Rural Education

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Rural Education:


• After independence, India saw education as an effective tool to bring about social change through community development. Administrative control was effectively introduced in the 1950s when, in 1952, the government grouped villages under a Community Development Block—an authority under the National Program that could control education in 100 villages. A Block Development Officer oversaw a geographical area of 150 square miles which could have a population of more than 70000 people.

• Setty and Ross elaborate on the role of such programmes, which further divide themselves into individual-based, community-based, or individual-cum-community-based, in which development activities at the village level are led by an appointed functionary. The micro level is looked after by:

• Community development programs include agriculture, animal husbandry, cooperatives, rural industries, rural engineering (including minor irrigation, roads, buildings), family welfare including health and sanitation, family planning, women’s welfare, child care and nutrition, education. Adult Education, Social Education and Literacy, Youth Welfare and Community Organisation. Each of these areas of development has a number of programs, schemes, and activities that are additive, expanded, covering the entire community, certain segments, or specific target populations such as small and marginal farmers, artisans, women, and the downtrodden in general. And getting less. Poverty line.

• Despite some setbacks, rural education programs continued in the 1950s with the support of private institutions. A large network of rural education was established when the Gandhigram Rural Institute was established and 5,200 community development blocks were established in India. Kindergarten,

• Primary schools, secondary schools and schools for adult education were established for women. The government continued to see rural education as an agenda that could be relatively free from bureaucratic backlogs and general stagnation. However, in some cases the lack of funding offset the gains made by India’s rural educational institutions. Some ideas failed to gain acceptance among India’s poor, and government investments sometimes yielded little result. Today, government rural schools are underfunded and understaffed. Several foundations, such as the Rural Development Foundation (Hyderabad), actively build high-quality rural schools, but the number of students is small.

• Progress in the field of education of girls is visible late due to the development in economic, social, cultural, political and other fields in the country. Girls’ education is higher on both NETs
• National and State agenda for a long time. Primary education is a very important part of the overall structure of education. At this stage the child starts attending a formal institution and formal education begins. And it is at this stage that the formation of child empowerment begins.

• Special commissions and committees were constituted from time to time to assess the progress of education of girls and propose suitable interventions to promote their educational participation. Several strategies were adopted to promote girls’ education as an integral part of the planned socio-economic development of the country. To remove illiteracy of women and remove barriers hindering their access to primary education through provision of special support services, time targets and effective monitoring started in primary education.

• In ancient India, women had a high position in the society. They were provided with educational opportunities as compared to men. Social evils like purdah, sati, forced widowhood and child marriage came much later in the society and resulted in the decline of their status. It should be noted that during the Muslim rule there was no institution for the education of girls other than teaching them to read the Qur’an in their homes.

• Due to the principle of religious neutrality, the British kept shying away from taking responsibility for the education of girls for a long time. After independence, the University Education Commission (1948-49) established by the Government of India laid special emphasis on the education of women. The main strategy adopted to achieve equalization of educational opportunities has been to make school accessible to every child. It was recognized that the expansion of educational facilities as part of providing universal elementary education to all would make education available to the weaker sections of the society including women.

• Gender inequality has become a major area of concern for academics and policy makers. Gender inequality in India stems from two important sources of difference between men and women. (1)

• earning capacity that makes women completely dependent on men and (2) cultural taboos and traditions that greatly limit women’s autonomy. Women, of late, are increasingly involving themselves in outside work. Rising levels of educational achievement have facilitated such participation. To take this trend forward, it is necessary that more and more priority is given to the education of women. Fortunately, the changing norms in society are now enabling more and more women to actively pursue education.

Are not Women are now found in large numbers in the fields of information technology, science and space research, and other areas that require a high level of skill.

• According to the National Policy on Education (NPE) – 1986, the Government of India launched several programmes. One such program was Mahila Samakhya, whose main thrust was women empowerment. The program strives to create a learning environment where women can collectively affirm their potential, gain strength to demand information and knowledge, and move forward to transform and advance their lives . Other initiatives in this direction are Operation Black Board (OBB), District Primary Education Program (DPEP), establishment of School Education Committees, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), and Mid Day Meal Scheme etc.

• Special schemes and programs were also launched to promote girls’ education. Opening of separate institutes or wings exclusively for girls, free education for girls up to higher secondary level and even university level in many states, free lunch, free books, free uniform, scholarship for good attendance, bicycle , like provision. Cash awards for well performing villages, blocks and districts in female education/literacy etc. have brought positive results in this direction. Girls belonging to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes received additional benefits for showing better attendance in school. As a result of protective discrimination policies under constitutional provisions, enrollment of SC and ST girls has improved significantly. Due to existing programs and some initiatives from the government, girls’ education has developed faster than that of boys in many states of India.







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