Relation of Sociology with other Social Sciences

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Relation of Sociology with other Social Sciences

Different types of opinion have been presented by different scholars on what kind of relationship is found between sociology and other sciences.  French scholar August Comte considers sociology to be the only science of society and insists that sociology has no relation with any other social science.  According to them, since other social sciences study only one aspect of society, they are only subdivisions of sociology.  Herbert Spencer considers sociology to be a co-ordination of other social sciences such as economics, history, political science, etc. which are interconnected and dependent on each other.  Clarifying the connection between sociology and other social sciences, Bars and Baker state that “Sociology is neither the home of other social sciences nor its maid, but only her sister.” There are different aspects of social life.  All social sciences study some aspect of human life.  In the social sciences, the names of anthropology, psychology, economics, political science, history, sociology etc. are prominent.  Since all the aspects of human life are related to each other, so there is a close correlation between them in the related sciences.

The dependence of other social sciences on one social science has so much effect that one cannot be studied in absolute terms.  In the social sciences, there are some sciences that study only a particular aspect of society, such as – economics studies the activities of human beings, which are related to the acquisition and expenditure of money.  Psychology is related to mental activities of the mind.  Political science is related to the political life of man.  On the contrary, science which studies various conditions of society not from one point of view, but from many perspectives, is called ‘sociology’.  It is clear from this that sociology and other specific social sciences study different aspects of the society itself.  As a result, it is natural to have a mutual relationship.  Here we will see how sociology is related to other social sciences.


 Sociology and History

Sociology studies the society at that time and history presents a description of the events of the past.  Through the study of these events, the time sequence shows when these events occurred, as well as their evaluation.  Thus history studies the past of society and sociology studies the present society in the background of the past.  The information obtained by the history of sociological studies helps a lot.  Based on the information received from them, it helps to formulate general principles.  The sociologist is able to discuss the current social events on the basis of historical events and find some relation between the future by finding work-cause relationship among them.  ‘Historical Sociology’ has developed only after studying from a sociological perspective on historical events and problems.  Sociologists like Max Weber, Ginsburg, Raymond Arrow, considered historical problems from a sociological point of view.  On the other hand, historians like G.G.Coulan, Jacob-Buchhardt, Tynby etc. wrote social history which is related to social relations, social norms, conventions, practices and institutions and which developed into ‘social history’.  Thus in the modern era, sociology and history are constantly coming close to each other.  Today, most sociological studies have started to be studied through historical method and from the sociological point of view of history.  Difference – There is a very close relationship between these two sciences.

This does not mean that there is no difference between the two.  Sociology and history are different from each other.  The difference between them can be understood as follows

  1. The study method of history and sociology is different. History is studied through descriptive and historical method, while in Sociology, study is done by scientific analytical and comparative method.
  2. It is not possible to check the authenticity of historical study, because it is not possible to test and review them, but sociological study is related to current events. Hence, they can be tested and revisited.  In this view, sociology is more definite and authentic than history.  .
  3. History studies similar events in different societies, while sociology generalizes on the basis of events. Bearstead wrote in relation to this that history presents the study of differences in similar phenomena, while sociology studies the similarities in different events.  Giving examples, he said that history will be interested in the Roman-Victory, Thirty-Year War, Napoleon-War, World War, etc., but sociology is not related to any of these, this war as a social phenomenon.  Will study as a conflict between social groups.
  4. Science is general science. It studies all sides of society.  History is a specialized science.  It only studies historical events.
  5. Socialism is related to the study of the society then, while history is related to the social events of the past.
  6. Under history, events are presented in a descriptive manner while under sociology analysis of events is presented.

 Sociology and Economics

Sociology studies the social activities and activities of man, then economics studies the economic activities and economic behavior of man.  In economics, the production, distribution and consumption of wealth etc. are studied and in sociology the practice, tradition, orthodoxy and institution etc. are studied.  Humans and their actions are studied under both scriptures.  Social and economic circumstances have always been related to each other.  This is why there is a very close relationship between economics and sociology.  Some great scholars of economics have also been scholars of sociology.  For example, Comte, Max Weber, Pareto, Marx, Bavlin and Mill, etc.  In these, Max Weber and Pareto described social factor as the main factor, Mill, Bavlin and Marx as economic factors.  The reality is that both factors are important.  The two have a close relationship and both affect each other.  Social and economic factors are very similar to each other due to which some common problems in economics and sociology are being studied, such as industrialization, urbanization, labor problem, labor welfare, unemployment, poverty, rural problem and reconstruction etc.  Scholars like Max Weber and Marx proved through their studies that there is a close correlation between economic and social factors.  There is no society where economic conditions do not affect social conditions and social conditions do not affect economic conditions.  Lowy states that “Economics cannot be considered an independent science by disregarding social factors”. Many economists have accepted this statement by applying the general principles of sociology. In the present age, between economics and sociology  Day by day relationships are becoming more intimate.

Like there is a close relation between sociology and economics.  This does not mean that there is no difference between the two.  Both are two independent sciences and the following differences are found in them as follows

  1. The method of study in both sciences is also adopted separately. In sociology, survey, personal life study – method and sociology are used, then in economics, incorporation and arrival method are used.
  2. The field of study of economics – the field is quite large, while the study of economics – the field is limited. If sociology studies the whole society, economics studies only the economic aspect of the society.

3.Sociologists explore social, economic and other factors of all events, while economists try to find out only the economic causes of each event.

  1. Sociology studies social life and social relations, then economics studies economic life and economic relations.
  2. Social science is a general science and it studies the whole society as a general science. Economics on the other hand is a specialized science.  As a special science it only studies economic activities.




 Sociology and Political Science

Sociology is related to the social life of the person and political science is related to the political life of the person.  Political science describes the nature, importance, organization and policies of the state.  Garner says that political science deals with only one type of human relations, the state.  Whereas sociology is all kinds of social relations.  Without one, the study of the other cannot be complete.  Cooperation between the two sciences is required.  In relation to these, Giddings has said that all political scientists are sociologists and all sociologists are political economists.  That is, there is a lot of exchange between sociology and political science.  Nowadays the principles of Sociology and the method of study are being used under Political Science.  Under Sociology, ‘Political Sociology’ has developed into a new branch.  This is an attempt to understand political behavior in the context of social institutions.  Knowledge of sociology is necessary for adequate study of political science.  Sociology itself tells us the basic source of political power, sovereignty, source of law and its aspects.  Political theories and organizations have emerged on the basis of social background.  Therefore, political science has to depend on sociology to get complete information about the state and political institutions.  Sociology also relies on political science for knowledge of the political aspect.  Political science gives sociology the facts about the political aspect.  Knowledge of the origin of the state and its organization etc. is essential for sociology.  Sociology gets this information only from political science.  Difference – Based on the above details, it cannot be understood that there is no difference between Political Science and Sociology.  Despite the close relationship, the two scriptures have the following difference:


  1. Sociology portrays the real situation. It tells what, why and tight social events are happening in the society.  Sociology does not state what should happen.  But political science is an ideal science.  It refers to what is ‘along with what should be’.
  2. The method of study of sociology and political science is also different from each other.
  3. Social science is more ancient than political science, because society has developed before the state. Society Despite being practically ancient, sociology is new as a science.
  4. The field of social science is more extensive than that of political science.
  5. Social science studies all aspects of human society. But political science only studies the political conditions and changes of society.  The unit of study of sociology is society.  But the study unit of political science is the state.
  6. Politics is concerned only with organized communities and individuals, while sociology deals with both organized and unorganized communities and individuals.
  7. Sociology is a general science from the point of view of content but political science is a special science.


Conclusion: Explaining the relation of sociology with other social sciences, it is clear that sociology has close relation with other sciences.  All social sciences are complementary to each other.  They cannot be understood by separating from each other.  The interrelation between social life and various aspects of social events is so close that their importance cannot be denied.  This is the reason that nowadays the importance of Interdisciplinary Approach has increased.  Due to differing viewpoints of different social sciences, some differences are found in them.  But they are exchanged among themselves.





Sociology and Anthropology

Sociology and Anthropology are very close to each other.  Sometimes it becomes difficult to distinguish between them.  Coir has called them twin sisters.  It has been said that similar problems are studied in both the sciences and the ultimate goal of both is to know the real state of the society, the three main branches of mankind –

  1. Physical Anthropology
  2. Prehistoric Anthropology and
  3. Social Anthropology. The physical characteristics of human beings are studied under Physical Anthropology.  Under sociology, due to these characteristics, the effect on social relations is studied.  Prehistoric Anthropology – It studies the origin and development of culture in the historical era.  Its study can easily understand the changes in society, which is the subject of the study of sociology.

Human society is studied both in social anthropology and sociology.  Primitive society is studied in social anthropology whereas in sociology modern complex society is studied.  It is easy to understand modern society based on primitive society.  Sociology interprets modern society on the basis of the study of primitive society.

Thus we see that social anthropology is the link between anthropology and sociology.  Sociology becomes very much related to anthropology in this field.

Dr. Sri Niwas has said that it would be better to eliminate the difference between sociology and social anthropology.  It is also beneficial for sociology.  Shri Niwas has emphasized that the social student should study social anthropology for the first two years.


Dr. DUBE also did not consider any difference between sociology and social anthropology.  Howell said in relation to this that sociology and anthropology in the broad sense are exactly the same.  In the present era, as the primitive society is being modified in modern society and civilized society, so also, the attitude and sociology are coming closer to each other.  – Difference – Despite the close relationship between the two sciences, there are some differences.

Some of the major differences are

  1. Sociology deals with social philosophy (social philosophy) on the one hand and social planning (social planning) on ​​the other. He also gives suggestions for future planning.  Social anthropology makes no such suggestion.

2.The study method of these two sciences is different.  Schedule Questionnaire, Documentation in Sociological Studies.  Statistics etc. are used.  The participatory observational method is used predominantly in anthropology.  (Sociology is a pure science) (pure science), while anthropology is a practical social science (applied social science)

  1. Social science studies the present and civilized society whereas social anthropology studies the primitive society.
  2. Social anthropology studies the whole society. He takes advantage of a society’s economic system, political and legal problems, family organization, religion, art and industry – and conditions, etc.  Sociology studies specific parts of society, such as marriage, family,




  Sociology and Psychology


Psychology is the study of mental processes and thoughts, while sociology studies society.  Society is a web of social relations.  These relationships are affected by mental state.  This does not mean that only psychological processes affect a person’s interpersonal relationships, but that psychological conditions have an effect on the human brain.  The mental state and social conditions of a person cannot be separated from each other.  On this basis, no boundary line can be drawn between sociology and psychology.  Psychology mainly studies a person’s behavior.  Under this, emotions.  Motions, learning, perception etc. are studied.  Through these processes a person behaves in a certain way.  Through these processes and their organized form the personality of a person is studied, which is studied by psychology.  Sociology studies society.  Under this, social relations, social processes, groups, institutions, practices.  Social control, social change etc. are studied.  Thus, we see that psychology and sociology are interlinked as individuals and society.

A major branch of psychology is ‘Social Psychology’.  Social science is the important link connecting the relationship between psychology and sociology.  Some people also call social psychology psychological psychology.  In social psychology both the person (study of psychology – subject) (study of sociology – subject) is studied.

Kari Pearson felt no difference between the two.  Social psychology and sociology are two sides of the same coin.  One cannot be separated from the other.  Social relationships cannot be understood without individuals. Individuals cannot be understood without social relations.

Ward has also described it as highly similar.  There are some subjects whose subjects are studied, which are studied equally by sociology and social psychology;  Such as – socialization, personality development, culture and personality, mob leadership etc.  Hence, drawing a boundary between the two is a difficult task.  Macadwar and Page have written – Both sciences are related to different aspects of undivided reality.  A person cannot be understood without other people and the relative cannot be understood by separating them from their unit.  In this way, we see that there is a correlation between the two scientists.  Therefore, the relation of psychology and sociology becomes close in the context of social psychology.

Difference – Despite the immense relation between psychology and sociology, significant difference is found in the approach of study.  Following are some major differences that separate the two sciences from each other.

  1. Social science is a general science. It studies the entire society in general.  Psychology is a specialized science.  As a specialized science, it studies the mental conditions of a person.

2.) Study of Sociology – The field is wider than Psychology.  Sociology studies the whole society, while psychology only studies the mental conditions and processes of a person.

  1. Study – There is a difference between the two sciences based on methods. In psychology, experimental method and method of development is used, while
  2. Social science is concerned with society and social processes, whereas psychology is related to the person and his mental processes.




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