Relationship of industry with other sub systems of society

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 Relationship of industry with other sub-systems of society


Industry is directly related to the public as they are the consumers, so the sale of a particular product depends on the quality or usefulness of the product. Its promises, assurances, prices are to be maintained for the satisfaction of the consumer.


Industry is also indirectly linked to educational institutions, as trained manpower is obtained from there. The industry determines the qualifications required to perform a particular job. The education system, to be effective or useful to the members of the society, must keep pace with the needs and demands of the industrial system. Therefore both the systems must be in contact or in contact with each other.



Industry is directly related to the family where thousands of workers come from family traditions and culture largely influence and determine the attitude of the workers towards their work.


Industry is also directly related to the government as it is controlled by it. The quantity and rate of production, selling price, wages of labour, availability of raw materials, land and machines are all controlled by the government and its policies. The industry also deals with other manufacturing concerns, thus maintaining links with them.


Lastly, industry is concerned with trade unions, the organization of workers to maintain industrial peace. Industry is concerned with the needs and demands of the workers and they have to satisfy them.


  Industry as a Complex Social Organisation:


One of the “discoveries” of modern times is the realization that industry, originally thought to be merely an economic or technological organization, is primarily a social organization or institution devoted to the production and marketing of goods and services. . Sociology is their impact on industrial phenomena, ie productivity, morale, work authority etc.


These relationships can be internal or external. The former are within the industry itself where they are concerned with management, operative or both. External relations are those that exist between industry and other external bodies such as government, community, educational institutions and so on.


The more important internal relations for this sector can be further subdivided into formal, informal and mixed.



As P. Gisbert says “Formal relations are those that arise immediately from the performance of one’s accepted duties, which may be managerial or operational, depending on whether they are proper to the management or to the worker.” For.

S”. The relations between the management and the workers are designated as ‘formal’ regulated by a formal code of conduct or laid down rules and regulations are always secondary. Impersonal, contractual and temporary these relations are thoroughly regulated and controlled. There is no personal consideration or any sentimental or emotional touch in the relationship.


Other types of formal relations are those called statutory or sanctioned by law of custom as enshrined in collective bargaining decisions, grievance procedures, industrial councils, etc. These are commonly referred to as “industrial relations”, although their literal meaning is much broader and wider. ,



  causal relationship:


Are they spontaneously generated everywhere in industry. Through the general rules of morality and custom. These may exist between individuals who are working together and they may develop an emotional connection. Such informal relationships also develop between groups or individuals and groups such as trade unions and workers. Workers from the same region or province or even people belonging to the same religious linguistic groups may come together and develop informal relationships. Among workers, spontaneous “nuclear groups” or gangs operate to meet the workers’ many needs. They may be relaxed, entertained, feeling elevated, inspired, or supported by formal authority. Not only in employees, but also in managers, office workers and technicians. They help in the formal organization of industry.


Mixed relations are what some authors describe as socio-technical relations. in line with one’s duty

  1. Relationships with supervisors or other colleagues due to the technical or managerial nature of the jobs. Thus, when the superintendent makes a pleasant remark while instructing the trainee or when the workers sing together, while pushing or pulling heavy machines or carrying heavy loads to different places, they are ‘socio-functional’. Or called ‘socio-technical’. “Relations. Even the relations with the foreman during work also fall in this category which are both formal and informal.


External relations are those that exist between the firm and outside individuals, institutions and societies such as the public, custom government, the community in which the firm operates banks, schools and other organizations with which the firm deals.



The relationships are numerous, varied and sometimes difficult to define but no industry can exist and thrive without taking them into account. External relations are growing rapidly in every field and are becoming very important these days. This is the reason why the importance of the role of public relations officers is being increasingly realized.




Social Responsibility of Industry:


Industry is the most important part of modern society. The rapid growth of industry i.e. industrialization has created new ideals, value systems, lifestyles, new objectives and personalities. We have seen how industry is closely related to various other sub-systems or part of the society. As industry is the biggest sector where millions of people get their source of livelihood, at the same time it should be responsible for the members of the society at large.


Industry is not only an economic or technical system where manufacturing is done mechanically but it involves a large number of persons in various ways.


The first and foremost duty of industry is towards the workers who actually perform various tasks using large and different types of machines. They risk their lives, time and make a career with the industry. Industry should consider their grievances, demands and needs. He should maintain industrial peace i.e. establish harmonious relations with the workers, refrain from strikes or their direct discontent.


Industry should take care of human elements and where it is related to them. Since industry is related to the family by way of providing employment to lakhs of family members, it is immediately responsible for the safety of the family. Workers should be given safeguards like family benefits or pension or other medical or insurance facilities. Employees should also be given compensation if they are injured while on duty. In any scheme of labor welfare, the needs of the families should be kept in mind. The family including partners, parents and children and all those who are dependent on the earner should be considered.


Similarly, the industry is connected to the public through behavior. No unwanted product should be delivered to customers at any cost

  1. Food should not be adulterated, electronic goods should be defective. The industry should provide good services and live up to its promises and assurances. Industry should also go for high profit margin, not take advantage of the needs of the common man.


Industry should not defraud the members of the community or society, especially when the industry is dependent on





m for its existence. Society is what makes the market and therefore the members should not be cheated.


Lastly, industry is also responsible towards the environment or nature as all human beings depend on it. It is the duty of the industry especially the manufacturing industries to see that the environment is clean and free from any hazardous material which may be disposed off by the industry itself. He should stop unlimited exploitation of nature.


impact of industry on social organization


  1. a) Throw light on the effects of industrialization on the society.
  2. b) To show how the changes in the family and caste system are irreversible.
  3. c) That the change in structure results in a change in functions on a large scale.
  4. d) Industrialization has loosened the hold of religion, tradition and beliefs.



Industrialization has brought many changes in social, economic and demographic aspects. Industrialization has given rise to urbanization. It has influenced our life style, relations, food habits and dress etc. There has also been a change in the daily routine, it has also broken the soft joint family system, distorted kinship ties have also been broken and is also responsible for the breakdown. Caste system in India. The growth of industries and factories has led to large scale migration.




It is not simply a matter of class ‘replacing’ caste, or modern urban values replacing traditional rural values. What is happening to Indian society now is a tilting of the balance that was never stable between hierarchy and equality, or between fixed rates and competitive individualism, and the changes have many causes other than industrialism. Even the traditional caste did not correspond closely to occupation, except for those who were priests and barbers and sweepers, whose work was closely linked to notions of purity and impurity. Agriculture and trade were sources of wealth and the occupation of the large majority was in practice almost always open to anyone who

He had the means to engage them, whether he had a caste monopoly to fall back on or not, and jute factory work was another open occupation.






social consequences of industrialization



  Industrialization can be both a cause and a result of urbanization. It is often seen that where industries flourish and machines are produced in big mills and factories, the process of urbanization is active there, many cities in India have developed in the same way. In this sense, industrialization is the cause of urbanization. But it also happens that due to some other reason, the process of urbanization is activated first and now when the community takes the full form of the city, there is a gradual industrialization of the industry.


Concept: The process of execution of production works on a large scale by machines and development of industries in one place is called industrialization. Some authors say that “Industrialization refers to the introduction of large-scale new industries and the conversion of small industries into large-scale industries. ,


In real sense, industrialization is a process of development of industries on a large scale. Wilbert Moore (W.E.Moore in his book Social Change, P-91) defines industrialization as follows: “Industrialization is the term used to describe the widespread use of non-living sources of power in the production of economic goods and services (Industrialization in its strict sense of the term, entails the extensive use of inanimate sources of power in the production of economic goods and services.) Thus, according to Wilbert Moore, the main goal of the process of industrialization is to maximize profits. Also, industrialization is related to both goods and services.



  Reasons for industrialization in India: Major five-year plans have contributed to the reasons for industrialization in an agricultural country like India. During the Second Five Year Plan (1956-61), industrialization began on a large scale. Also, many other reasons can be understood from the following points


  1. New technology of production: The rate of industrialization has increased considerably due to the invention of new methods of production. Green revolution became possible only because of new hybrid seeds and mechanization in agriculture. The invention of new textile mills gave a new shape to industrialization. Today, in the information revolution, with the advent of computer, internet, it is taking only a few seconds to send and receive information anywhere in the world.


  1. Natural resources: The biggest requirement of industrialization is natural resources. If there is no abundance of natural resources in the country, then the pace of industrialization will stop,


Will go India has huge reserves of mineral wealth like iron, coal, mica etc. Petroleum is also satisfactory. India is one of the richest countries in the world in the field of water power. There are forests here where herbs are available for various diseases of the world.


  1. Means of Transport: Means of transport cannot be neglected in the process of industrialization. One has to accept the importance of means of transport in transporting raw materials, machines and laborers to the production centers, in taking finished goods to the markets of the country and abroad and in maintaining relations related to industry and business. Therefore, there is no importance of industrialization without traffic.


  1. Abundance of labor force: Compared to developed countries, our country has more labor force. There are crores of landless laborers in the village who remain unemployed for most of the year, they get ready to work as laborers in industries for low wages. The cost of industrial production done by them is also less. This is such a condition as a result of which industrial development was easily possible here.


  1. Economic Policies: One of the main reasons for industrialization in our country is more and more industrial policies of the government. A mixed economy was encouraged in India from the time of independence. In this, basic industries were developed in the public sector, while the development of other industries was left to the private sector. Many such laws were made for labor welfare and labor protection so that exploitation of laborers can be prevented and their work efficiency can be increased. This condition also proved helpful in the development of industrialization.


  1. International Competition: Another reason for the growth of industrialization in India is the participation of India in international competition. In the present era, any country can strengthen its economic position only when it can import goods from other countries as well as produce various goods in large quantities and export them to other countries. Our economy becomes strong only by the balance of import and export. After independence, as India started participating in international competition in the economic field, industrialization increased here.


  1. Educational Institutions: Educational institutions have a very important role in the causes of industrialization in India. There are crores of students who are pursuing various courses related to modern production through educational institutions. Therefore, along with the above conditions, new inventions, process of urbanization and banking facilities and

Expansion of service sector etc. are the supporting conditions which contributed significantly to the development of industrialization.


Socio-economic changes as a result of industrialization: Even today India is basically a country of villages. But today the process of industrialization is also rapidly expanding its influence. The process of industrialization has brought changes in our entire social structure and our social, economic, mental, political, cultural, religious and moral life is taking a new turn. These effects of industrialization are healthy as well as unhealthy. We will now briefly discuss both types of effects here. ,


  1. Wide range of socio-cultural contacts: One notable effect of industrialization is that as a result of this, the range of socio-cultural contacts automatically increases. It is easy to establish contact with other provinces or countries through newspapers-magazines, books, radio, only network, internet, telephone, mobile etc. of cities. All these elements prove to be helpful in expanding the area of socio-cultural contact.


  1. More facilities related to education and training: There is more inclination towards giving proper education to their children, so along with industrialization, facilities related to education and training also expand. In some cities, facilities related to education and training are also expanded to encourage the process of urbanization. In some cities, education and training related facilities contribute more in encouraging the process of urbanization. By doing computer and many other technical courses, the chances of employment in the cities increase. Due to these facilities the importance of the city increases day by day.


  1. Expansion of trade and commerce: Along with the development of cities, trade and commerce also progress in a definite way because along with industrialization, population increases and with the increase in population, the requirements increase and trade to meet those requirements. And expansion of commerce becomes necessary. Therefore, along with industrialization, new markets, haats, shop sets, cinemas, restaurants etc. also emerge.


  1. Increase in the facilities of transport and communication: Along with the development of the city, the facilities of transport and communication also spread because without it the life of the residents cannot be comfortable. Civil conditions demand it. That the means of transport and communication should be expanded. That’s why along with the development of the city post office, telephone, railway station, carrier service, intset, cyber cafe etc also keep on developing and bus and taxi service, auto rickshaw etc are available inside the city. All these facilities can be expensive and soon become an essential part of civic life.
  2. Political Education: Along with the process of industrialization, the activity of political parties also increases. In fact, the city is the arena of political parties and they not only try very hard to spread their ideals and principles, but one political party also tries its best to humiliate the other party. As a result, the opportunity to learn political tactics is never available in the villages as much as in the cities. This is also possible because the means of transport and communication in the city are at an advanced level and participation in international political life through books, magazines, newspapers, radio, TV, posters, banners, speakers, etc. is less or less. At least it is possible for us to get information about him. This proves helpful in bringing political education to a practical level.
  3. Social tolerance: One notable effect of industrialization is that social tolerance flourishes in city dwellers to a considerable extent. The reason for this is also clear. Along with urbanization, people from different religions, sects, castes, classes, races, provinces and countries come and settle, and everyone has the opportunity to mix with each other and to protect each other.

One gets the opportunity to see more closely. In this type of snake, tolerance towards each other develops.


  1. Changes in family values and resources: Along with urbanization, there is a rapid change in family values and structure. Today, children in the cities are not respecting their parents completely, consider their stubbornness as paramount, marry the wood or boy of their choice, romance is seen in the name of going to college. Affair of working girls has become a common thing in the cities. Increase in the number of love marriages and increase in divorce is also seen more in the cities. The media and communication revolution has greatly influenced the youth. He aspires to be like his role model (at her Social Economic Effects of Urbanization). He does not pay attention to family duties. After marriage, the girl forces her husband to live in a separate house. Increase in the number of nuclear families and disintegration of joint families is continuously increasing here.


  1. Development of Slums: Along with industrialization, when the process of industrialization continues, the population of the city goes on increasing at a very rapid pace. But new houses cannot be constructed in the same proportion as the population increases.

Ta is. Therefore, one effect of urbanization is the development of slums.


  1. Changes in social values and relations: Along with industrialization, the individualistic ideal flourishes. Due to the importance of money and personal qualities in the cities, every person only cares about himself and spends his life to protect his interests. His effort is to develop his own individuality and to collect more and more wealth because his social prestige depends on these. Therefore, one effect of urbanization is to sacrifice community interest at the altar of personal interest. In the same way, with urbanization, personal relations turn into impersonal social relations. In big cities like Delhi, Calcutta, Mumbai, there is complete lack of personal relations among people living in the same building of eight-ten floors. In the same way, on the basis of caste and creed, untouchability etc. Along with urbanization, they become weak and the social values related to them change. The phenomenon of social distance can be said to be a remarkable effect of urbanization. One political party starts humiliating the other party.


  1. Commercialization of entertainment: Another notable effect of industrialization is commercialization of means of entertainment ie cinema, theatre, disco club, sports, only network, mobile, internet etc. All means of entertainment are organized by business organizations. That’s why they don’t take care of modesty or healthy effect as much as they are conscious of taking money from them by making them more and more attractive to the audience.


  1. Accident, disease and filth: Accidents are more in cities. Diseases are also more due to more pollution. Different diseases related to different industries flourish. Not only this, due to the dense population in the cities, the filth is also high. Due to filth also many types of diseases surround the residents of the city. Even after trying a million, the problems of accident, disease and filth cannot be avoided as a result of industrialization.


  1. Uncertainty in community life: This is one of the major problems of the cities and the problem is that due to this uncertainty, the sense of community or ‘we’ of the cities does not flourish. Because of which uniformity does not flourish in the life of the city. Here someone sleeps at night, someone during the day, someone is busy today, tomorrow is idle. This uncertainty is there every moment at every moment. There is no certainty whether the person who left home in the morning will return home in the evening or not. This uncertainty gives rise to elements that disintegrate community life.


  1. Social Disorganization: Uncertainty or more variability in the status and functions of individuals and institutions generates social disorganization. The pace of social change is also faster in cities, due to which social disorganization arises. Bank failure, rebellion, revolution or war are also more likely to break out in cities, due to which a situation of social disintegration arises, which proves to be fatal for a healthy social life.


  1. Family Disruption: In the cities, the mutual relation between the members of the families is not very close, because most of the members of the house either have separate ways to read, write, get training, get jobs, get entertainment etc. Have to spend more time outside the family. Because of this, the family members have little control over each other, which often proves helpful in disintegrating the family.


  1. Personal disintegration: This is another notable problem of cities. The following five forms of personal disintegration are seen in cities, each of which is a serious problem in itself.


  (a) Crime and juvenile delinquency: Poverty in cities, housing problem, unemployment, gender disparity, drug abuse, commercial entertainment, business cycle, competition, lax control of the family, exist due to which crime in cities and Child-crime is to be seen more.


(b) Suicide: Poverty in cities, unemployment, unhappy family life, severe disappointment in relation to life after failure in competition, failure in romance or love, failure in business, etc. are more likely to demoralize one political party to another. And in any of these situations, a person can get trapped in such an intolerable mental confusion that he chooses suicide to get out of it. This is the reason why there are more suicides in cities than in villages.


(c) Prostitution: There are more working classes in the cities, who are forced to live alone without living with their wives and children due to the problem of houses in the cities and inflation. For this brothel is a good place of entertainment. Poverty and unemployment found in the cities also force many women to prostitution.


(d) Drug abuse: Alcoholism etc. is a manifestation of personal disintegration. This problem is particularly acute in cities. The extreme form of this problem is seen when the cities

  .. is morally neutral. In large parties, ‘diners’ where ‘gentlemen’ of the upper strata of the society congregate, drinking is self-evident as a symbol of social prestige and common courtesy.

Have accepted. There is no dearth of such people in the cities who have failed in their life. This becomes more clear to us from the crowd at the liquor shops.


(e) Beggary: People in the cities not only beg after being fed up with poverty, hunger and unemployment of the cities, but also give a commercial form to begging. In big cities there are owners of beggars whose work is to make beggars, to teach beggars how to beg, to mutilate or dilapidate their bodies in such a way that people automatically feel compassion.


Other socio-economic effects of industrialization: development of capitalist economy, unequal distribution of national wealth, economic crisis, unemployment, industrial disputes, mental anxiety and disease, conflict and competition, increase in social mobility, division of labor and specialization of ‘we’. Effect of sentiment etc. are other effects of industrialization which are seen in India.





social consequences of industrialization




Industrialization has brought many changes in socio-economic and demographic aspects. This has given rise to urbanization which has changed the lifestyle, food habits and clothing habits. This is responsible for the breakdown of the joint family system. Breakdown of rural community and caste system. It has also given rise to impersonal relationships. The massive growth of slums has created many other problems of pollution, crime and juvenile delinquency. The development of industries has led to large scale migration of rural population.


It has brought permanent changes in the social structure, social institutions and social relations. With the change in kinship, so have marriage and family. Before industrialization, marriage in India was considered a sacred and religious institution. Today marriage is considered only as a social contract between a man and a woman. But with industrialization the age of marriage is increasing. As a result of the rejection of traditional beliefs, many young men and women in large cities choose to love unmarried. Industrial society is becoming more and more complex day by day; The philosophy of individualism is flourishing in the society as a result of which the marriage bond has become very weak and divorce is being resorted to; As the only solution to marital problems.


The functions of the family have also changed due to industrialization. Earlier the family used to do the work of socialization of children, but today the family is lagging behind in this important process. They take the help of day care centres, crèches, babysitters etc. In big cities, as both parents go to work leaving children at the mercy of nanny and domestic servants to raise children, family functions have become more formal than real. As a result of re-industrialisation, most of the joint families are breaking up and being replaced by nuclear families.




families. Those nuclear families are sent keeping in view the small family norms. Last but not the least, major steps have been taken towards the remarkable improvement in the status of women.


In Indian society, the caste system has a unique role and importance. The social status of a person was determined by his caste. Industrialization has reduced the role of caste, it has also disintegrated the caste system reducing the power of Brahmins. We can also see the rise of Shudras, the decline of caste based occupations. Specialization has brought division of labor, elimination of work. Life has become materialistic giving less importance to religious faith and belief.



Industrialization has given rise to many social consequences. It has brought about permanent changes in our social structure, social institutions and social relations. It has also changed the ways and means of social influence and control. Some of the social consequences of industrialization are as follows:-


  1. a) Impact on the community :-


There has always been a close relationship between industry and the community. Industrialism has given rise to new communities, or led to the rapid growth and transformation of pre-existing ones. Industries usually come up near or along sources of power and raw materials. Industries rapidly created communities and led to an easy supply of labor and specialized services. As industry and industrialism developed further, communities also changed rapidly. Later emerged the urban industrial community, some of the factors responsible for the emergence of urban industrial community were:

1) The need for a dynamic workforce that has the components of change needed to transform the community.

2) Inequality and disparity between wealth, security, standard of living and lifestyle.

3) Rapidly developing industries also require an increasing supply of labor which has to be recruited from outside a given community. This leads to disparity; People from different ethnic, social religious and racial background come together for a common cause of earning livelihood. members of the modern industrial community today share little




Values and Criteria. What is normal can be quite superficial. Deviance is common in modern industrial society.


Because roles are fragmented in modern society and there is a lack of a common value system, unity or cohesion tends to weaken. Separation of groups from each other due to lack of identification with their work, modern industrial society enters into all spheres of disorder that bread, desperation,

Insecurity, anxiety, frustration etc. All these and more lead the society towards crime and corruption. , Industrialization has brought about direct changes in the social structure and indirect changes in our family life.


Industrialization also reduced caste intensity as people of all castes sought and obtained employment in factories. According to A.W. Hara, although the Brahmin had to take a long ritual bath to purify himself from the defilement caused by the mere shadow of a Shudra, yet in the crowded streets and busyness of the city it is not possible to escape from the shadow of the Shudra. lines. Industrialization resulted in people of all castes coming into contact with each other in factories, hotels, markets, trains and buses, etc., and laws covering untouchability became impossible to follow.




Impact of industrialization on family and kinship


The traditional system of industrialization is breaking down and conjugal family system is emerging all over the world, this effect is more pronounced in India. The most obvious effect of industrialization is the weakening of the foundation of the joint family system. The creation of a new occupational structure, decreasing dependence on property, less power and respect for elders, and the increasing independence of youth have significantly weakened once strong kinship ties. There seems to be a remarkable change in the relationship between men and women which is attributed to the changed status of women for the better.


The family was an important institution in traditional societies, with joint families forming the basic institution of a self-sustaining agricultural economy. The joint family was formed on the basis of extended kinship structure and consisted of two or three generations of members who were either husband or wife or son and daughter relatives. The joint family was based on an authoritarian structure of relations, power and authority. Property was owned and cultivated jointly. Industrialization has completely changed the face of the family environment. values like discipline,



Awesome respect for ideas like rights, equality, liberty, equal rights, justice etc.


Most of the items of daily consumption are produced outside the households. Child rearing, religion, early education are no longer the preserve of families. Homes have rather become centers of comfort and pleasure. The idea of individuality has evolved with the high standard of living that has become a characteristic of urban families. As has happened in other countries, in Indian families too, people have become aware of their rights due to change of roles, destruction of functions, breakdown of family structure, excessive impact of urbanization and industrialization. Ownership in urban societies has led to the rise of a number of secondary groups and organizations that have diminished the importance of families in social, industrial and educational life.


The feeling of unity is weak. Industrialization has attracted many youths from joint families in search of employment and education thus disrupting its structure. Industrialization has destroyed its functional self-sufficiency and today it has exchanged its agricultural products to buy many of its other needs. Urban migration of youth due to large-scale industrialization has deprived agriculture of its labor force and affected domestic production. Now the urbanized youth have developed new attitudes of individualism and equality and thus have an equal share in the wealth of the family, while no longer contributing to its common pool. This cash of interest has at times led to the fragmentation of held holdings and the disruption of kinship and family structure. The traditional family can no longer expect to keep itself in tact, or to keep its youth rooted to the soil. The needs have multiplied and the family cannot satisfy all its wants, the families are rapidly democratizing.


Industrialization has changed the family structure and working people have realized the importance of small families. Both parents can go out for work. The credit goes to the time and energy saving gadgets that advanced technology has provided us with. Since the husband-wife relationship in the family is based on equality and personal freedom, neither is willing to tolerate loss all around and with the easy availability of divorce on the spot, family instability became apparent in today’s industrialized world. Is.


Industrialization has destroyed the respect and status of elders, especially fathers, as can be seen very often, parents and parents and children work as equals to each other. Children have started earning independently due to which the power and authority of fathers especially has reduced nowadays. With the effect of high technology automation



People are driven away from their family homes in search of a greener pasture. This is the causative factor in the formation of the relationship. In this fast paced world in which the nets of affluence are spread far and wide, family members get to spend very little time with each other. The mind is completely obsessed with today’s progress. People are more involved in group activity, family ties and family interests seem out of date in today’s industrialized world. Herein lies the change or difference, in the traditional family the wife and children had to attend to the emotional needs of the head of the family. or

It all seems upside down now; It is the father who has to attend to the delicate emotional needs of the wife and children.










Changes in caste system and social structure



In the olden days the caste system seemed very powerful. It has emerged from the caste system. Comparatively in our traditional society the caste system was very rigid

Highly sedentary and hierarchical, with Brahmins at the top and Shudras at the bottom. Restrictions regarding business, marriage, food and social order in India began with the British rule, and many groups of people from different castes migrated to cities in search of new economic opportunities. It was not possible to maintain various caste bonds in this caste. The selection of persons for new jobs was based on the skills acquired in the industrial towns.


Due to increasing industrialization and urbanization, the caste organization based on economic interdependence started losing its strength. Caste units became economically independent; This led to a steady decline in the monopoly of the upper castes. Thus we can see that the caste system changed freely during the British rule. The rate of change accelerated or accelerated during the post-independence period. Many people forced together to bring about rapid change. Technological progress, industrialization, urbanization, commercialization, efforts by the Indian government to create a casteless society, growing economic hardships, and the desire of the lower castes to elevate their status in caste integrity through sanskritization were some of the efforts responsible for bringing about this. Were. Change in caste system.


Sanskritization was a way of translating gains in wealth, power, and local inflation into higher caste status if not for individuals, then for upwardly mobile splinter groups that claimed ambiguities about subcaste and border caste. employed to obtain.



recognized, and even to marry into a caste that was earlier regarded as separate and higher castes.


Thus caste was always to some extent a code for economic class differences, and changed with changes in the wealth and power of groups that one might call class. It is no longer the economic success it once justified and there is less need to convert it into caste rank, even though there were still conditions for obtaining local agreement about a caste’s new status, except for differences between regional cultures. and between regional cultures, and between patterns of industrial development and settlement and political movements in particular cities. Industrial workers, like other Indians, think of themselves as members of castes, and usually marry their children within the boundaries of recognized castes or religious minorities, such as Muslims and Catholics, who sometimes do not. Only in industrial cities, but divided into caste-like groups, castes do exist, but are no longer a network of relationships with particular people within the caste system of groups with interdependent ranks, to whom one has a claim, but to whom one has obligations. And also pulled in other directions by loyalties and interests that have nothing to do with caste.







industry and caste



In the job market, a caste bond is a relation at best and the logic of kinship extends to at least a wide range. There is a moral obligation on helping ties, which are inclined to be of your caste, and helping is naturally reciprocated after some time, but the argument for kinship ties becomes less compelling when you have occasional contact. Who is a potential relative, or who may not be your relative because he or she belongs to a different sub-caste of Brahmins or Rajputs.

While making the effort becomes useful in a fiercely competitive and uncertain world, it may be possible that someone will give you priority when looking for a job or a place to live because he or she trusts someone brought up with similar values, or he or she shares a feeling. Shares caste members must be together or no one else will help them. The same logic can also be applied to people from the same village, same state etc. All of them must have some binding factor in order to be used as an effect.


Caste that falls between these two extremes, typically a broad community of kinship and residence or language, is actually a division of society into three blocks: a large block with all the middle castes and religious minorities, and two other focus areas. Eligible small group i.e. Brahmins. at the top and the Harijans at the bottom. Both groups suffer from prejudice and discrimination, together receiving few special advantages, and on




Time is seen as a political ally. Brahmins are by no means always in the best jobs in the world or Harijans.


Casteism is linked to caste, as it builds loyalty among members of a particular caste in competition with others, with no sense of hierarchy remaining. “Racism” is a part or parcel of urban life, such as ethnicity in America and tribalism in Asia. These are only explicit relations in an “unstructured” state. They may have always been in a disguised power as a natural hierarchy. The status of a caste is appropriate only in relation to others and there may be privileges, responsibilities and considerations that a

Can be taken to warehouse life.


It can be put to different uses, as a pull in the job market, a political pressure group to protect sectional interests, and sometimes as a possibility to block votes to entice politicians. Harijans do dirty jobs with low wages because they are illiterate. People who cut the bottom line of daily wage workers and uneducated unemployed not only from the luckiest people out there, but also from each other. They are the ones who are hopeless and miserable and more likely to believe that what keeps them apart is caste and moral discrimination.


Caste ideology is a matter of its own and motivates people to act in certain ways. In many situations it is more useful to think of caste as the way people are codified and of economic and class differences, which may not be the only way to think of barely hidden competition for resources and power. .


Since the Indian public had alternative categories based on economic differences they probably had more like western uses of class. But if caste disguises economic differences, it is effective. If people divided their social world into castes, the system could accommodate a wide range of change and manipulation, but within limits set by deep-rooted ideas about pollution, heredity, and interdependence. Money and power can often be converted into status, but not always or automatically.


Two things changed the old discussion of the relationship between labor and class imperialism and driven industry which later developed more slowly. These opened up new economic opportunities for some groups and weakened others.


Indians were also exposed to foreign ideas such as imperialism, nationalism, evangelical Christianity, atheism, positivism, liberalism, socialism, Marxism, ‘Management’ and even theosophy which is a western version of Hinduism.







industrialization and old society


Industrialization does not necessarily mean following the ‘Westernized’ path of progress. We cannot blame industry either because it has disturbed the agrarian society with its rigid social structure and unquestioned value system. It is reasonable to imagine pre-colonial India as a society full of unresolved tensions and contradictions, which could be contained by rigid social structure and common values, as long as economic opportunities were scarce and monopolized by powerful groups. The old society was regarded as a stable system that could only be disrupted from outside, internal tensions and contradictions were ignored. Although traditional society survived for many centuries, it was due to lack of alternatives. When alternative opportunities appear strong with legal institutions, traditional society reveals its weakness and is threatened with collapse from within.


Caste mobility, which is well documented, reflects real mobility between classes. Colonial rule and then ‘industry’ created vast opportunities, and new values made the transformation of property into caste status less important. It is true that a commonality can be traced between ‘pre-industrial’ India and the present industrial society. In pre-colonial cities and until recently in the countryside, dominant groups with property and security supported a wide range of people bound by kinship. There were other groups outside the circle who could claim no special relationship with the dominant groups and who had only their unskilled labor power to sell to the real proletariat, whose existence was often made ‘untouchable’, including People from inside and outside the circle were involved. We can draw an analogy with the current relationship between employers, organized sector workers, unorganized sector or ‘temporary’ industrial workers and itinerant temporary workers.


One often wonders how ‘casteism’ makes its way into industry as it is observed that people of a particular caste or region or religion often form a large number in an industry or enter work life because of certain skills. do, or may have occurred since ancient times, such as when young men from dominant groups found an opportunity and grabbed it, or when people from the poorest groups were forced to take work that no one else would employ Will continue to recruit people from the same origins, or workers brought in by their relatives and friends and these people partially monopolize jobs that may now look more attractive to others with rising unemployment and higher wages.




What is seen in ‘industrialism’ is that it generally increases mobility and creates a consciousness of opportunity. Industrialism is intended to perpetuate traditional, social inequalities in the absence of universal compulsory education in India. This was true of occupations that required education, or were seen as desirable from the outset, but there were also other types of industrial employment, which attracted only the poor and illiterate, especially l .

upper caste; And those who got into those occupations early sometimes managed to educate their children for better jobs. So in this way a particular caste occupies a particular job in industry and holds on to it as long as they ca



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