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Social survey is a scientific method. Through this systematic study of social events is done. First of all, Le Plav and his associates used the social survey method. Even before these survey method was used but they lacked subjectivity and scientificity. But the evidence of social survey comes from very ancient times. The social survey method was initially greatly aided by John Hobard, Frederick Lee Play, Charles Booth, Rowtry and Bobley. John Howard (1726 – 1799) surveyed the prison system in England.

Frederick Le Play (1806 – 1882) studied budgets in France in the middle of the 19th century. The main objective of Le Play in this survey was to determine the standard of living of the working classes of Europe according to different income levels on the basis of their income-expenditure. Angel also studied the income expenditure of the family like Lee Play. Charles Booth (1840 – 1916) made a detailed and systematic study of London’s poverty by survey and published it in ‘The Life and Labor of the People of London’. In this context, Routry surveyed poverty and published it in his book ‘Poverty’. Bawle made a similar study in 1912 and published it in his book ‘Livehood and Poverty’. Hust’s survey, comparative study of industrial cities is also noteworthy.

Like England and France, there was a survey movement in America too. Jacob Reese surveyed the slums of New York in 1890. Lincoln Stephens (1904) also conducted a survey of capitalists and workers in industrial cities. Paul Kellogg studied the city of Pittsburgh in (1909). In this he used the inter-disciplinary method. Eaton and Hessison prepared and published a list of surveys conducted in America. It proved to be important in the direction of social survey movement. Various areas of social life were surveyed by the Department of Sociology of the University of Chicago. The social survey movement in America was at its zenith in 1930. There are still studies being done by survey. Evidence of survey is also found in ancient India.

Mention has been received of studies done by Kautilya, Akbar and East India Company. Socio-economic survey of the time of Kautilya and Akbar and ‘Gazetteers’ were prepared by the East India Company. Even today, social survey of many cities and areas is being done in India. The census report done by the government is a good example of social survey. Apart from this, surveys related to various subjects and events are conducted by various institutions and agencies. For example ‘National Institute of Sample Survey’, survey is done by banks, universities and various research institutes. Meaning and Definition of Social Survey A (Meaning and Definition of Social Survey) The word survey is the Hindi version of the word ‘Survey’ of the English language. The word Survey is made up of words from two different places. The first word ‘sur’ is derived from the French language and the second word ‘veeir’ is derived from the Latin language. The meanings of both are ‘up’ and ‘to see’ respectively. Thus the owner of curvey means ‘looking up’. (to look over). ‘

According to the ‘Dictionary of Sociology’, “the name of systematic and complete fact-collection and fact-analysis in relation to a life or any one aspect of it, generalizations are made on the basis of the facts obtained by the survey of the survey. After that the general and scientific rules are formulated. According to Webster’s dictionary, “Social survey is an observation made to obtain real information”. In relation to social survey, various scholars have given definition in their own words. The views of some prominent scholars are as follows.

According to Harrison, “Social survey is a cooperative effort under which the scientific method is used for the study and analysis of social conditions and problems found in a particular geographical area.”



Morse (H. N. Morse) has written, “In short, social survey is a method of scientific and systematic analysis by which a social phenomenon, problem or population is studied according to definite and well-defined objectives.


Bogardus, while giving the definition of survey, wrote, “In a broad sense, social survey refers to the collection of facts related to the living and working conditions of the people of a particular community.” According to Abrams, “A social survey is a process by which negative data are collected about the social aspect of the structure and activities of a community. “


According to Burgess, “Survey of a community is the study of its conditions and needs done with the aim of presenting a constructive plan of social development.”


P . v . Young (P. V. Young) has given a very long and clear definition of social survey, writing, “Social survey is the present or immediate conditions of any social pathological nature,

It is related to the creation of a constructive program for the improvement and advancement of those who have definite geographical boundaries and definite social meaning and social importance. “Three things are clear from this definition, which is related to social survey. First, social survey is related to study in a certain geographical area. Second, social survey is related to important social pathological problems. Third, social survey is related to problems. It is from designing a constructive program for solution and social reform. From all these things it appears that social survey is more concerned with the study of social pathological problems and their solution and improvement.


Social event or social problem has been mentioned in all the above definitions, but social event or problem cannot be made the subject of study of social survey. Only those events or social problems can become the subject matter of social survey which is geographically limited or definite so that the researcher himself can go to the field and collect the relevant facts. Thus it is clear that social survey is a scientific method of social study, under which the facts related to a problem in a particular geographical area are collected without any bias and on the basis of the facts such conclusions are drawn with the help of which social development and public welfare programs can be successfully implemented. –



Features of Social Survey

( Characteristics of Social Survey )

Some characteristics are reflected from the analysis of the definitions given by various scholars in relation to social survey. These features are the following


1. Study and Solution of the Problems (Study and Solution of the Problems, Women’s problems are studied. Under this, not only the study of problems, it prepares the outline of the treatment. Through the study of the problems, an attempt is made to know its causes. It is done so that it is convenient to make plans for their treatment and improvement.Bugus told that the findings from the survey give suggestions for the solution and improvement of the problem, that is, the survey is not only related to the study of the problem but also its improvement. Is .


.2. Ouantitative Study Social survey is a quantitative study. The facts collected by it are disclosed in quantitative form. Qualitative facts are collected by social survey, but under this, an attempt is made to collect numerical facts. In the present time, the use of statistical methods and statistics in social survey and research is increasing day by day. The meaning of saying is that the data are collected in different ways but the conclusion is presented in the form of statistics.


Comparative Study – Social survey is a type of comparative study. In the present times, conducting comparative studies has become an important feature of social survey. In social survey, the relation of social problems and conditions with the environment is added. The purpose of comparative study is to obtain information about a problem or event in comparison with other facts.

4. Social Awareness – Under social survey, not only the collection of related facts, but awareness has to be created in relation to them. With proper and correct information about social events or problems, facts are disseminated. This creates awareness among people about them and also gets public cooperation.


5.. Social survey is a scientific method Social survey is a scientific method. In fact, social survey is a scientific method. Social survey is a scientific specialty. By which scientific study of a particular social situation, problem or group is done.


Study of General Social Events Social survey is an objective study. In this every effort is made to avoid bias and bias. By means of questionnaire, interview, definite geographical area schedule etc., the studyer collects the facts. on the basis of various facts

Cause-cause relationships are traced to cooperative-process events. generalization from the obtained conclusions

Problems are studied and treated and rules and principles are also formulated. That is, in social survey, systematic study is done by different stages of scientific method. Common social events are studied under social survey. That is, it does not study any individual event. Social survey studies common social events, life conditions, problems, their causes, etc. so that social life and social events can be known accurately.


.7. Definite Geographical Area: Social survey is concerned with the group or community living in a specific geographical area. Under social survey, only those social events or problems are studied which are geographically limited. 

A particular village, town or area is selected for the survey so that the study can be done by scientific method. In this context, Harrison has said, “The whole society cannot be made the subject-matter of social survey. Rather, it can be made the subject-object of problems and events which are geographically limited and definite. Social survey is a cooperative process.”


8. Co-operative process (Aco-operative undertaking) Social survey Generally the field of social survey is very wide and extensive. The area on this is very wide and extensive. In this situation it is not possible for one person to work. This requires a team. Different subject poets form a group of scholars and complete the study work. From this point of view, social is called a cooperative effort. Nowadays inter-governmental method is being used more in social survey. Experts from different fields compile the facts and finally come together to give general conclusions.




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