Sociological perspective

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Sociological perspective

 The literal meaning of the approach is. to bring “closer to reality”.

  1. Bhushan’ has defined the word perspective in the Dictionary of Sociology as follows – “A word used for values, beliefs, attitudes and meanings that give a person a framework for looking at the situation ( frame) and provides vision.


 According to them, the sociological perspective prompts us to see those depths which are regular and patterned and not those which are unique in that particular event or situation. Many scholars consider the word Approach to be more appropriate in place of perspective.


In sociology, different situations, processes or variables are studied from many perspectives and each perspective gives more emphasis on a particular aspect of the specific problem (which is being studied by it).


Davies and Lewis have said it more appropriate to call the perspective a model.




Characteristics of Sociological Perspective


Sociological perspective is some theoretical assumptions made to make empirical theories about the behavior of a situation, process or entity, which give a specific perspective to the researcher and guide him in the study. The following are the main features found in the sociological perspective


(1) Synthetic nature –



(2) Scientific nature –



(3) Objectivity



(4) Comprehensiveness and openness –



(5) Analytical nature –



 (6) Emphasis on cause-effect relationships



 According to Chapin, three main perspectives are used in sociology.


 ( 1 ) Historical perspective ;

 ( 2 ) Statistical perspective ; And

 ( 3 ) Field work observation perspective.


(b) According to Ellwood, there are following five main perspectives of sociology


 ( 1 ) Anthropological or comparative perspective ;

( 2 ) Historical perspective ;

 ( 3 ) Survey perspective ;

( 4 ) Deductive perspective ; And

 (5) Philosophical perspective. do pp v p v vai kar


(c) According to Hatt, there are five main perspectives of sociology-


 ( 1 ) Common sense perspective ;

 ( 2 ) Historical perspective ;

 3 ) Museum observation perspective ; either

Experimental Perspective

(5) Statistical perspective.





BK Nagla (2006) in his book Sociology has described the nature of research in sociology in four approaches. they are like this

  1. Positivism and Idealism
  2. Positivism
  3. Descriptive Sociology
  4. Humanistic Perspective



BK Nagla in his book Indian Sociological Thought (2008) has analyzed the following approaches to Indian sociological studies that reflect the nature of Indian research. These are as follows –


historical perspective

Indian jurisprudence

 structural functional perspective

 Marxist perspective

subordinate perspective


If we review the contemporary sociological studies, we generally find the following perspectives prevalent:


Historical perspective;

Evolutionary perspective

  Comparative perspective ;

 Structural – functional perspective ;

  Conflict perspective ;

Behavioral and interactional perspective;

 Statistical perspective;

  Ethnomethodology ;

 Regional – Sociology ( Ethno – sociology );

Inductive and deductive perspectives;

 Experimental perspective ;

  Formal perspective ;

Systemic perspective ;

 Exchange perspective; 

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