Other Educationally Backward Classes and Areas

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Other Educationally Backward Classes and Areas:


Suitable incentives will be provided to all educationally backward sections of the society, especially in rural areas. Adequate institutional infrastructure will be provided to hilly and desert districts, remote and inaccessible areas and islands.
a) Minorities:

Some minority groups are educationally disadvantaged or backward. Greater attention will be paid to the education of these groups in the interest of equality and social justice. This would naturally include constitutional guarantees given to them to establish and administer their own educational institutions and protection of their languages and culture. Simultaneously, objectivity will be reflected in the preparation of textbooks and in all school activities and all possible measures will be taken to promote integration based on an appreciation of common national goals and ideals in line with the core curriculum.

b) Handicapped:
The objective should be to integrate the physically and mentally challenged as equal partners with the general community, prepare them for normal development and enable them to face life with courage and confidence. The following measures will be taken in this regard:
I. Wherever possible the education of children with motor disabilities and other mild disabilities shall be common with others.
Second. As far as possible, special schools with hostels will be provided at district headquarters for severely handicapped children.
Third. Proper arrangements will be made to provide vocational training to the disabled.
iv. Teachers’ training programs will be revamped, especially for teachers of primary classes, to deal with the special difficulties of children with disabilities; And
v. Voluntary effort for the education of the disabled will be encouraged in every possible way.
c) Adult Education:

Our ancient scriptures define education as education that liberates—that is, provides the means of freedom from ignorance and oppression. In the modern world, this would naturally include the ability to read and write, as these are the main means of learning. Therefore, adult education, including adult literacy, is of vital importance. The entire country has resolved to eradicate illiteracy through the National Literacy Mission, with special emphasis on total literacy campaigns through various mediums, especially in the 15-35 age group. Central and state governments, political parties and their mass organisations, mass media and educational institutions, teachers, students, youth, voluntary agencies, social worker groups and employers should strengthen their commitment to mass literacy campaigns, including literacy and functional Huh. knowledge and skills, and awareness among learners about the socio-economic reality and the potential to change it. Since the participation of participants in literacy campaigns is of utmost importance in development programs, the National Literacy Mission has been given the importance of poverty alleviation, national integration, environmental protection, adherence to small family norm, equality of women, universalization of primary education, basic health care, etc. . It will also promote the cultural creativity of the people and their active participation in the development processes. There will be a comprehensive program of post-literacy and continuing education

Provided to neo-literates and youth receiving primary education with a view to maintaining and upgrading their literacy skills and using it to improve their living and working conditions. th
These programs will include:
I. establishment of a variety of continuing education centers to enable adults to continue learning of their choice;
Second. education of workers through employers, trade unions and the government;
Third. wide promotion of books, libraries and reading rooms;
iv. the use of collective as well as group teaching media such as radio, TV and films ~;
v. formation of groups and organizations of learners; And
vi. distance learning programs

An important development issue today is the continuous upgradation of skills so as to produce manpower resources of the type and number required by the society. Therefore, special emphasis will be laid on organizing employment/self-employment oriented and need and interest based vocational and skill training programmes.

Education and Social Mobility:
The role of education in promoting social mobility is one of the central issues in contemporary sociological and political debate. In modern societies, education has become an increasingly important factor in determining what jobs people enter and in determining their social class status. This has led some scholars to believe in the advent of open and efficient societies but empirical evidence casts doubt on this. In many countries the relationship between family background (i.e. social origin) and educational opportunity is still strong: people from more privileged social classes are more likely to undertake a longer educational career and achieve a higher level of qualification than those from less privileged classes. is more likely. Having a higher educational qualification is a clear advantage when they enter the labor market. Indeed, education is seen as an important link between the social background of individuals and their subsequent class destination.

Poverty has been found to be an intervening link, and it can reinforce social inequalities and reduce social mobility. Educational institutions and their admission, selection and certification processes can play an important role in reducing or perpetuating social inequalities.

It is often assumed that lack of educational qualification restricts social mobility. People in developed countries want to get higher level of education to equip themselves to get more prestigious jobs. To do this, people seek additional years of education, even if it is not necessary for some of the jobs or occupations they are seeking. Evidence suggests that academic achievement has no consistent relationship with subsequent work performance and productivity. More important, however, is that the lack of educational qualifications restricts the social mobility of those who have been unable to obtain them for one reason or another.

Peter Blau and Otis Duncan (1967) in their study of social mobility in America found that the significant factor affecting whether a son moved to a higher social status than his father was the amount of education the son received. Higher education is a rare and valuable resource and one for which people compete fiercely.

Due to the growing awareness about the importance of higher education, a large number of people are trying to take advantage of it to enhance their social status. as a result


SOCIOLOGY IN ENGLISH: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLuVMyWQh56R3KgAeBpmbY8Gv6201xh2dQ





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