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  Scholars gave birth to the concept of modernization in order to understand the changes in traditional societies or the changes in western societies due to industrialization and to reveal the difference between the two. On one side he placed the traditional society and on the other side the modern society. Thus he gave birth to traditional versus modernity. Along with this, when western scholars discuss the changes taking place in colonies and developing countries, they resort to the concept of modernization. Some people have considered modernization as a process and some as a result. Considering it as a process, Eisenstand has written, “Historically, modernization is a process of change towards the type of social, economic and political systems that prevailed in Western Europe and North America from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries, and in South America, Asian countries till the twentieth century. And developed in African countries. “The process of modernization does not reveal the change in any one direction or area rather it is a multi-directional process. Also it is not bound by any kind of values. But sometimes it means good and is taken from the desired change.


For example, when someone says that social, economic and religious institutions are being modernised, then his aim is not to criticize but to tell goodness. Till now many western and Indian scholars have expressed their views from time to time to clarify the concept of modernization and have addressed this concept with many names. Some of the prominent scholars who have expressed their views on modernization are Wiener, Aitor Lerner, Beck, Alex Incallex, AR Desai, Y. Singh, M. N. Srinivasan, Edward Shill, W. C. Smith etc. In the synonymous form of the word modernization, the words Anglicization, Europeanization, Westernization, urbanization, evolution, development progress etc. have also been used. Like industrialization, urbanization and westernization, modernization is also a complex process.


Modernization Definition and Meaning: Till now various scholars have written a lot on modernization and have defined it in many ways. Here we will mention the definitions and ideas presented by some scholars. Massim J. Levy has defined modernization as a technological tree. I consider each of these two elements to be the basis of the continuum. It is clear from the above definition that Levi has considered the use of inert sources of power such as petrol, diesel, coal, hydro-electricity and nuclear-power and machines as the basis of modernization. How modern a particular society will be called, it depends on how much root power and machines have been used there.


Dr. Yogendra Singh has told that generally the meaning of being modern is taken from ‘fashionable’. They consider modernization as a cultural endeavor which includes rational attitude, universal outlook, transcendental scientific world view, humanism, technological progress etc. Dr. Singh does not consider modernization to be the property of any one ethnic group or cultural group, but believes it to be the right of the entire human society.


  Daniel Lerner in his book

In ‘The Passing of Traditional Society Modernizing the Middle East’, modernization is accepted as the western model. He mentions the following features inherent in modernization


(a) Increasing urbanization

(b) increasing literacy

  (c) Increasing literacy increases the participation of educated people in meaningful exchange of ideas using various means like newspapers, books, radio etc.

  (d) All these increase the efficiency of man, there is economic benefit to the nation which contributes to increase in per capita income.

(e) It helps in improving the characteristics of political life.


  Learners express appropriate characteristics as strength, youth, skill, and rationality. They accept modernization primarily as a state of mind, an inclination towards growth rather than progress, and a readiness to adapt to change. Empathy is also one of the main elements of modernization in which the tendency to participate in other people’s happiness and sorrow and to help them in times of crisis increases.


  Eisenstaedt in his book Modernization: Resistance and Change has expressed modernization in various fields as follows


  (a) In the economic field: High level of technology.

  (b) In the political field: Diffusion of power in the group and giving power to all adults (by voting rights) and participating in democracy through means of communication.

(c) In the cultural sphere: increased ability to adapt to different societies and increased empathy for other people’s circumstances.

(d) In the field of structure: increase in the size of all organizations, increase in complexity and differentiation.

(e) In the ecological field: increase in urbanization.


  Dr. Raj Krishna, showing the difference between modernization and modernity, has considered modernity to be more comprehensive than modernization. According to this, modernization refers to a civilization with a high level of literacy and urbanization, as well as vertical and geographic mobility, high per capita income, and a higher level of economy than the initial level, which is beyond the level of scarcity (beyond the point of origin). has passed) is included. Modernity, on the other hand, refers to a culture characterized by rationality, broad-minded outlook, diversity of opinion and decision-making centers, autonomy of different spheres of experience, secularism, ethics and personal freedom of the individual. It happens in the form of respect towards the world.


  1. E. Blake has accepted modernization as historical and considered it as a process of change that developed in Western Europe and North America in the 17th century, in the social, economic and political systems, in the 20th century America and Europe etc. has been able to move towards Modernization is the result of an attitude which believes that society can and should be changed and that change is desirable. In modernization, adjustments have to be made according to the changing functions of the institutions of the person, this increases the knowledge of the person, as a result of which he gets control over the environment. According to Blake, modernization started from Europe and America but till the twentieth century it spread all over the world and it changed the nature of human relations.


  Dr. S.C. Dubey considers modernization to be full of values.


(1) Use of root-power for the solution of human problems.


(2) This is done collectively and not individually. As a result complex organizations are formed. Education is considered a powerful means of modernization because education increases knowledge and brings changes in values and trends, which is very necessary to reach the objective of modernization. Dr. M. N. Srinivas has expressed his views regarding modernization in ‘Social Change in Modern India (1966) and Modernization: A Few Curries’ (1969). You do not consider modernization as a neutral term, according to you, modernization is mostly taken to mean ‘good’. Modernization is the popular term for the changes taking place in non-western countries due to direct or indirect contact with any western country. You include the following things in modernization: increased urbanization, spread of literacy, increase in per capita income, adult franchise and development of reason.


Dr. Srinivas has given three major areas of modernization


  1. Field of material culture (technology is also included in this)
  2. The field of social institutions, and
  3. Domain of knowledge, values and attitudes.


Superficially, these three areas seem to be different, but they are related to each other. Changes in one area affect other areas as well. B. V. Shah has expressed his views on modernization in an article titled ‘Problem of Modernization of Education in India: (1969)’. Shah considers modernization as a multipurpose process, which pervades in all areas, economic, social, political etc. (a) Modernization in the economic field means: increase in industrialization, increase in production, mechanization, monetization and urbanization. Person

A distinction is made between private and collective property. Living and working places are separate, people have freedom to choose occupation. Logic and dynamism increase in them. A new approach develops in the field of income, purchase, savings and capital investment. (b) A secular and welfare state is established in the political field, which arranges for education, health, housing and employment. Equality is provided to all before the law and there is freedom to express freedom in choosing or changing the government.

(c) There is an open system of stratification in the social sector. Earned positions are valued in place of given position and equality of opportunity is given to all, individual freedom is emphasized in the field of marriage, religion, family and business. (d) Believes in human efforts for social change in the individual sphere.


  Secular, logical, scientific and worldview outlook develops. An egalitarian and independent approach is adopted towards social problems. AR Desai considers the use of modernization not only limited to the social sector but extended to all aspects of life. Modernization in the intellectual field means increasing the power of reasoning. Physical and social events are explained logically. No incident is accepted considering God as the basis. Secular is the result of rationality which has resulted in a world outlook rather than a supernatural one.


In the social field: (a) Social mobility increases. By intensifying the old social, economic, political and psychological concepts, the person is presented to adopt a new type of behavior. (b) Changes in the social structure – there is a change in the professional and political functions of a person, the importance of earned positions increases instead of given. (c) Expansion and spread of the central legal, administrative and political institutions of the society. (d) Adoption of public welfare policy by the administrators.


In economic field: (a) Use of root power in place of animal and human power in production, distribution, transport and communication etc. (b) Separation of economic activities from their traditional form. (c) Use of machines, techniques and tools. (d) Growth in industry, business, trade etc. due to the effect of high technology. (1) Increasing specialization in economic activities, as well as production can be called consumer specialties. (2) Increase in production and consumption in the economy.


In the cultural field: (a) Increasing industrialization which we can call the main feature of economic modernisation. Urbanization increases in the ecological classical region. (b) Expansion of education and increase in institutions providing special type of education. (c) Development of a new cultural outlook that emphasizes progress and improvement, ability, pleasure, experience, and potential. Growth of knowledge, respect for others, inculcation of faith in knowledge and technology and a person getting the reward of his work and faith in humanism. (d) Development of such institutions and capabilities by the society so that adjustments can be made to the ever-changing demands and problems. Thus Mr. Desai has seen modernization in the context of a wide area in which all aspects of the same culture come.


It is clear from the above views of Indian and Western scholars on modernization that they have used this concept to compare the traditional, backward and colonial countries with the western, capitalist and industrializing and urbanizing countries which are taking place in them. indicates further changes.


Modernization in the intellectual field means logical explanation of physical and social phenomena and accepting them on the basis of causality. Due to modernization in the social sector, dynamism increases, new values grow in place of old practices, complex institutions are born, blood relations etc. In the political field, the army is not considered to be a supernatural power but a family, decentralization of power among the people and selection of the government by adult suffrage. of machines in the economic field. Use increases and production is done by the use of root power. Transport means develop and industrialization increases, urbanization increases in the circumstantial area.


Modernization in the cultural field means the development of a new cultural outlook and the emergence of new qualities in a person. The following characteristics of modernization are revealed from the above views of various scholars: rational interpretation of events, increase in social mobility, secularization and genderization, transfer of political power to the people through adult franchise, increasing urbanization, scientific outlook, industrialization, per capita Increase in income, spread of education, empathy, use of root power, development of new personality, importance of positions earned in place of given, exchange of money in place of commodity exchange, specialization in businesses, development of transport and communication system, medicine Increase in health and use of new methods in place of ancient agricultural methods. Thus we see that modernization is a complex process involving many elements.

And which is related to all the material, economic, political, social, religious and intellectual things of life. This concept helps us to understand the changes taking place in traditional societies. Today, somewhere in the world, traditional society is seen, and somewhere modern society. This concept is useful in comparing them and understanding the nature and direction of change.






Form Of Modernization


The question arises that on which changes, which situation arises or which process starts, we will call it modernization. Generally, the ideals of modernization have been western countries and the changes taking place in them. As Bendix says, “By modernization I mean the kind of social changes that occurred during the Industrial Revolution in England in 1760–1830 and the Political Revolution in France in 1789–1794. “The current democracy, education system and industrial revolution mostly started in western countries only. Therefore, if the changes that took place in western countries in social, economic, political and other fields.


  If it is followed in other countries, it will be known as modernization. Therefore, it cannot be denied that in the beginning the format of modernization has been western countries only, whether it is in form of modernization in China, Japan or any other country, Rudolph and Footloof have also confirmed the same thing. Is it? Lerner is of the opinion that the western model is only historically western, sociologically universal.




Modernization Versus Tradition


       A common belief is to consider modernization and tradition as opposite to each other. They are accepted as a pair. Rudolph and Rudolph write- “In the analysis of current social and political changes, modernization has generally been used in opposition to tradition. The two concepts are also used in comparisons of Western and non-Western equivalents. Progress, change and development of the society have been considered towards modernization in the tradition. Bendix has used the words developed in place of modern and progressive in place of traditional. It is true that traditions have no importance in a society that follows modern societies in all social, economic, political, cultural, intellectual and educational fields.


  Edward Shiels writes, “Traditional society is by no means completely traditional, modern society is by no means free from tradition. The construction of any modernity is also done on the shoulders and experiences of tradition. As such, he is a link between the past and the present. Prof. Shiels accepts tradition and modernity as a continuum. Modern society is also not completely modern, like science, modernization is also an open-ended process. Its nature is evolutionary, which automatically changes and keeps moving forward. Therefore, no society can claim that it has been completely modernized or that it is completely modern; Rather there is a measure of modernization present.





Difference between Sanskritization and Westernization


                Looking at the nature of Sanskritization and Westernization, it is clear that both these processes are related to each other from the point of view that both are the cause and effect of each other. On the one hand, Western technology and social values encouraged Sanskritization, while on the other hand, with the increase in Sanskritization, the values of Western culture began to spread more rapidly. Even after this, M. N. Srinivas has clarified many differences related to the concept of Sanskritization and Westernization.


  1. Sanskritization is an indigenous or internal process which explains the internal changes taking place in the traditional social structure of India. On the other hand, Westernization is a foreign process and it is related to these external influences which have brought many changes in our society.


  1. The scope of the process of sanskritisation is limited as it is concerned only with caste mobility. Westernization is a widespread process which has affected all aspects of Indian life in one way or the other.


  1. Basically the basis of sanskritization is religious. Through this, the lower castes try to elevate their status by adopting the religious rituals and purity-related practices of the higher castes. On the contrary, the basis of westernization is secular and scientific.


  1. The nature of the values of Sanskritization and Westernization are also different from each other. The values of sanskritisation encourage the great traditions of the Hindus and the consumption of meat and liquor.


The experiment is banned by considering them unholy, the values of westernization are modern in the sense that it gives more importance to individual freedom, equality, social justice and rational practices. ,


  1. Sanskritisation is a process which explains the changes in the lower castes and tribes in the lifestyle similar to that of the upper castes. In other words, its influence is confined to the lower castes and tribes. On the other hand, westernization is a comprehensive process from the point of view of impact as it has affected the lives of all the classes, castes and communities in the Indian society.


  1. In different areas

The ideals of sanskritisation differ from each other. In some area, it is related to following the lifestyle of upper castes, while in some area, any backward or low caste can also be the ideal of sanskritization as the dominant caste. On the other hand, westernization has only one ideal i.e. adoption of western lifestyle and values.


  1. Sanskritization is a process that changes the status of an individual in the ethnic stratification. Thus Sanskritization encourages upward mobility. On the contrary, there is no change in the caste status of the people due to the effect of westernization.


  1. The process of Sanskritisation has always been present in some form or the other in Indian history. On the contrary, the process of westernization started during the British rule and increased more rapidly after independence.

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