Influencing Factors of Population Quality

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Influencing Factors of Population Quality

The quality of life of a population is related to the quality of life of individuals and societies. This is a broad concept. Its standard indicators include not only wealth and employment, but also environment, physical and mental health security, education, entertainment, happiness, leisure time and poverty-free living with social relations etc.

The influencing factors of the quality of life of the population can be divided into different parts from the point of view of study, such as – economic factors (income, wealth, employment, level of living and poverty, infrastructure etc.), social factors (life expectancy, physical and mental health, education and training, housing, birth and death rates, social relationships, leisure, gender equality and crime etc.), psychological factors (levels of happiness and satisfaction) and other factors (human rights, political stability, environment, security, child development and welfare etc.).


economic factors

The economic factors influencing the quality of life of the population are those factors which are related to wealth. These are the following

income level

Income level is an important factor in the quality of life. In general, the higher the quality of life of that society, class and individual is considered, whose income level higher can be achieved per capita output. Low levels of health and nutrition adversely affect the quality of manpower. To improve the quality of population, it is necessary that adequate and nutritious food should be provided to the people. Expenditure on these items should be treated as human investment as this investment tends to increase the efficiency and productivity of the people.

education and training

The high literacy rate and training conditions in the country are helpful in increasing the quality of life of the people. In fact, education is considered as the stepping stone of development, the medium of change and the harbinger of hope. Education is considered one of the most powerful tools in reducing poverty and inequalities and laying the basis for economic development. The United Nations has also recognized that the greatest progress will be made in countries where education is widespread and where it encourages experimental attitudes among people. The studies done in the context of the development of developed countries make clear the fact that a large part of the development of these countries is the result of the development of education, research and training. Appropriation is because it increases the efficiency of the people as a means of production. It is clear that high literacy and training status in the country enhances the quality of people.

accommodation facility

Accommodation means such shelter which is comfortable and necessary for the persons, where their family members can lead a happy life. Housing is one of the basic needs of human beings. Availability of proper housing enhances the quality of life of the people. Without this, a person cannot make his life happy. The development of housing is also an important part of the development of human resources because a comfortable life makes people a good means of production. This increases the efficiency of the people.

birth and death rates

Birth and death rates in a country greatly affect the quality of life of the population. In the case of low birth and death rates, it is believed that adequate facilities are available to the citizens in the country, so life is more quality here. High birth and death rates mean that the availability of various facilities in the country is low. In such a situation, the quality of life for the people of the country cannot be imagined.

social relations
Man is a social animal. It is a part of the society and society is also formed from it. In this context, social relations have a special significance. It is necessary to have strong social ties to enhance life.

holiday time

Due to continuous work without quality leave, the productivity of the person decreases. If a person has the availability of a certain amount of leisure, then it increases their efficiency and which increases the quality of life of the person. It is also important from the point of view of strengthening the social relations of the individual.
Gender Equality The status of gender equality in the society is an indication of the quality life of the people. In places where women and men are not discriminated on the basis of gender and they have equality of opportunity without discrimination, the life of the people there is in a better condition. The concept of gender equality is based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of the United Nations.


In a society, if crime occurs in large quantities, the people there will not be sure about the safety of their life and property and in such a situation people cannot imagine living a quality life. In conditions of extreme crime and anarchy, people are not able to carry out their tasks in a completely independent manner. The condition of a crime free society enhances the quality of life of the people.

psychological factors

The various psychological factors influencing quality of life are those which depend on the internal factors of the individual and cannot be easily measured. These factors are the following

Happiness life

Among the psychological factors influencing the quality of happiness is an important factor. This is a subjective factor and is difficult to measure. It has great importance in the life of a person. Without this, a person cannot complete his work with full devotion. The quality of life of a person will increase only when the environment around him is such that he can experience anand (happiness). It is to be mentioned here that it is not necessary that the happiness level of the person should also increase with the increase in income.

satisfaction level

An individual’s level of satisfaction is also an influencing factor of quality of life. If the satisfaction level of the individual or the society is high then their quality of life will be high and if the level of satisfaction is low then the opposite situation will happen. The level of satisfaction is an intrinsic factor which can vary from person to person.

other factors
Other influencing factors of quality of life may include the following:

human rights qualitative

Life requires that individuals have various human rights. Human rights refer to the fundamental rights and freedoms to which all human beings are entitled. These include the right to life, the right to freedom of expression, the right to equality of law, as well as the right to food, work and education etc. Human rights are fundamental universal rights of human beings from which human beings cannot be denied on any grounds like gender, caste, race, religion, nationality. In countries where people get human rights, the quality of life of the people here is high.

political stability

Political stability is an effective factor in quality of life. In such countries, where there is a state of political stability, the trust of the people remains in the government. The schemes for the development of citizens are run smoothly here. In this way the quality of life of the people increases. In the event of political instability, the quality of life decreases.

environment clean

Availability of environment is helpful in improving life. Natural and man-made environmental resources such as fresh water, clean air, forests etc. provide a basis for human livelihood and socio-economic development. With a clean environment, individuals can be more productive by being more physically and mentally healthy.


A safe life is the basis of high quality and development. Without security, the country, society and individual cannot progress towards development. With the addition of life, property and various types of security, the quality of life can be improved.

Child Development & Welfare

Children are the future of any country. They are also the real pillars of the progress of the nation. Every child is born to fulfill certain expectations, aspirations and responsibilities, but if these children are deprived of the necessary facilities of development, then along with them the prospects of future betterment of the country also decrease. In order to increase the quality of life, it is necessary that proper direction should be given to the welfare and development of children in the country. It is necessary that the children in the country

united nations universal declaration of human rights
Various factors mentioned for the evaluation of quality of life by 1948 The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 described various factors for the evaluation of quality of life. These factors can be used in the measurement of quality of life. These factors are: Freedom from slavery and oppression Equal protection of law Freedom from discrimination, Right to move, Right to reside in one’s own country Right to marriage, Right to family, Gender, language, religion, political belief, Citizenship, socio-economic status etc. Right to equal treatment without being treated on the basis of rights • Right to privacy Freedom of thought Religious freedom
Right to free choice of employment, right to fair payment, equal pay for equal work, right to vote, right to rest, right to education, right to human self-respect.


Influencing factors of quality of population and India

The status of the major influencing factors of the quality of life of the population in India can be assessed as follows • Income level is an important factor in the quality of life. The income level of the people in India is low. The per capita income in India in the year 2011 was 1.509 US. dollars, while 7K. 38,974 in the Netherlands 50,085 in the USA 48,112 in Japan , 45,903 in China and 5.445 in the US . dollar was It is predicted that India will achieve an average growth rate of 13 percent per capita income in the period 2011-20 and will reach $4,200 by 2020. • Employment has an important place in a person’s life. A large part of the total labor force in India is unemployed. It has definitely improved over the years. The average unemployment rate in India between 1983 and 2011 was 76 percent. It reached its high of 94 percent in December 2009, which has come down to a record low of 3.8 percent in December 2011. This rate is Even less than countries like Spain, South Africa. Daman and Diu (0.6 percent) and Gujarat (1 percent) are the states with the lowest unemployment rates in India. In this situation, the possibility of qualitative improvement in the life of the citizens of the country has increased.

Even after a decade, a large part lives below the poverty line. Statistics show that one third of the world’s poor currently reside in India. According to the World Bank report , in the year 2010 32.7 percent of India ‘s population was below the International Poverty Line ( US $ 125 per day ) while 68 7 percent of the population was under the 2 Program ( UNDP ) . ) is 209 percent of the national poverty line in urban areas. Also, the Oxford Poverty a and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) data shows the alarming state of poverty in the states of India. According to this, the number of poor in 8 Indian S states (Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa and Rajasthan) is 42 crores, which is one crore more than the poor of 26 African countries. The latest UNICEF figures also paint a grim picture of poverty in India, one of which is malnourished. was living downstairs. Figures from the United Nations Development US Dollar per day show that 29.8 percent of the country’s people live below 2010 figures. In rural areas, this figure is 338 percent, while according to Initiative 2, 42 percent of the total five-year-old children in the world are underweight. In the case of Global Hunger Index (GHI), India has gone from 226 to 228 between 1996 and 2012, while countries like Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Kenya, Nigeria, Myanmar, Uganda, Zimbabwe and Malawi have been successful in improving the condition of hunger.

Children are the future of the country. To increase the quality of life, it is necessary that proper direction should be given to child development and welfare in the country. At present, 13 central ministries contribute for arranging the necessary resources for this in India. Through them various policies and action plans like National Health Policy-2002, National Education Policy-1986, National Child Labor Policy- 1987, National Child Policy- 1974, Communication Strategy for Child Development-1996, National Action Plan on Nutrition -1995, National Nutrition Policy-1993 Efforts have been made to prepare and implement National Children’s Charter-2003, National Children’s Action Plan-2005 etc. Along with this, 30 thousand non-government organizations are also constantly trying to find solutions to the problems related to children and get them implemented.

• In order to improve the quality of life, the Government of India operates various schemes, as well as takes the cooperation of various non-governmental organizations in this work. The government has run many programs to provide food, clothing, housing, freedom, education, health and employment facilities to the people. The National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGA) started from the year 2006 is the main one to increase the purchasing power of the people in the country and now it has been renamed as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MNREGA). These schemes and programs are helping people to reduce poverty and lead a better quality of life.

• Life expectancy is a major factor in quality of life. There has been a steady increase in the life expectancy in India but this pace has been very slow. The life expectancy of the people in the country was 229 years in 1911 which increased to 32.1 years in 1951 and 59.9 years in 1991. It has been estimated at 68.89 years in the year 2009. In the same year, the life expectancy of men was 67 46 years and that of women was 72.61 years. Life expectancy in India is also low as compared to developed countries. For example, life expectancy is 81 years in Japan, 79 years in Canada, 78 years in Australia and 77 years in America and England, and 71 years in Arab countries, 81 years in the Euro area, 74 years in Latin America and the Caribbean, and in the world This is 70 years.

For a quality life, it is necessary for the people of the country to be physically and mentally healthy. For this, adequate nutrition is required, but in India, on an average, people in India get only 1900 to 2000 calories from food, while they are required to get at least 3000 calories per day. Due to non-availability of adequate medical facilities, there is a high incidence of diseases which hinder the quality of life of the people.

High literacy rate and training status in the country is helpful in increasing the quality of life of the people. The literacy rate in India was only 18.3 percent in the year 1951, which increased to 64.83 percent in the year 2001. India’s literacy rate is 74.04 percent according to the 2011 census. Male literacy rate in the country has increased from 75.26 percent in 2001 to 82.14 percent in 2011. Similarly, female literacy rate has increased from 53.67 percent in 2001 to 65.46 percent in 2011. With the development of education facilities in the country, the gap between male and female literacy rate has also reduced. Kerala is the state with the highest literacy rate in India with 93.91 percent, while the lowest literacy rate is in Bihar, where it is only 63.82 percent. • Birth and death rates in a country greatly affect the quality of life of the population. The birth rate in India had registered an increase till the 70s, but now it is increasing rapidly.

There is a shortage. In India it was 49.2 per thousand in 1901-10, which became 41: 7 per thousand in 1951-80. After this, due to the focus on population planning, it came down to 29.5 per thousand in the year 1991. At present it is 2222 per thousand. Due to the development process in India, the birth rate as well as the death rate are decreasing. In the period 1941-50 it was 274 which has now come down to 64 per thousand. Infant and maternal mortality rates are very important among various mortality rates. The infant mortality rate in India was its highest level of 159.3 per thousand live births in the year 1960, which has come down to its lowest level of 48.2 per thousand live births in the year 2010. With development, it is likely to decrease further in the future. This rate is much lower in developed countries. For example, in the United States in 2010, the rate was 6.15 per thousand live births. Similarly, the maternal mortality rate in India in the year 2010 was 2 per thousand live births. This rate is higher in rural areas than in urban areas.

• Human rights are fundamental universal rights of human beings. Various efforts have been made in this regard in India before and after independence. For example, after the reform movement launched by Raja Ram Mohan Roy during the British Raj, the practice of Sati was abolished. Citizens got various rights when the Indian Constitution came into force in 1950, Panchayati Raj was established in 1992 by constitutional amendment, in which women and scheduled castes / tribes were given representation.

The National Human Rights Commission was established in 1993. In 2005, the Right to Information Act was passed to ensure citizens’ access to information organized under the jurisdiction of public officials, the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act was passed in 2005 to solve the problem of employment, etc. Making positive impactful efforts 1 Analyzing the factors affecting the quality of life of the population in the context of India, it is clear that the quality of life in India is still in a low condition. Government efforts are being made at various levels to improve the lives of citizens in the country and the results of those efforts are also coming, but more and more is needed in this direction. Various international organizations are trying to improve the quality of life at the world level as well. Major international organizations such as the World Bank have declared the goal of “a poverty-free world so that people have access to food, clothing, housing, education, access to health care and employment, and improve their quality of life.”

The World Bank is striving to reduce poverty through neoliberal means and help people live a better quality of life. In addition to this, various NGOs are also concerned about qualitative improvement in the lives of individuals and communities. Seen in the same way while these two are different concepts and there is a substantial difference between the two.

On the one hand, the standard of living is generally related to the availability of money, comfort, material goods and necessities to the people in a given geographical area. It includes those elements that can be easily measured and can be expressed in numbers, such as GDP, poverty rate, life expectancy, inflation rate, average number of holidays given to workers per year. e.t.c . The standard of living is often used to compare geographic areas. Like the difference in standard of living between two countries or two cities, on the other hand, quality of life is more subjective than standard of living.

This includes wealth and employment as well as the built environment, physical and mental health security, education, entertainment, happiness, leisure and social relationships, and a poverty-free life. It also includes elements that are typically qualitative and difficult to measure, such as equal protection of the law, freedom from discrimination, religious freedom, etc. Thus, standard of living is an objective and narrow concept whereas quality of life is a subjective and comprehensive concept. But, both help in presenting a general picture of life in a particular area at a particular time, which helps policy makers to formulate and change policies.

Various international organizations are trying for this at the world level as well. India is also benefiting from these efforts. The concepts of quality of life and standard of living of a population are often seen in the same way, but there is a substantial difference between the two. The standard of living is a narrower concept that includes elements that can be easily measured and expressed in numbers, while quality of life is a broader concept that includes quantitative as well as qualitative factors whose measurement is It’s hard to do. But both help to present a general picture of life in a particular area at a particular point of time, which helps the policy makers in formulating policies.

unemployment rate
Under the unemployment rate, the relationship between the total power of the country and the people who are not employed for earning their livelihood is seen. People who are looking for employment. This rate is obtained by dividing their number by the total labor force of the country. This rate changes mainly to those currently looking for work. Depends on the new people who left the job and joined in search of work. Poverty Line : UNDP According to this, those families are poor who have to live on one dollar a day. Under the definition of poverty in India, those families who get food or food items of 2400 calories in rural areas and 2100 calories in urban areas are not poor. Less 7.9 Answers to Exercise Questions Question 01 What are the influencing factors of population quality? Answer: Income, employment, standard of living, infrastructure, life expectancy, health, education, housing, social relations, gender equality, happiness, human rights, political stability, environmental security etc. are among the influencing factors of the quality of life of the population.

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