens are educated. With the expansion of school education through mass education programmes, most of the citizens who were once illiterate have become literate and aware of the democratic process of governance and are taking an active part in nation building and state affairs.

2. Knowledge of rights and duties: Education socializes the individual that he develops a consciousness of duty. He willingly participates in the affairs of the state. He has also become aware of his rights and this is the result of education.

3. Faith in democratic ideals – Citizens of India have expressed faith in democratic ideals and this has become possible only through expansion of education at all levels. He has now realized that life is not only the satisfaction of gross material desires, but it is more valuable and necessary to hold the ideals like freedom, independence and brotherhood.

4. Development of human qualities High moral character, sociability, benevolence, patience, kindness, sympathy, brotherhood etc. can be developed and nurtured by education and it can be seen increasing in more and more people.

5. Performing political duties: In a democracy, the government is elected by the people, and hence the onus is on them to choose a good government. In India, lack of education persuades ignorant people to vote for the wrong person, resulting in repeated failures of the government.

6. Stopping Exploitation The ideals of democracy are against all kinds of exploitation, but if political, social and economic exploitation is to be ended. educated people go towards their rights

They are trained and trained to fight against exploitation.

7. Preservation and dissemination of culture: The continuity of the past is maintained only through culture and social heritage, which is transferred to the new generation through education. Therefore education is needed for the transmission of culture.

8. Diffusion of Innovative Ideas: Effects of Education f. can be
In the dissemination of various innovative ideas. Government comes up with various development programs especially for the weaker section. Education helped them to understand its benefits and its implications for them and to participate in programs voluntarily.

9. Giant leap towards literacy: To remove illiteracy from the country with the second largest population required a huge effort from the government and voluntary organizations. Due to various programs of literacy and other developmental programmes, India was able to achieve a lot of progress.

10. World Class Technological Knowledge: India is now one of the seven nuclear nations in the world. Our scientists have made their presence felt in space research, rocket technology, IT, oceanography and world computation among other branches of science and technology. we have advanced

Technology in the field of health, agriculture, population education etc. and we are consultant to many countries of the world. All this has become possible due to the development in the field of education.

Education has brought about welcome positive changes in other areas as well. They are like this.

11. Improvement in the status of women,

12. Economic development by and through development in agriculture and industry.

13. India is reaching the level of a world leader.

14. Advancement of education at various levels only because of economic development.

15. Awareness of the need for environmental protection.

16. Population control program etc.

There are many other aspects like education of scheduled castes, tribes and backward communities, education of handicapped, education of minorities etc., which have not been discussed in detail in this chapter.

Privatization and Higher Education in India:

The latest trend in higher education at the national level is to tinker with the existing system of university education. The government has come out with the idea of setting up the National Council for Higher Education and Research (NCHER), which will replace not only the UGC but all central apex bodies such as the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), Medical Council of India, of India, Dental Council of India, The Council of Architecture, National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) and so on which has been the base of our higher and technical education.


Higher Technical Education:

1. As of 2008, there are only enough seats available in India’s post-secondary high schools for 7% of India’s college-age population, 25% of teaching positions nationwide are vacant, and 57% of college professors have either a master’s or a master’s degree. or PhD degree. As of 2007, India has 1,522 degree-granting engineering colleges with an annual student intake of 582,000, as well as 1,244 polytechnics with an annual intake of 265,000. However, these institutions are facing shortage of faculty and concerns have been raised over the quality of education.

2. A general allegation about the commitment and academic excellence of teachers may have some truth to them. The Central Government and the UGC are trying to attract talent and raise the standard of teaching by offering decent and attractive salaries and service conditions somewhat similar to those of corporate employees. Various governments are lax on this aspect and there is resistance and delay from the state governments in implementing them.

3. Technical education including management education is a powerful means of creating skilled manpower required for the developmental tasks of various sectors of the economy. Technical education implies high cost of construction, library, laboratory equipment and high rate of obsolescence. Investments should be viewed as necessary investments that provide valuable returns for society and contribute to social-

4. Economic development. But the fact is that such investments are not happening.

5. The Government will seek to consolidate and optimize the use of existing infrastructural facilities, their upgradation and modernization, identification of thrust areas and creation of infrastructure in new areas of engineering and technology, effective management of the overall system and institutional linkages between technical education taking steps to and other development areas.

6. Under the Thrust Area Program of Technical Education, 510 projects were supported with a total grant of Rs.500 crore. 53.43 crore for improving facilities in critical areas of technology. Another 685 projects were supported for creation of infrastructure in the areas of emerging technologies which included grants of Rs. 76.84 crore and for new technologies for 202 other projects with the assistance of Rs. 27.1 cr.


Continuing Education:

The following new schemes were launched as part of the implementation of NPE.

1. The scheme envisaged preparation and dissemination of courses and content packages suited to the needs of the industry. 4 Technical Training Teachers Institutes (TTEs) under the scheme implemented by 5 Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs)
2. TTI) 1 Indian Society of Tech.

Technical Education (ISTE) 4 Engineering College/University Department and 4 Polytechnics, More than 30000 working professionals have received training.
Technical Education (ISTE) 4 Engineering College/University Department and 4 Polytechnics, More than 30000 working professionals have received training.
तकनीकी शिक्षा (आईएसटीई) 4 इंजीनियरिंग कॉलेज/विश्वविद्यालय विभाग और 4 पॉलिटेक्निक, 30000 से अधिक कामकाजी पेशेवरों ने प्रशिक्षण प्राप्त किया है।
Technical Education (ISTE) 4 Engineering Colleges/University Departments and 4 Polytechnics, More than 30000 working professionals have been trained.
तकनीकी शिक्षा (आईएसटीई) 4 इंजीनियरिंग कॉलेज/विश्वविद्यालय विभाग और 4 पॉलिटेक्निक, 30000 से अधिक कामकाजी पेशेवरों को प्रशिक्षित किया गया है।

3. Institution-Industry Interaction: The proposals of 21 engineering colleges and 11 polytechnics have been approved for interaction with the industry under the scheme.

4. Under the scheme of Research and Development in Technical Education, 126 research and development projects were supported.

5. NEW DIMENSIONS During the last four decades, there has been an unprecedented expansion of technical education in the country. Nevertheless, the field of technical education is beset by some serious problems such as inadequate infrastructural facilities, shortage of qualified faculty, shortage of vacancies in institutions, lack of R&D facilities, lowering of standards due to quantitative expansion, traditional curriculum which The result is unemployment and underemployment. The situation is worse in the rapidly growing unaccredited institutions. A related phenomenon is brain-drain. Another serious problem is the lack of engagement and interaction between TEIs and user-agencies.

6. In order to overcome the above problems, emphasis has been laid on the following areas. (1) Modernization and upgradation of infrastructure (2) Quality improvement in technical and management education
7. (3) New industrial policy and interaction of R&D laboratories and (4) Resource mobilization.

8. The Central Government launched a massive project with the assistance of the World Bank for the period 1990 to 1999 to enable the State Governments to upgrade their polytechnics in capacity, quality and efficiency. The total outlay of this project was Rs. 1892 cr.

9. Another initiative to reform the technology sector is the setting up of the Technology Information Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC). Its objectives include evaluation of existing technologies, preparation of technology forecasting reports, and estimation of the nature and volume of likely future demands for goods and services. Plans have been contemplated to create a model university-industry symbiosis. This has been materialized as the Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad. The new industrial policy has created an environment that requires IITs to adopt a new role as leaders in current and future technology development.

10. A large number of technical institutes were started and of course, IITs have started consulting internationally as a result of developments in the technology sector. Management institutes like IIMs were the impetus and have become pace setters in highly qualified managerial manpower.







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