Personal Management Industrial Relations and Human Relations

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Personal Management Industrial Relations and Human Relations


Industrial relations have now become a part and parcel of the science of management, as they deal with the manpower of the enterprise. Hence they are closely related to personal management. Until recently there was no clear distinction between the usage of the terms “personnel management and industrial”.relations.” The two were often used interchangeably. This becomes clear if we consider some of the definitions given by scholars.


Dale Yoder has defined personnel management as that phase of management which is concerned with the effective control and utilization of human power as distinguished from other sources of power. Industrial relations are those relations that exist in employment and outside of employment. They refer to a wide range of relations between people, human relations, which exist because of the essential cooperation of men and women in the process of modern industry.


E.F.L. Breach observes: ‘Personnel management is mainly concerned with the activities of executive policies with respect to the personnel aspects of the enterprise; Whereas industrial relations are primarily concerned with the employee-employer relationship.”


The British Institute of Personnel Management makes no distinction between personnel management and industrial relations. It defines personnel management. That part of the management function which is primarily concerned with human relations within an organization, the object of which is to maintain those relations on a basis which, with consideration of the well-being of the individual, enables all those who perform their functions to the maximum. engaged to do. The contribution of personnel to the effective functioning of the enterprise. Thus, the Institute prefers to include under this t

RM “methods of recruitment, selection training, education, term of employment, methods and standards of remuneration, working conditions, facilities, employee services, procedures for joint consultation and settlement of disputes, etc.”


Although, of course, some distinction has been made between the two terms, personnel management in more restricted usages refers to that part of the employment relationship that deals with employees as individuals. Group relations are excluded if the workplace is part of industrial relations, “Accordingly”, the collective relations of individual workers with their management constitute the subject matter of industrial relations.


The term “human relations in industry.” has also come into vogue. According to some authors, human relations “may not be the direct relationship that exists between an employer and his working people, regarded as individuals, which is distinct from the term industrial relations, which is used to denote collective relations.” Others include subjects under ‘human relations’ in which employers and employees have common interests and are, therefore, likely to understand the interests, while the field of industrial relations is essentially divided into separate interests. view of



Some other “human relations are concerned with relations at the level of the enterprise as a whole, whether with the union or individual relations with the employees.” while industrial relations would apply to the relations between the employers’ organization and the employees at the higher level of the economy.” Still others regard human relations as the scientific investigation of psychological and social inter-relation arising in the collective performance of work.


These different interpretations show that although it is difficult to draw a definite line between the concept of industrial relations and human relations, broad distinctions can be made.


Concept of Industrial Relations:


The term industrial relations refers to industrial relations. “Industrial” means “any productive activity in which a person engages” and “relationship” means “the relationship that exists between an employer in industry and its workers.” Like Kapoor to observe, the concept of industrial relations is an evolving and dynamic concept, and is not confined to the complex of relations between unions and management, but also refers to the complex of relations between union and management.

does, but also refers to.


It includes all primary activities such as agriculture, plantation, forestry, horticulture, disruptive, agriculture, mining, collection:


  1. b) A web much more complex than the simple concept of labour-capital conflict between workers in general from a simple web of linkages to ancillary activities, such as construction, manufacturing, trade, commerce, transport communication, banking and other tertiary services it happens.


Different authors have defined industrial relations somewhat differently, some off-quoted definitions are given below.


“The term industrial relations refers to the relationship between employees and management that directly or indirectly stems from a union employer relationship.” V.Agnihot’.


“Industrial relations are largely concerned with the bargaining between employers and trade unions on wages and other conditions of employment. The day-to-day relations in a plant are also important and influence the wider aspects of industrial relations.” – C.B. Youth.




Industrial relations are an integral aspect of social relations resulting from employer-employee interaction in modern industries, which are regulated to varying degrees in conjunction with social forces organized by the state and influenced by prevailing, institutions. It includes the study of the state, the legal system, the organization of workers and employers at the institutional level; and Patterns of Industrial Organization of Labor Force and Market Forces at the Economic Level” VB Singh.


“Industrial relations are an overall result of the attitude and attitude of employers and employees towards each other in relation to planning supervision, directed co-ordination of activities of the organization with minimum human effort and friction, genuine desire with a lively, feeling cooperation with due respect to – be all members of the organization – Gradeway Teed and Nefcalf.”


“Industrial relations may be referred to as an art, the art of living together for the purpose of production.” I. Henry Richardson.


“The subject of industrial relations deals with some of the regulated and institutionalized relations in industry – Alan Flanders.”


“They are concerned with some of the regulated and institutionalized relations in the field industry of industrial relations.” Alan Flanders.


“The field of industrial relations includes the study of workers and their trade unions, management, employed ‘ass

Organizations and State institutions concerned with the regulation of employment. ,

H.A. Clegg.


Industrial relations involved attempts at practical reconciliation between conflicting objectives and values – between incentive economic security, between discipline and industrial democracy, between authority, between discipline and industrial democracy, between authority and freedom, bargaining and co-operation among. “R.A. Lessler.


“Industrial relations refer to that part of management which deals with the manpower of the enterprise – whether machine operators, skilled workers or managers.” Bethel and others.


According to the ILO, “Industrial relations relate either to the relationship between the state and employers’ and workers’ organizations, or between business organizations themselves.” The ILO uses expressions that denote such matters as “freedom of association and organized protection of right to do, application of principles of rights




the right to organize and collective bargaining, collective agreement, conciliation and arbitration’, and machinery for co-operation between authorities and business organization at different levels of the economy.


“The concept of industrial relations has been extended to denote the relations of the State with the employed workers and their organisation. Therefore in the subject matter, personal relations and joint consultation between persons working at their workplace, ‘the employed and their organisation’ and collective relations between trade unions and the role played by the state in regulating these relations.’ – Encyclopædia Britannica.


The following points emerge from the analysis of the above definitions.

  1. i) Industrial relations are those relations which are the result of “employment relations” in an industrial enterprise. “Without the existence of two parties, the employer and the workmen, this relationship cannot exist. It is the industry which provides the setting for industrial relations.
  2. ii) It emphasizes the need for relationship adjustment whereby the parties involved develop skills and develop ways to adjust and cooperate with each other.

iii) Every industrial relations system is a complex formulation of rules and regulations governing the workplace and work community with the main objective of achieving and maintaining harmonious relations between labor and management by solving their problems through collective bargaining Does

  1. iv) Government/State involve, influence and manage industrial relations with the help of laws, regulations, agreements, awards of courts, and emphasis on usages, traditional customs as well as imposition of its policies, and intervention through executive gives shape. Judicial Machinery.


Industrial relations can be conceptualized as: The relationship and interaction in industry, especially between labor and management of industry matters, for the betterment not only of the management and workers but also of the industry and the national economy.


Industrial relations are concerned with the organization and practice of multidimensional relations between workers and their union in an industrial enterprise. These relationships exist in both organized and unorganized sectors of industry.

However, these relationships do not constitute a simple relationship, but a set of functional interdependencies involving


Historical, economic, social, psychological, demographic, techno-business, political, legal and other variables – their study requires an interdisciplinary approach. If we take industrial disputes (absence of positive industrial relations) as center of a circle, then it has to be divided into different segments. The study of conditions of work, mainly wage levels and security of employment, comes within the scope of economic, their origin and development under history, the resulting social conflicts under sociology, the attitudes of combatants, government and the press under social psychology. ; There will be anthropology in their cultural relations; State policies learning on the issues involved in the conflict under political science; legal aspects of disputes under law; Issues related to international aid (for combatants) under International Relations’, the degree of effectiveness with which labor policy is administered under Public Administration; technical aspects of disputes under technology; and a quantitative assessment of the damage done by the parties and the county’s economy under the math.


Industrial relations do not function in a vacuum, but are multidimensional in nature, and are conditioned by three sets of determinants, namely,

1) Industrial workers,

2) Economic laborers and

3) Technical Factors


  1. i) Institutional factors include state policy, labor laws, voluntary codes, collective agreements, labor unions and employees.

Social Institutions Community, Caste, Joint Family, Creed, Belief System, etc. – Attitude towards work, system of position of power, relative proximity to centers of power, motivation and influence and industrial relations.


  1. ii) economic factors include economic organization (socialist, capitalist, communist, individual, ownership, company, ownership, government ownership) and the power of labor and employers; Origin and composition of the labor force and sources of supply and demand in the labor market.


Sometimes, external factors, such as international relations, global conflicts, dominant socio-political ideologies, and the operation of international bodies (such as the ILO), affect industrial relations in a country.


Industrial relations are therefore a web of rules made by the interaction of the government, the business community and



labor, and are affected by existing and emerging

Consists of institutional and technical factors.


Singh’s views are noteworthy in this regard. He declares: “A country’s system of industrial relations is not the result of whim or prejudice. It depends on the society which products. It is a product not only of industrial changes but also of total social changes preceding , from which industrial society is built (and industrial organization emerges). It develops and molds the institutions prevalent in a given society (both pre-industrial and modern). It grows and flourishes, or stagnates and rots along with the institutions. The process of industrial relations is closely linked to the institutional forces that shape and content the socio-economic policies of a country at a given point of time.” And invisible signs are generally a reflection of the country’s history and its political, historical and social philosophy and attitudes.


The development of industrial relations has not been caused by any one labour, but has been determined to a large extent by the conditions prevailing in Western Europe on the eve of the Industrial Revolution and by the social, economic and political conditions prevailing in different countries. The changes that followed this revolution did not follow a uniform pattern in different countries, but reflected economic and social forces that shaped industrial relations theories and practices over a long period of time, in the following words: ” From the early stages of industrialization when workers, at first working with their own tools, entered power-driven factories owned by others to reduce breakdowns due to later industrial conflicts and further industrial peace, and hence full employment to a productivity-enhancing approach in the field of human relations when a one-sack cure would no longer be realistic; and finally, to an industrial democracy based on labor participation not only for the sharing of profits, but for managerial decisions themselves. It has been a long journey indeed.


Objectives of Industrial Relations:


The primary objective of industrial relations is to bring about goods and healthy relations between the two partners in the industry – labor and management. It is around this objective that other objectives revolve. According to its political form of government, and objectives of an industrial organization can change from economic to political ends. “He divides these objectives into four.

  1. a) To improve the economic condition of the workers in the existing state of industrial management and political government.



  1. b) State control over industries to regulate production and industrial relations.
  2. c) Socialization or nationalization of industries makes the state itself and the employer and
  3. d) Vesting of ownership of industries in the workers.


If it is found that political motives are likely to lead to a split in the trade union movement, other safeguards and greater restraint are needed to avoid conflict.

What is it?


The Labour-Management Committee of the Asian Regional Conference in the ILO has recognized certain fundamental principles as objectives of social policy in governing industrial relations with a view to establishing harmonious labour-management relations.

  1. i) Good labor-management relations develop when employers and trade unions are able to deal with their mutual problems independently and responsibly.
  2. ii) Trade unions and employers and their organizations are willing to solve their problems through collective bargaining,’ and in solving these problems, the assistance of appropriate government agencies may be necessary in public interest collective bargaining, therefore, good relations is the cornerstone of; And the legislative framework of industrial relations should facilitate optimum utilization of the process of mutual adjustment.

iii) Organizations of workers and employers should

Willing to engage with government agencies to consider general, public, social and economic measures affecting employer-employee relations.


In short, the committee stressed the need on the part of the management to acquire a low understanding of human labor in production.


The objectives of industrial relations are:


  1. i) to safeguard the interests of labor as well as the management by securing the highest degree of mutual understanding and goodwill among all sections of the industry participating in the process of production;
  2. ii) To avoid industrial conflicts and develop harmonious relations, which are essential for productive efficiency of workers and industrial progress of the country.



iii) raising productivity to higher levels in an era of full employment by reducing the tendency for high and persistent absenteeism;

  1. iv) To establish and maintain industrial democracy on the basis of labor participation not only with the objective of sharing the profits of the organization but also with the objective of participating in the managerial decisions so that the personality of the individual may develop fully and they may become more responsible citizens of the country. To be civilized ,
  2. v) Minimizing strikes, lockouts and gheraos by providing better and responsible wages and fringe benefits to workers and improving living conditions.
  3. vi) Bringing government control over such units and plants which are running at a loss or where production has to be regulated in the public interest; And

vii) To ensure that the State attempts to bridge the gap between the unbalanced, disordered and maladjusted social order (which has been the result of the growth of industry) and the complex social relations emerging from technological progress by controlling and disciplining its members. needs to be reshaped, and accommodate their conflicting interests – protecting some and inhibiting others and incorporating a healthy social order.


The most important fact to be noted is that what is essential for the success and success of the entire fabric of industrial relations is that “labour is not a commodity of commerce, but a living being who deserves to be treated as a human being”. the wanted.” and that employees differ in mental and emotional abilities, feelings, and traditions.


Therefore, maintaining good human relations is the prime concern of industrial relations, because in its absence the entire edifice of organizational structure may crumble. Employment is the most valuable asset of any organization. Any neglect of this vital labor is likely to result in increase in wages and salaries, benefits and services, working conditions, increase in labor turnover, absenteeism, indiscipline and cost of production in the form of crackdown strikes and boycotts; Transfers on grounds of dissatisfaction and so on, in addition to deterioration in the quality of goods produced and strained relations between employees and management.


On the other hand, a satisfied labor force will bring excellent success to the enterprise apart from earning huge profits and goodwill. Hence, if the intrinsic capabilities of the employees are properly harnessed, they prove to be a dynamic driving force.




To run the enterprise at its ‘optimum’ and to ensure maximum individual and group satisfaction with respect to the work performed. Therefore, the importance of industrial relations cannot be over-emphasized.


Scope of Aspects of Industrial Relations:


The concept of industrial relations has a very wide meaning and connotation. In a narrower sense, it means the rise of day-to-day unions of management and labour. In its broadest sense, industrial relations includes the work of running an industry and the relationship between an employee and an employer and may present itself in areas that may transgress into areas of quality control. However, the term industrial relations is generally understood in a narrow sense.


An industry is a social world in miniature. The union of different workers, workers – supervisory staff, management and employer – forms industrial relations, this union affects the economic, social and political life of the whole community. In other words, industrial life creates a series of social relations that govern not only workers and management but also community and industry relations and working together. Industrial relations, therefore, are rooted in industrial life, these include.

  1. i) Labor relations i.e. the relationship between the union and the management (also known as labour-management relations)
  2. ii) employment-employee relations, i.e., the relationship between the management and the employees,’

iii) Group

relations, i.e., relations between different groups of workers, and

  1. iv) Community or public relations i.e. relationship between industry and society.


The last two are not generally considered for study under industrial relations, but form part of the larger discipline – sociology.

The two terms, labor-management relations and employee relations, are used synonymously.


The main aspects of industrial relations are:


  1. i) promotion and development of healthy labor – management relations;
  2. ii) maintaining industrial peace and avoiding industrial conflict’, and

iii) Growth of industrial democracy.




  1. i) Development of healthy labor – management relationship:


The promotion of healthy labor management relations presupposes.


  1. a) The existence of strong, well organised, democratic and responsible trade unions and federation of employees helps in increasing the participation of workers in decision making. To create and give to labor a dignified role in the society. These unions also lend themselves to create a convenient basis for negotiation, consultation and discussion on a mutual basis which ultimately leads to good labour-management relations;


  1. b) The spirit of collective bargaining and willingness to resort to voluntary arbitration. Collective bargaining recognizes equality of position between two opposing and conflicting groups and provides a ground in an atmosphere of trust and goodwill for discussion, consultation and negotiation on matters of common interest to both industry and labor collective bargaining, plant discipline and union relations She prepares Major items that are from the core of industrial relations.


  1. c) Welfare functions – whether statutory or non-statutory – provided by the state, trade unions and employers to create, maintain and improve labour-management relations and to try to achieve peace in industry.


  1. ii) Maintaining Industrial Peace:


Industrial peace presupposes the absence of industrial conflict. This is necessary for increasing production and for healthy relations between workers and employers. Such peace can be established when facilities are available from the government and when bipartite tripartite consultations are held to resolve differences between the two sides.


Machinery should be set up for prevention and settlement of industrial disputes in the form of legislative and administrative enactments – Trade Unions Act, Disputes Act, Industrial Employment (Standing Industrial Orders) Act; Conciliation Officers of Works Committees and Joint Management Councils and Boards of Conciliation’, Labor Courts, Industrial Tribunals, National Tribunals, Courts of Inquiry’, and Provisions for Voluntary Voluntary National Tribunals, Courts of Inquiry and Voluntary Arbitration.


The government should have the power to refer disputes for adjudication when the situation is out of hand and industries are facing economic collapse




production due to prolonged strikes/lockouts, or when it is in the public interest to do so during the period of occurrence; or when there is danger of foreign invasion; or when production needs to continue without interruption.


The Government enjoys the power that it maintains the status quo, this power to be exercised when the Government, after referring the dispute to arbitration, finds that either party is continuing a strike or lock-out and that strike or The lockdown is likely to endanger the lives of the community. And to choose from in the industry.


Provisions for bipartite and tripartite forums for settlement of disputes. These forums work on the basis of Code of Discipline in Industry, Code of Conduct an efficiency and welfare, module standing orders, grievance procedure and giving voluntary recognition to trade unions by employers. These non-statutory measures help in creating satisfaction between the employers and the employees.


Creation and maintenance of Implementation Cells and Development Committees which have the power to look into the implementation of agreements, settlements and awards and non-compliance of statutory provisions prescribed under various labor laws.


iii) Growth of Industrial Democracy:


The idea of industrial democracy suggested that labor should be combined with the operation of an industry to achieve this objective, typically employing the following techniques.


  1. a) establishment of shop councils and joint management councils at the floor and plant levels, which strive to improve the working and living conditions of employees; Improve productivity Encourage suggestions from employees Assist in the administration of laws, and agreements Serve as a channel of communication between management employees Create a sense of involvement in the decision-making process among employees and a sense of belonging to the industry These methods and activities provide the necessary atmosphere for the growth of industrial democracy in the country.


  1. b) Recognition of human rights in industry This implies that labor is not a commodity of commerce that can be bought according to the whims and fancies of employers Workers should be treated as human beings who have a sense of self

To foster perspective and better understand their role in the organization, to bring home to them the desire to self-trade.




expression (through close co-operation with the management) must be satisfied These are the basic pre-requisites for achieving industrial democracy.


  1. c) increase in labor productivity. high yielder

Factors contributing to the improvement are the level of efforts and skills of the workers; Improvement production design process, materials, equipment, layout, working methods that may be brought about by ideas or suggestions obtained from workers’ research and development, including special studies and technical developments’; Capital intensively improving production flow within the framework on certain technology, and adopting a proper motivational system can increase the productivity of labor leading to satisfactory job performance and maintenance of good industry relations.


  1. d) Availability of proper work environment is necessary so that the worker can do justice to the job and adapt himself. It is the environment that stimulates or frustrates, improves or exacerbates the relationship between labor and management.


According to the letter, “Industrial relations involve efforts to arrive at a solution of conflicting objectives and values, better profit motive and social benefit; between discipline and freedom’; better bargaining and collaboration; and the best conflicting interests of the individual, group and community.


Socio-Economic/Political Ideologies and Industrial Relations:


Different types of socio-economic and political systems and ideologies prevail in different parts of the civilized world, so, for example, there are different types of labor management relations to suit these ideologies. Where there is a stable social and political order, a general ideology of free enterprise or improved democratic capitalism is accepted by government, business and activist. One such ideology has been the rule of law and “collective bargaining” supported by government intervention, as in the United States.


Where democratic socialism has been accepted, as in the UK and the Scandinavian countries, “collective bargaining” is encouraged as a standard form of labour-management interaction. Government intervention is rare.


In countries with state socialism, as in the USSR and other Eastern European countries, trade unions are assigned well-defined roles, and they function within the parameters of the overall political system. In some countries that follow these ideologies to the east,


Yugoslavia – “collective bargaining” is encouraged, control of business enterprises through labor management councils has been a reality.


In countries with economies, such as India, where the public sector and the private sector co-exist, there are many ways to deal with labor management relations, from conciliation, arbitration, workers’ participation in management and collective bargaining to ethical codes and bipartisanship. and the Tripartite Forum for Reconciliation. The government has emphasized from time to time and pragmatism alternated between the ideology of mixed economy and the Gandhian philosophy of trusteeship.


Now, industrial relations have become highly regulated and to some extent dominated by lawmakers. Many of these laws reflect the socialist leanings of the government. To deal with the situation of industrial strike, the government issued an ordinance to ban strikes. A new law called the Essential Services Maintenance Act (ESMA) has come into force giving the government wide powers to intervene in industrial relations.


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