Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA)

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Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA)


Program for Universal Elementary Education in India:

1. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is a historic step towards achieving the long cherished goal of Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE) through a time bound integrated approach in partnership with the State. The SSA, which promises to change the face of the country’s elementary education sector, aims to provide useful and quality elementary education to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2010.

2. SSA is an effort to recognize the need for improving the performance of the school system and to provide community owned quality elementary education in mission mode. It also envisages bridging the gender and social gap.

3. Structure for Implementation: The Central and State Governments will jointly implement the SSA in partnership with the local governments and
4. Community. To indicate the national priority for elementary education, a National Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan Mission is being set up with the Prime Minister as its Chairman and the Union Minister for Human Resource Development as its Vice-Chairman. States have been requested to set up State Level Implementation Society for DEE under the chairmanship of Chief Minister/Education Minister. This has already been done in many states.

5. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan will not disturb the existing structures in the States and Districts but will try to bring convergence in all these efforts. Efforts will be made to ensure that there is functional decentralization up to the school level to improve community participation.

6. Coverage and Duration: The SSA will cover the entire expanse of the country before March 2002 and the duration of the program in each district will depend on the District Elementary Education Plan (DEEP) prepared by it according to its specific needs. However, an upper limit for the duration of the program has been fixed at ten years/ie till 2010.

Central Strategies for the SSA Program:

1. Institutional Reforms- As part of SSA, institutional reforms were carried out in the states. States were to make an objective assessment of their prevailing education system including educational governance, achievement levels in schools, financial issues, decentralization and community ownership, review of State Education Acts, teacher deployment and teacher recruitment, monitoring and evaluation, education. Policy with respect to girls, SC/ST and disadvantaged groups, private schools and ECCE. Many states have already implemented institutional reforms to improve the delivery system of primary education.
2. Sustainable funding – Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is based on
3. On the grounds that funding of early education interventions must be sustainable. This calls for a long-term perspective on the financial partnership between the central and state governments.
4. Community Ownership – The program seeks community ownership of school based interventions through effective decentralization. It was augmented by the participation of women’s groups, VEC members and members of Panchayati Raj Institutions. Thus due to development in education community participation is an additional dimension in the existing education system.
5. Institutional Capacity Building – SSA envisages a major capacity building role for national and state level institutions like NIEPA/NCERT/NCTE/SCERT/S1EMAT. Quality improvement requires a continuous support system of resource persons. Vigorous efforts have been made in this direction which is again the result of developments in education.
6. Reforming Mainstream Educational Administration – It calls for reforming mainstream educational administration by institutional development, incorporation of new approaches and adoption of cost-effective and efficient methods.
7. Community based monitoring with complete transparency- The program will have a community based monitoring system. The Educational Management Information System (EMIS) will correlate school-level data with community-based information from micro-planning and surveys. Apart from this, every school will have a notice board showing all the grants received by the school and other details, thereby making the educational system more transparent.
8. Habitation as a unit of planning – SSA works on a community based approach to planning with habitations as a unit of planning. The Habitation Plans shall be the basis for the preparation of District Plans thus ensuring full and complete coverage of the area.

9. Accountability to the community- SSA envisages accountability and transparency along with collaboration between teachers, parents and Panchayati Raj Institutions. It made educational programs need-based and community relevant.
10. Girls’ Education – Girls’ education, especially those belonging to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, was one of the major concerns in the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. It enabled the otherwise neglected sections of the people into the fold of education.
11. Attention to special groups – Attention will be paid to the educational participation of children belonging to SC/ST, religious and linguistic minorities, disadvantaged groups and children with disabilities so that no one is left out of the purview of education.
12. Pre-project Phase – The SSA began with a well-planned pre-project phase across the country that has built capacity and capacity to improve delivery and monitoring systems.

Provided a large number of interventions for development. It was a well planned and executed program of its kind.
13. Emphasis on Quality – SSA lays special emphasis on making education useful and relevant to children at the primary level by improving curriculum, child-centred activities and effective teaching methods.
14. Role of Teachers – SSA recognizes the important role of teachers and advocates attention to their development needs. Establishment of BRC/CRC, Recruitment of qualified teachers, Teacher development opportunities through participation in curriculum related material development, Focus on classroom process and Exposure visits for teachers designed to develop human resources among teachers .
15. District Elementary Education Plans – As per the SSA framework, each district shall prepare a District Elementary Education Plan reflecting the overall and convergence being undertaken in the Elementary Education sector.
16. The components of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan include appointment of teachers, teacher training, qualitative improvement in elementary education, provision of teaching learning materials, establishment of block and cluster resource centers for educational support, construction of classrooms and school buildings, education guarantee centres. Establishment, Education of Integrated Disabilities and Distance Education.



District Primary Education Project (DPEP):

1. Earlier the trend was towards area-based investments like Operation Blackboard or Non-Formal Education (NFE) programme. The planning of these and other programs was centralized and planned. The Education for All (EFA) initiative is now becoming more region and people specific.


2. The districts selected under DPEP represent those districts where female literacy is below the national average of 39.2 per cent and where the ‘Total Literacy Campaign’ (TLC) has successfully generated demand for elementary education.

3. However, DPEP has a much broader focus and agenda than the Bihar Project and the Uttar Pradesh Education Project. The main thrust of DPEP is (i) district level planning (ii) community participation and decentralized management (iii) focus on education of girls, SCs, STs and differently abled (
4. v) To improve the quality of education through the process of demand creation for better service (vi) To reduce the overall dropout rate in primary education to less than 10 percent for all students.

5. It is difficult to escape the failure of Indian primary education. Sixty years after India’s political independence, India ranked 126 out of 175 countries in the 2006 ‘Human Development Report’. India’s adult literacy rate is a dismal 61%, below Cameroon (68%), Angola, Congo. Uganda (67%), Rwanda (65%), and Malawi (64%). The fact that 40% of Indian adults today “cannot read or write even a short, simple statement relating to their daily life” implies that they did not receive even the most basic level of primary education. Compare this to China’s 90% adult literacy. [Source: UNDP Human Development Report}

6. India has made huge strides in increasing the primary education attendance rate and expanding literacy to nearly two-thirds of the population. India’s superior education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to India’s economic rise. Much of the progress in the field of education has been attributed to various private institutions. The private education market in India is estimated to be $40 billion in 2008 and will grow to $68 billion by 2012. However, India still faces challenges. Despite increasing investment in education, 35% of the population is illiterate and only 15% of students make it to high school. The programs drawn up were very ambitious and relevant to India’s needs. But it has been proved once again that Indians are great planners but poor executors.

Non-Formal Education (NFE):

1. The directions of 1960 for universalization of elementary education could not be realized even till 1994. The NPE clearly mentions, “A large and systematic program of non-formal education will be initiated for school drop-outs, children from homes without schools, working children and girls who cannot attend school for the whole day”. . Since dropouts and underprivileged children cannot be educated in formal schools, they must be

2. Provided education in NFE centres. The attitude can be aptly summed up in the quote, “If Muhammad does not come to the mountain, the mountain must go to Muhammad.” If the children do not come to the schools, then the schools should go to the children.”

3. Children who cannot continue their school education due to various reasons and children who cannot go to school need non-formal education to realize the constitutional mandate. Adults who cannot study in primary schools partly because they are engaged in various occupations for their living and partly because they need functional and part-time education, which can only be provided through NFE centers Is.

4. The concept of non-formal education has changed in the last few decades. Many consider non-formal education as a complement to the formal education system and for some others it is an alternative to formal education. Although both are correct

nd NFE actually aims at universalization of elementary education in a specific period or by a specific time frame.

5. Prof. Malcolm Adiseshaiah has observed that non-formal education is broad as it understands all learning outside the formal system, and has no parameter of time or place. It can be classified as pre-school, unschooled or dropout for all learners in the age group 15-60. Mainly commercial.

6. If we remove the rigidity of the formal system of education with regard to hours and place of study, type of students, methods of teaching and learning, content of curriculum, qualification requirements of students and teachers and methods of evaluation and still Let’s organize a systematic learning process with clear learning goals, we will have a non-formal educational system with varying degrees of flexibility and therefore varying degrees of non-formalism.

7. NFE is considered as an instrument of development which is not only economic, but political as well as cultural. Since it helps in improving the productivity, it is also called as a part of skill development programme. In developing countries where elementary education is not universal, NFE acts as a lever to promote literacy.

8. NFE is linked to general development- health, sanitation, family planning, environment, industry, agriculture etc. Those coming to the non-formal education system will learn skills and understanding in addition to literacy and numeracy. NFE is closely linked to improving the quality of life of people and social
9. As well as national development. Since it promotes literacy and literacy has a positive relationship with development, NFE has a great impact on development and equally on GNP which is an outcome and indicator of the country’s productivity and the competencies of the people as citizens and producers of wealth. Is.


10. The Program of Action (1986) pointed out that the essential features of NFE are organizational flexibility, relevance of curriculum, variety of learning activities related to the needs of learners and decentralization of management. Various models of NFE have been developed and various agencies implementing the program have been encouraged to develop and adopt the most suitable model to suit the needs and conditions of the target groups.


Need and Importance of NFE in India:

1. It is universally accepted that an educated and enlightened citizenry is a pre-requisite for the success of a democracy. Although education up to secondary education has been made compulsory in developed countries, elementary education is considered essential for the effective functioning of democracy in developing countries. In 1947, about 85% of its population was illiterate and barely 31% of children aged 6–11 attended school. It was a national concern at that time and the same problem remains, albeit in a lesser form.

2. With a view to realizing this objective of universalisation of elementary education, it is felt that we have to universalise the provision of school education facilities, (a) enrollment and (b) retention in schools. But unfortunately, universalisation of primary education still remains a distant goal due to social, economic, educational and political reasons.

3. It is a fact that formal education has proved inadequate to meet the needs of the growing number of children many of whom suffer from various social, economic and cultural disabilities. It will be difficult to achieve the goal of universal primary education only through formal education system. Therefore to universalize elementary education in our country, to meet the paucity of resources, to serve the scattered and sparsely populated areas, to meet the inadequacy of formal education, to enable the pupils to learn To make non-formal education should be provided. To cater to the needs of the late bloomers, and to provide education to the socially and economically disadvantaged sections of the society.

4. Since independence, India has made great strides in terms of growth, enrollment and sophistication of all types of institutions and diversification of educational programmes. It contains the aspirations of the nation in terms of universal coverage, equitable distribution and quality of education.

5. Non-formal education is mainly for national development, of course, any form of education contributes to national development in one way or the other. But NFE programs are conceived, planned and implemented for the majority of our people, who have been downtrodden, downtrodden and downtrodden for many decades and are now willing to come into the limelight.

6. Section. For them, education is not for status upgradation or academic satisfaction, but for improving their employability or productivity. Thus education promotes social and personal development. National development means the development of the country, social, economic, cultural, political etc. The concept of development has been changing and cannot be equated with economic growth alone. This would include social, cultural and political development. Similarly, we cannot equate development with industrialization (or modernization for that matter).

7. For example, we value justice and equality so much.

But with the increase in GDP, inequality and injustice are also very high. Therefore, social justice has been taken as an integral part of the development process. Similarly, we used to emphasize on consumerism and development of goods and services, but now we emphasize on the development of man himself.

8. The main objective of NFE is the development of a large section of the rural population. Rural areas are plagued by superstitions, ill-health, poor housing and restricted routes to economic development. It also aims at removing wide disparities between rural and urban, rich and poor, male and female classes.

9. National development is generally equal to Gross National Product (GNP). But it does not mean only economic development. Economic growth cannot be explained by capital and labor either. There is a large residual factor that can only be explained in terms of education. Advances in education, science, research and technology lead to an increase in GNP, which in turn provides a large amount of money for education and helps it grow.

10. As envisioned by Gandhiji, the Indian people achieved independence but lacked formal education.
11. Growing dependence, injustice and inequality in various sectors of the society. By propagating, inter alia, basic education and its principles of “learning by doing”, Gandhi emerged as the best exponent of non-formal education to achieve productivity, equality and justice for the poor, oppressed and underprivileged. wants to It integrates both education and development as its programs are generally built around developmental work. Since the programs of NFE are relevant and feasible and free from various rigors and formalities, non-formal education is well received by the learners, who are motivated but have bitter taste of irrelevant and meaningless learning experiences.

12. They are now interested in educating themselves and thus being empowered to improve their productivity, citizenship and quality of life, so that they can meet the challenges of the emerging society in the 21st century. This newborn awareness and enthusiasm has positive consequences for development in education.
13. Education of women and girls:

14. The literacy rate of women is very low as compared to men. Very few girls are enrolled in schools and many of them drop out. According to a 1998 report by the US Department of Commerce, the main barriers to female education in India are inadequate school facilities (such as sanitary facilities), lack of female teachers, and gender bias in the curriculum (most female characters are depicted as weak and vulnerable). is) are Compelled).

15. Since 1947, the Government of India has attempted to provide incentives for school attendance of girls through programs of mid-day meals, free books and uniforms. This welfare emphasis drove primary enrollment between 1951 and 1981.

16. The National Policy on Education in 1986 decided to restructure education in line with the social structure of each state and with larger national goals. It emphasized that education is essential to democracy and central to improving the status of women. The new policy aimed at social change through revised curriculum, syllabi, increased funding for schools, expansion in the number of schools, and policy reforms. Emphasis was laid on the expansion of vocational centers and primary education for girls; secondary and higher education; and rural and urban institutions. The report tries to link problems like low school attendance to poverty and dependence on girls for household chores and looking after siblings. National Literacy Mission

Worked through women teachers in 17. villages. Although the minimum age of marriage for girls is now eighteen, many are still married much earlier. Therefore, the dropout rate of females is high at the secondary level.

18. The number of literate women in India’s female population ranged between 2-6% from the British Raj to the formation of the Republic of India in 1947. The concerted efforts led to an improvement from 15.3% in 1961 to 28.5% in 1981. Female literacy was over 50% of the total female population in 2001, although these figures were still very low compared to world standards and even male literacy within India. Recently Government of India has started Saakshar Bharat Mission for female literacy. The mission aims to reduce female illiteracy to half of its present level.







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