Planned Changes – Directions and Major Schemes 

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Planned Changes –

Directions and Major Schemes 


The process of mobility in Indian society has been rapid since the beginning. As a result, changes are happening in Indian society from the very beginning. If seen at various historical levels in Indian society, the effect of change is clearly visible. War and natural calamities have always affected the system of society. In this context the social system has weakened and reorganized and thus, being dynamic in the context of various changes, the Indian society has retained the structural features.

The current pace of change, and the prevalence and rapid changes taking place in western societies sometimes gives rise to the illusion that changes are not being achieved in Indian society. This doubt also arises due to the delay in achieving the desired change in the social values ​​and attitudes in which efforts are being made. In fact Indian society is agitated by internal and external forces of change.

Doctor . Yogendra Singh has said that “Many social changes came in the traditional society without any kind of modernization. But these did not give birth to any kind of modernity.” Against the caste-system in India before the British rule, ‘Buddhabad and Jainism’ ‘ As the movements began. They gave birth to new groups like castes, so later they became a part of the caste system itself. These movements influenced the political and economic life of the country. Movements like Praya Samaj, Brahmo-Samaj influenced Indian ideology and life, but these movements tried to bring changes in the context of Indian social system and traditions and gradually became part of the great traditions of Hinduism.

Indian culture, religion, traditions, art etc. have also been affected by the influence of Muslims. To understand the current change and its opponents, it is necessary to be familiar with the changes that took place during the British rule. Because the emergence of modern planned changes took place only after this. The country got geographical unity with the establishment of British rule. For the convenience of administration, the postal system, rail and road transport, common administrative and judicial system gave a new basis for unity. This weakened the regional and ethnic disparities. The effect of this external unity proved to be very helpful in creating the feeling of nationalism.

The facility of English language to Indians made them aware of their rights and duties towards the nation. In 1885 the Indian National Congress was established and the thinkers of the country got a political union. Under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, the movement of Swaraj started and gradually an ‘elitist class’ was formed which played an important role in furthering the national consciousness and movement of the country. The various ideas of these leaders later culminated in the programs of national reconstruction. These innovations were the first harbingers of purposeful change.

He realized that it is necessary to take the cooperation of the people of the country in the programs of national transformation. He spread his ideas to the public through various mediums. The influence of his ideas, means of communication, communication and transport and new standards of justice and administration aroused a strong desire for social change in the people. Some people were in favor of bringing Swaraj by revolution, some by non-violence. These ideas of change were further encouraged by the acceptance of the ideology of ‘Socialism’.

Thus socialist ideology and Gandhiji’s ideas became the basis of social change. The country became independent on August 15, 1947, and thus, after independence, the country had become very weak in all economic, political, educational and religious terms. planned change. The effort started in India only after independence.



Need for Planning

After independence, the economic system of India had become very weak. The then government had no option but to fulfill the needs of the people in the shortest possible time. The leaders of the country It was necessary to make organized efforts to overcome the social problems which were identified. The goal of a socialist type of social system. It was necessary to get what was accepted. Due to the necessary changes, political instability could arise in the country. It was because of these reasons that the need for Shojit Parivartan efforts was reinforced. The resources of the country were limited. In the context of these limited resources, it was not impossible to change all the aspects of the society. Therefore, the goal of planned change is to bring about the desired change in a limited number of areas.


There are mainly two steps of planned change –


1) Changes in the social structure resulting in changes in social relations. could


, (2) Changes in attitudes and values.


Under the influence of planning, the development of the country was situated on a balanced basis. The industries and businesses of the country were concentrated in limited places. The benefits of development programs were not reaching all parts of the country. Trade and official peace were concentrated in the hands of a few families and groups. The process of exploitation of the weaker and backward classes was a trick. Most of the economic activities were aimed at increasing the amount of immediate personal benefit and not any improvement in the future system of the country. The prevailing objectives, rules, methods did not match with the provisions and objectives enshrined in the Constitution. According to the instructions of the Constitution, the national government assumed the responsibility of providing proper conditions of life, opportunities for livelihood, social security, social justice and equality to the individuals. Changes in these circumstances could by no means be left to direct. Planned transformation efforts in Russia raised morale in this direction.




Meaning and definitions of planning


Social planning means implementing those programs so that maximum fulfillment of social goals is possible. Social planning, planned or directed change are synonymous concepts of each other. Chief economist S. Larwin, in his work Time for Planning, states that “planning in general” is an enlightened effort to direct human power to achieve a rational and desirable end. Every plan is a program of action which has two main elements – objective and method. Gunnar Myrdal wrote in the work ‘Beyond the Welfare State’ that “a nation is generally promoted by the government to a more complete and rapidly desirable end of future development, including the participation of other collective communities, which is the political process.” As it develops, planning is a conscious effort to bring public policies into proper relation in a more logical manner in order to reach decisions made by them. “


In their work ‘Planning Development’, Griffin and Inas have said, “Planning is a better means of achieving goals and an objective direction of human action. They further say that pre-developed countries are planning for economic, social and political programmes.” Construction will be restricted to the authority only. Construction includes the determination of the objectives or goals of the program, computation of all sources etc. and the authority and planning agency on whose shoulders the responsibility of planning is.


According to the Planning Commission of the Government of India, “Sponsorship is actually a method of organizing and using resources to get maximum benefit from the point of view of definite social goals”.


Shri Trilok Singh has written that “The objectives of planning are both economic and social and both are inter-related . . . . . . ” It is thus clear that two elements are included in planning –

(1) Defined social goals which are based on social values,

(2) Use of appropriate resources available. On the basis of suitable definitions of planning, the following characteristics can be known:


1. Planning should have pre-determined goals for the transformation of a society or any part of it.

2 . These pre-determined targets should be fixed by the Authority.

3. To conduct programs through conscious efforts and with the intention of obtaining desirable means by obtaining guidance from social policies and other social bodies by the authority. Towards rapid social development. We see that planned change is essentially a form of social change. There is such a directed and logical direction towards which a society is thoughtful and thoughtful. Makes a continuous effort to achieve the desired conditions, values ​​and relationships by moving forward.




Essential Conditions for Planning


Generally, planned change has many purposes but on thick wire they can be grouped into two categories –

1. Social Welfare and

2 . Social Reconstruction.


The objectives of the planning which is going on in India have also been kept for social welfare, social reconstruction. The methods of social planning can be divided into two parts, which are as follows:


1. holistic planning method
(a) Autocratic planning method (b) Communist planning method
2 . capitalist planning method
3. socialist planning method
4. democratic planning method
5. Sarvodayi planning method.


The planning which is working in India can be called democratic planning. In order to bring about the planned changes, it is necessary to have some necessary conditions. In order to make it successful and to implement the planned programs, it is necessary to have a central authority so that the various aspects can be organized in one thread for the planning work. Central power is also necessary for the formulation of basic policies. Planned change cannot happen under the influence of control. This control can be similar to that of socialist countries in which the state makes plans for the country without any restrictions. A limited number of individuals play an influential role in this. The general public has no restriction on this. The social planning based on dictatorial authority wants to give a new turn to the society by suddenly stopping the ongoing social process or pace for achieving the goals. In such a situation, power is used indiscriminately, due to which the freedom and fundamental rights of the people are destroyed. Mannheim lays emphasis on the method of planning by which the consciousness and thoughts of the individual are modified and planned without infringing on the freedom and fundamental rights of the people. The planning process should be constitutional and democratic. Mannheim has laid emphasis on eliminating competition first. After that a plan should be made for the reorganization of society and personality according to the new values. The process of planning also requires a re-creation of the economic structure so that economic stability can arise and overcome these stimuli which frustrate the soul-consciousness. Therefore, it is necessary to mold ideas into democratic values. This work is not possible through dictatorship but only through a liberal education system. Socialist planning based on Marxist philosophy has become one-sided only because of the predominance of economic structure. In its place, Mannheim has emphasized the nature of many effects of social events. For social development, it is appropriate to establish unanimity among certain classes and groups through class-struggle. It is called the plural society. The purpose of public planning is the establishment of a multi-planned society. Planned change in a democratic system is justified for many reasons. Discussion is encouraged in a democratic system. Policies can be changed as per the need and constructive cooperation of opposing parties can also be taken to achieve the right objectives. These changes cannot be successful without the cooperation of the public.




Planned Changes in India

The British rule in India has caused great damage to the Indian economy. Poverty, unemployment, hunger, illiteracy, bad health conditions, plight of Harijans and tribes, increase in birth rates and death rates, dependency, crime, high in technological work and dissatisfaction etc. The empire of socio-economic problems spread in India. Happened . The challenges to these socio-economic problems were understood by the nation-builders of modern India and they took the initiative to solve them during the British rule.

In 1934 Visvesvaraya first formulated the idea of ​​economic development in his work ‘Planned Economy for India’. It envisioned the creation of such a free and democratic society, in which the organization of primary life based on the principles of social justice and efforts should be made to achieve a high standard of living. But at that time, this plan of the nationalists could not take practical form due to the indifference of the British rule towards the Second World War and secondly this plan.

An attempt was made to implement the idea of ​​planned social change in India after independence. New Indian Constitution of 1950. In the Directive Principles of Policy, it has been said that the state is united with all its power. shall endeavor to increase the welfare of the people by such a social system in which all aspects of national life will get social, economic and political justice. All citizens, women and men, shall have the right to an adequate means of livelihood, to the ownership and control of various things. Distribution will be done in such a way that the general interest can increase and the primary. The system will be operated in such a way that money and means of production cannot be concentrated in the hands of a few persons. the essence of the constitution

For the implementation of social policy, in March 1950, Pt. The Planning Commission was formed under the chairmanship of Nehru. Programs of planned change aim at all-round material development and overall progress. Its main goal in the early stages was primary development. It was the belief that the success of pathetic development would influence primary and social institutions and thus provide impetus for future change. But it was soon realized that the reasons for the backwardness of the economic system were not merely physical or institutional, but the reasons responsible for its backwardness lay in human aspirations and motivations. Therefore, the orientation of the programs of the plan became towards the change in motivations, attitudes and aspirations along with the pre-economic. Thus changes in values ​​and attitudes became important targets of planned change. Now the present planned programs aim not only at economic progress but also to bring about all round changes in the society. Planning programs are being run according to the need of the population of the city, village or tribal area to bring about all-round change.


Following are the main methods of planning in India

Formation of Social Laws,
Five Year Plans,
Community Development Projects,
Panchayati Raj Scheme,
Bhoodan and Gramdan Plan.


The Formation of Social Laws was based on Indian social traditions. Religion was the main source of caste-line rules, customs, behavior and ideas. Although the Muslim kings also made some laws according to their convenience, but laws were made in an organized form at the beginning of the British rule. The right of ‘private ownership of land’ was made legal during the British rule. This affected the traditional hierarchy. Uttar Pradesh Zamindari Abolition Act, 1950 % ; The Rajasthan Land Reforms and Jagir Acquisition Act, 1952 as amended in 1954. All the titles were accepted by the state. The Uttar Pradesh Act converted all intermediaries into land owners. In the present time, the structure and relations of the family have been affected by the land boundary law. The Prevention of Sati in the Social Sector Act, 1929; Hindu Women’s Right to Property Act 1937; Hindu Widow Remarriage Act, 1856; etc. were the main ones. After independence some other important laws were made in which the ‘Hindu Marriage’ Act, 1955 emphasized on the ideal of monogamy and gave facility of divorce. Hindu Succession Act 1956, Prevention of Immoral Traffic in Women Act, 1956; Untouchability Offenses Act, 1955; The Dowry Prevention Act, 1961 tried to bring new values ​​and attitudes in social life. All these laws and many other similar laws had their impact on the traditional caste system, Hindu marriage, the status of women in society and the social level of the untouchable classes. In the field of industry, laws related to wages, social security, technological relations etc. were made. Thus, through these laws, an attempt was made to replace new social values ​​in the country. It is the function of these laws to adapt traditionally learned behavior to new contexts.



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