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Scientific method refers to any method of research by which unbiased and systematic knowledge is obtained. “A. Wolfe says that “Any research method in a broad sense, by which science is created and expanded, is called scientific method Scientific method The modern era is the age of science. No matter how simple and complex the phenomena are, they are studied in a scientific way. Generally people understand the specific type of subject matter from the word science. For example – biology, chemistry, engineering, physics etc. But it is wrong to think so. Science has nothing to do with the subject matter. Any subject can be a material science if it can be studied by the scientific method.

That’s why Stuart Chase has written – “Science is concerned with the scientific method and not with the subject-material.” Similar thing has been said by Benberg and Schebat – “Science is a definite way of looking at the world.”? In fact, science refers to the systematic knowledge that is obtained through the scientific method. That is, systematic knowledge is science. The scientific method is one and only one among all its branches; the unity of all sciences lies in its method, not in its content alone. The person who classifies any kind of facts, who sees their mutual relation and sees their sequence, uses the scientific method and is a person of science. These facts can be related to the history of the appearance of humans , the social statistics of our great cities , the atmosphere of the distant stars . It is not the facts themselves that constitute science but the method by which it is acted upon.

According to the Encyclopdia Vitenica, “The scientific method is a collective term that describes the many processes by which science is formed.

Goode and Hurt have written – “Science can be defined as the accumulation of commonly organized knowledge.” Physics studies physical organs, zoology studies organisms and botany is the study of plants. does. In this way other sciences also have different subject-materials and all these subject-materials are different from each other. But all these are called sciences. Now the question arises that what is it that brings all these as the unit of science? The only answer to this is the method of study, that is, the scientific method.

According to Carl Pearson – “The unity of all science lies in its method and not in its subject matter”.

Lundberg has also said similarly, “The scientific method is the same in all branches. It is clear from the above discussions that the knowledge obtained from the study done by the scientific method is called science.

Vijan means scientific method, after knowing it it is necessary to know which method will be called scientific husband. Generally, that method is called scientific method in which the researcher studies a subject, problem or phenomenon by remaining neutral or impartial. Under this observation, fact collection. Classification includes tabulation, analysis and generalization.

August Comte said that the whole world is governed by ‘steady natural laws’ and these laws can be explained only by the scientific method. Since social events are part of this nature, study of social events like natural events is possible only through scientific method. Scientific method is not dependent on emotional, elemental thinking but on systematic method of observation, testing, experimentation and classification. Different scholars have defined scientific method in their own words.

Lundberg has written in relation to the scientific method – “Broadly, the scientific method is the systematic observation, classification and analysis of facts.

Describing the nature of the scientific method, Carl Pearson wrote, “The scientific method is characterized by the following features – (a) careful and accurate classification of facts and observation of their correlation and sequence (b) discovery of scientific laws by creative imagination. (c) equally useful to all persons of self-criticism and common sense.”

Bernard has given the definition of scientific method and said, “Science can be defined in terms of the six main processes involved in it – testing, verification, definition, classification, organization and refinement which includes forecasting and putting into practice.” It is clear from the above definitions that scientific method is a systematic system. Under this, facts are collected, verified, classified and analyzed. From this, general rules are discovered and predictions are also made in relation to them.



Characteristics of Scientific Method 

On the basis of definitions of scientific method, some of its main features are clear. These characteristics can be understood in the following way

Logicality – Scientific method is not based on emotion, emotion or superstition rather think logically.

The emphasis is on The scientific method emphasizes the causal relationship of events. In other words, it can be said that every event has a cause and nothing happens without a cause. Efforts are made to find causality under the scientific method. For example, under superstition, not assuming the hand of any divine power behind a disease, to discover its real pathogens is the specialty of the scientific method. In fact, a particular germ is behind the disease. That is to say, here the germ is the cause of the particular disease.

Generality – Through the scientific method, an attempt is made to find such rules or facts which can always be valid under the same conditions. This method does not lay emphasis on the study of any particular phenomenon or unit but lays emphasis on the study of general events. That is, the scientific method cannot be a science of absolutely specific, it emphasizes on general discovery so that general principles and rules can be formulated on the basis of various facts. If a general rule is formulated about a particular event or fact, then its area is very narrow. The units collected under the scientific method represent the whole class, not the individual. This does not mean that they will be unconditionally authentic in all circumstances and situations. They are authentic only under normal circumstances. In this sense a general scientific law can be formed. The characteristic of the scientific method is also common in the sense that its use is the same in different sciences. In this context, Carl Pearson has also written, “The unity of all sciences lies in its method and not in its subject matter.” In general, the scientific method is the same in all branches of science.



. Cause and Effect Relationship – The scientific method is based on causal relationship. Every event has a cause. No religion is completely free. There is some reason behind its happening. The scientific method tries to find all the reasons that cause events to happen. That is, it explains the causal relationship between different events. For example, if a person is sick, then through scientific method, efforts are made to find out the reason for his illness, nor is it understood as the wrath of any deity.

. Observation – Observation is the most important feature of the scientific method. Under the scientific method, the researcher directly observes for the collection of facts. Observation is called the classical method of scientific discovery. Throwing light on the importance of observation in the scientific method, Goode and Hatt have said, “Science begins with observation and its confirmation has to be ultimately imposed on observation. So the sociologist must train himself in careful observation. Observation consists of collecting facts by observing the phenomenon from an objective point of view, which forms the basis of the method of knowledge.

. Verification – The conclusions obtained by the scientific method can be verified at any time. To what extent is the truth obtained in the past true? This information is known as verification. That is to say, once a conclusion is drawn by the scientific method, the same conclusion is obtained for the second time, then it is considered verified. That is, the findings obtained in the scientific method can be re-examined. In this context, Lather says that the method by which facts cannot be re-examined can be philosophical or imaginary, not scientific method. Therefore, verification is very important for the scientific method. Features of the Scientific Method

. Objectivity – Objectivity has an important place in the scientific method. Objectivity means to see or know the object or phenomenon as it is (Characterstics of Scientific Method). observation takes place. There is no place for bias and prejudice in the scientific method. That is, at the time of study, the person does not give importance to his verification, personal desires, likes and perceptions. According to Green ‘Objectivity means a fact 3. Objectivity or ability to objectively examine evidence. Objectivity is a difficult task in the social sciences. Therefore, the researcher should use such techniques along with self-control so that the scope of bias and bias is minimized. The student has to study completely neutrally. He should not resort to any kind of moral bias or mental dishonesty.

Certainty There is certainty in the scientific method. Under this, an attempt is made to find definite facts on certain grounds. In the scientific method, no importance is given to the elements that raise doubts. Certain terms are used in scientific studies. It is difficult to get definite conclusions from the use of indefinite terms. If the study is objective and can be verified by re-examination, then there is certainty in the conclusion obtained from it.Sure it will.


Predictability – An important feature of the scientific method is the ability to make predictions. On the basis of the study of causal relationships and various factors, there is information about an object or event. On the basis of this information, predictions can be made regarding what will be the nature of that object or event in the future. The prediction done under the scientific method is different from the astrologer or other prediction. When the researcher finds out the causes of an event and propounds general rules and principles in relation to it, then on the basis of that, he makes predictions about the occurrence of that type of events in such conditions. That is to say that by conducting a study on the basis of scientific method, such ability develops in the researcher so that he can make predictions about similar events.




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