Trade Unions and Politics

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Trade Unions and Politics


The universal principle that in isolation the individual is powerless and unable to effectively defend his interests and that strength and power lies in unity, union and collective action has its strongest expression in trade unionism. Labor has organized itself into associations and unions for self-protection as well as self-help. or

It is a social movement of working people and aims to improve the social, economic and political status of an individual: by improving the status of the working group as a whole. In fact, trade unionism is the general name for all kinds of unions of working people who have joined together for their common economic betterment.


According to Sidney and Beatrice Webb, “A trade union … is a permanent association of wage earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their working life”. This definition is too narrow as it excludes wage workers and limits the function of the trade union to maintaining or improving the conditions of their working life. Today the functions of trade union have expanded a lot.


The British Ministry of Labor defines trade unions as “all organizations of employees, including salaried and professional workers as well as manual wage earners, known to engage in their actions, which regulate the conditions of employment”. According to Howard, trade unions mean – “meeting together to enter into a common organization, to determine that whatever conditions of work are allotted are to be made, they shall be common to all workers and to this effect, to bargain with the employers, the workers must unite and “refuse to work in case of failure of negotiations”. According to the Act, trade unions mean “any association, whether temporary or permanent, formed primarily for the purpose of enforcing restrictive conditions between workmen and employers, or between workmen and workmen, or between employers and employers, or . Conduct of any trade or business and includes any association of two or more trade unions. The Oxford dictionary defines a trade union as an association of workers in any trade or allied trades formed for the protection and furtherance of their interests with respect to wages, hours and conditions of labour, and for the provision, from their common wealth, for the provision of financial assistance. Members during strike, sickness, unemployment, old age etc.


Objectives of Trade Unions:


The overall economic health of the country depends on rapidly increasing productivity of labor and therefore trade unions have to assume increased responsibility for the success of productivity efforts. He is a true representative of the workers. The trade union platform can be used to achieve various ends. Its pure and simple objective may be to advance the interest of the workers at the workplace and try to improve the working conditions in the farms and factories and to inculcate good habits in them so that they become good citizens of the society. Trade unions can also use political power for the benefit of the working class. According to the National Commission on Labour, trade unions are formed to achieve the following objectives:

1) ensuring fair wages for workers;

2) safeguarding security of tenure and improving conditions of service;

3) increasing opportunities for promotion and training;

4) to improve working and living conditions;

5) providing educational, cultural and recreational facilities;

6) to assist and facilitate technological progress by providing training to workers;

7) expanding the outlook of the workers;

8) promoting the identification of the interests of workers with their industry;

9) To offer responsive co-operation to improve the level of production and productivity, high standard of discipline and quality;

10) To see that no injustice is done

for any worker;

11) promotion of individual and collective welfare;

12) Maintaining the morale of the workers.


Since workers alone cannot secure jobs or adequate wages for themselves or cannot fight on their own if they are retrenched or laid off, organizations like trade unions can lend them a helping hand. , fight for justice for them, and bargain with employers for wage increases and safer working conditions. By organizing themselves into unions, workers feel that the social system is such that their voices can be heard and cannot be completely ignored. It can also give them reassurance that they are not alone, they are part of the system and hence they can cooperate with the system.




Trade unionism in the modern sense of the word is of recent origin in India. This is the result of the beginning of the Industrial Age and the development of the new system of capitalism. But this does not mean that before the establishment of the factory system in India, the association of artisans, workers did not exist to protect their common rights and interests. In ancient India, we had fully developed guilds of craftsmen, “which were securely established in society, and had their own power, prestige and privileges”. Legislative and executive powers were enjoyed by some of the guilds and they regulated hours of work, conditions of employment, a modern trade union with these guilds, but the study of the ancient text although this regulation

Doesn’t support char. The guild consisted not only of workers, but also included entrepreneurs and master artisans, who provided capital as well as skill.


The labor movement in India, as in other industrialized countries, is a response to the challenges thrown up by modernity.



factory system of production. The movement is an inevitable response to modern industrialization, which brought unfair labor practices (long labor of the working day, low wages, and unhygienic and unsafe working conditions), employment of women and children for heavy physical labor. Modern industries in India began around 1851–60 in five sectors – cotton textiles, jute textiles, railways, coal mines and plantations.


Labor Movement and Trade Union Movement:


Before tracing the history of the movement, it would be relevant to clarify the difference between labor movement and trade union movement. The labor movement is for labor, while the trade union movement is by labor. In India, until workers organized themselves into trade unions, efforts were made to improve their working and living conditions, mainly by social reformers. The labor movement, driven by non-workers for workers, began in 1875, when government management and social activists took several measures to improve working conditions. In 1918, the trade union movement began when workers formed their own organizations to improve their conditions. The trade union movement is thus a part of the labor movement. Even today the government or employers take measures like education of workers; Family planning welfare centers etc. but trade unions do not do this.


Labor Movement (1875-1890):


It has already been mentioned that modern industrialization in India started in the decade 1851-60, which gave rise to labor problems. To deal with these problems, the British government introduced crude legislative measures such as the Apprentices Act (1853), the Fatal Accidents Act (1853), the Merchant Shipping Act (1859), the Workmen’s Breach of Contracts Act (1859) and the Employers and Workmen (Disputes) Act. Started it. ) Act 1860. However, these laws were more favorable to the employers rather than the workers and hence were not of much use to them.

During the period 1881-90, the labor movement was marked by several events –

A] The appointment of Mr. Mead King, a Lancashire factory inspector, by the Bombay Government and his suggestions on amending the Act (1882).

B] Establishment of the second Bombay Factory Commission (1884).

C] Workers’ meetings held in Bombay (September 1884) and




d] submission of a memorandum to the Second Factory Commission (October 1884); eventually

e] Submission of another memorandum to the government in 1890 signed by about 17,000 workers. Mr. N.M. Lokhande, the first labor leader organized a meeting in 1884 and the second was a memorandum signed by 5,500 workers to be submitted to the Factory Commission. The following demands have been made in the memorandum:

1] All mill workers should be given a full day’s rest on every Saturday,

2] They should be given a break of half an hour in the afternoon, 3] Work in mills should start at 6.30 a.m. and stop at sunset,

4] Wages should be paid before 15th of every month.








Birth of the Indian Trade Union Movement (1918-22):


The Indian trade union movement was born at the end of the First World War. economic and political factors are the same

Contributed to the Renaissance. The factors that contributed to the growth of labor movement were as follows-

1] During the war period, industry and trade enjoyed a period of unprecedented boom, with prices skyrocketing and no huge profits. Economic maladjustment created labor unrest and class consciousness developed among the workers.

2] The Russian Revolution in 1917, which brought about a great upheaval in Russia, brought about a new form of social order, which gave further impetus to the cause of the workers in India.

3] The establishment of the International Labor Organization (ILO) was also helpful in the organization of trade unions in this country. This created an environment where labor problems could be discussed and debated.

4] Political leaders also helped a lot in the formation and development of trade unions. The mass movement started by Lokmanya Tilak, Annie Besant and later Mahatma Gandhi created ripples in the trade union movement.


Gandhiji developed his philosophy on the basis of mutual agreement and harmony rather than class struggle. Their objective was to strengthen the union and work for the all round betterment of the working class and train the members.


He organized the ATLA (Ahmedabad Textile Labor Association), which went a long way in upholding the ideals Gandhi cherished, while some unions chose to work; independently and confined their activities to one industrial centre, others felt the need to coordinate activities



National level. Formation of an All India Federation in 1920. The All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) was the result of these requests.


With the outlawing of the Communist Party and the adoption of the new Indian Constitution in 1935, efforts were made to achieve unity of the trade union movement, which was finally achieved in 1938. Between 1936 and 1946, federalism once again gained momentum. The consequential discontent caused by World War II led to collective bargaining and compulsory arbitration.

It was promoted by the government to reduce disruption of work and ensure industrial harmony. In the post-war period the number of work stoppages increased to 1929 and 1811 in 1946 and 1947. In 1947 there were 2766 registered unions in India, of which 1920 (50%) filed returns and reported total membership

16.63 lakhs.






Federalism in Independent India:


World War II brought with it higher profits, proportionately lower wages, an increased demand for labor, and many other war problems. There was a huge increase in industrial production which increased the purchasing power and prices. Real wages fell. There was an abnormal increase in the cost of living. There was an acute shortage of the necessities of life. Due to this the workers got badly burnt. As a result, trade union activities increased and there was all-round progress both in terms of the number of trade unions and their membership. The number of registered trade unions increased from 667 to 865 during the war years and total membership increased from 511,000 in 1939–470 to 889,000 in 1944–45.


In 1947, India gained independence and the National Congress, which was earlier busy on the political front, started taking interest in labor problems as well. The Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC) was established in May 1947 under the patronage of the Congress and with government pressure. It was recognized as the most representative organization of Indian labor in a very short span of time.


The AITUC was dominated by communists and aimed at establishing a socialist state. Whereas INTIJC’s policy was that of dialogue and reconciliation within the existing political system. The Socialist Party created the Hind Mazdoor Sabha (HMS), another central labor organization free of political affiliation. HMS seeks to establish a democratic socialist society and believes in trade union independence from government, employers and political parties. It expects that the trade union will play a positive role in the development of the industry and the nation.



There has been a huge increase in the number of trade unions after independence, due to various factors such as changed attitudes towards labor unions, a new sense of awakening in the country and the economic crisis that followed the war years. The desire of political parties to help the workers as much as to seek help from them was also a contributing factor.


Union membership grew at an average annual rate of over 6% between 1947 and 1952, and in 1951–52 there were 3,744 registered unions, of which 2,291 reported membership when filing returns, although per union fell. Industrial disputes also subsided after peaking in 1946 and 1947.


The further spread of trade union centers was linked to the split in political parties. Whenever there was a split in a political party, the corresponding split took place in the trade union centre. Despite similar ideologies, each party promoted its own labor wing. with



The creation of the Jana Sangh, the Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh (BMS) was formed in 1955 and the formation of the Samyukta Socialist Party led to the birth of the Hind Mazdoor Panchayat. (HMP), in 1962. The Center of Indian Trade Unions (CITU) were formed by the CPM in the 1970s. This was a more aggressive and radical approach than ALTUC’s. After the split in UTINJC, another central organization UTIJC came into existence under the leadership of Lenin Sarani. The split in the Congress in 1972 resulted in the formation of the National Labor Organization (NLO). Among these central trade union organisations, INTUC had the maximum membership and the maximum number of affiliated unions till 1993. It is followed by BMS, HMS, IJTIJC, AITUC, CITU and NLO respectively.


The Government of India has committed in its labor policy to encourage trade union in industry. In the First Five Year Plan (1952) it was said- ‘The right of workers to association, organization and collective bargaining is to be accepted without any reservation as the fundamental basis of mutual relations. The attitude towards trade unions should not be merely a matter of tolerance. They should be welcomed and helped to function as part of the industrial system. The Second Plan document stated – “A strong trade union movement is essential to protect the interests of labor and increase production targets”.


Initially trade unions were organized at the plant level as most of the workers were unskilled. Gradually, industry-wise and sector-wise unions grew. Despite being unhealthy, the tendency to form craft unions has also increased especially in government departments and public sector. The emphasis is now on forming a plant level union affiliated to a central trade union. However, there are industrial unions, sectoral unions, craft unions, caste unions,


Also found in Shakti. Unions are adopting various tactics to get their demands accepted. Light strikes remain strikes or pen down strikes since independence, gradually, sympathetic strikes, token strikes have been used to put pressure on the employers. The “gherao” or technique of holding an officer first appeared in Calcutta in the mid-1960s and despite being declared as an unfair labor practice and the Industrial Disputes Act 1947, is still practiced by workers to accept their demands. Successfully used as a last desperate bid for , trade in india

Union security is also at times marked by violence, sabotage and indiscipline, e.g.

Union security is also at times marked by violence, sabotage and indiscipline, e.g.

Union security is also marked by violence, sabotage and indiscipline at times, e.g.

= Physical confrontation during inter-union rivalry and strike killing of managerial personnel and damage to plant and machinery.




  functions of trade unions



This is our modern ‘society’, the only true society accelerated by industrialism. As a true society, it belongs to the whole man, and embodies the possibilities of both freedom and security essential to human dignity – Frank Tannen Baum. Primarily trade unions act as a means to achieve the wishes and goals of the working class. Thus promoting, defending and protecting the interests of one of the world and maintaining and improving the standard of living of its members. other tasks include

1] Negotiating with employers on wages and other conditions of employment through the process of collective bargaining and

2] Enter into agreements with a view to provide pecuniary benefits such as wages, fringe benefits, better working conditions and facilities, and

3] Thus to provide security to their jobs. Insurance is a function which is complementary to the economic function of trade unions which struggle to cover individual risks of illness, accident, disability etc. by schemes initiated by the government or the employer. With limited finances, trade unions cannot cover any individual risk on their own.


Labor unions interpret labor laws for the benefit of workers. Leaders are consulted in the law-making process either through conventions or through labor’s representatives in legislative bodies.


Organizing and guiding the workers is another important function of the unions.


Trade unions have a strong influence on the management organization of any decision in terms of policy taken by the trade union contracts.



Trade unions on behalf of the government act as an agency for industrial democracy by advocating the right of workers to have a voice in the determination of their “working conditions” and thus protection against arbitrary and unfair treatment on their jobs provides.


Many labor unions can turn into political labor parties that can even contest elections. But they must be very strong. They have to be prudent and responsible and not allow their links with political elements to adversely affect their core functions.


To achieve success in all these areas the union seeks to power through the following union strategy:







Once the union is secured, it adopts various tactics.


Types of Union Tactics:- By tactics we mean specific forms of coercion or persuasion

junion which uses in some situation.


Organizing Campaign:- It can be a form of union strategy when

1] The mere threat of it may be sufficient to bring about management conditions.

2] Similarly a successful campaign may induce the management to accept the terms and conditions.

3] An organizing campaign may be part of a larger campaign against the entire industry.


The organizer – who may or may not be important – is usually a paid staff member of the national association. He is generally tough, resourceful, a good orator, he has a deep knowledge of the psychology of the Indian working class.


The organizing campaign may aim to gain recognition for local management. He arranges a spontaneous strike by exposing potential sympathizers in the community. If necessary, he can also call a meeting secretly if there is an active dissent. Their aim is to get these workers to spread the union message in the plant. A general propaganda campaign has been launched to activate more workers, overcome fear and alienate and stigmatize management-oriented workers. The propaganda campaign is thus carried on through propaganda, through distribution of pamphlets, and at a certain stage, through meetings and speeches by the organiser. The message may be an economic appeal or building workers’ confidence, or it may solicit members’ loyalty to their classes.



Small Strategies:- a] Boycott – Boycott are of many types. Primary boycott involves a concrete refusal to buy products manufactured by the employees of a given firm. A secondary boycott or general boycott involves not only the employees of a firm, but also other employees, other trade unions or even the general public. The third type of boycott is the refusal of workers to work on goods made in unfair shops or where there is a strike, this form of boycott comes close to being a strike in some cases.


Sabotage:- This may include willful destruction or damage to machinery or goods. This may also include the work of mixing, eliminating improperly made or styled goods. An example of such sabotage would be sewing the wrong size of button hole on a garment or cutting the wrong size of thread on a pipe or making a wrong order or making only one shoe of a pair.


Another strategy sometimes employed by labor is to go slow, with work moving forward, but at a tortoise pace. extent or effect of recession

Creeper is hard to guess; We don’t find them in statistics. Sometimes the best employees follow the rules and they often succeed. It is comprehensive and most effective. University employees also go work-by-rule to show their indifference to work or resistance to authority. It is also quite successful.


Strikes:- Can be defined as more or less temporary suspension or abandonment of jobs by the work force of an organization with the intention of forcing the management to accept a particular goal as one of the most powerful and effective weapons Is. Thus there is a concerted and simultaneous stoppage of work till the demand is met. It may therefore be justified if the demand is reasonable, when other more responsible means of solving the problems have failed, when other more reasonable chances of success and profit may outweigh the harm or inconveniences involved. Thus strike is defined as a concerted and temporary suspension of work, designed to put pressure on the authority.


No other strategy can cause so much damage to the management so quickly. A strike directly suspends production, it puts an end to the creation of profit, which is the main source of our industrial system. Besides, the strike cuts off the employer from his market and there is always a danger that the market will be lost during the strike. It also cuts off the employer from the source of his raw material which is no small matter in terms of prosperity or scarcity. In some industries, materials may be damaged during strikes. Fixed charges such as interest, taxes and salaries for executives must be met during the period when production takes place



suspended. Finally, since a prolonged strike often drastically cuts the size of dividends, it affects a firm’s ability to raise capital. Thus the very existence of the firm may be threatened by the strike.


Strike is a supreme weapon that is brought into play only when all other experiments have failed. Even the threat of strike is effective.




  types of strikes

1) Organizing strikes:- Or ‘recognition’ strikes can be the most dramatic of all strikes. These strikes are marked by bitter struggle and open violence in many cases. In this type of strike, a union, which has not yet been tested, is seeking to bring management to terms with an undetermined hold on its member who has so far successfully resisted unionism or its influence. Every move of the union is always opposed by the management. Further unionization represents a serious blow to managerial authority and powers and a series

Changes in plant social structure. Organized strike is a kind of small revolution which pits class against class in the factory. Even before an organized strike ends, it can also seriously modify social patterns of relations, sharpen class divisions, rearrange the political system.


2) Strike for economic benefits:- This is the most common type of strike which takes place for higher wages, less hours and other economic benefits. Its purpose is to secure ‘better working conditions’, this can mean anything from clean toilets to an end to the harassment of foreman. They are known as ‘economic strikes’ and are surprisingly peaceful.


3) Demonstration Strike:- In this case there may be a short work stoppage designed to impress upon the management the need to meet some labor demands. A demonstration strike can also be a draconian means of considerable force if it is repeated often enough, so behind a demonstration strike is the threat of a full-scale strike.


4) A rare type of strike is the “sympathetic” strike:- To express sympathy with the other striking labor group, a group of workers stop work. Sympathetic strikes are often a reflection of union ethics and a sense of labor solidarity. Sometimes there is an element of bargaining between the striking groups.


5) The Wild Cat Strikes:- This happens without the approval of the union in fact sometimes directly against the will of the union. Feral cat strikes may have some ‘economic’ aims but often seem to spring from some local dissatisfaction with working conditions, often



It may be limited to a single department in a plant. A feral cat strike may indicate dissatisfaction not only with the management but also with the union. Wild Cat feels that the union is failing in some important matter. Thus the wild cat strike is a threat to both management and union control and is usually roundly condemned both by the management because it represents a breach of contract and a halt to production and by the union because it Represents danger to the structure and power.


Such strikes are often an expression of a strong sense of resentment against leaders. They also teach union leaders to be more careful and more warm or in tune with workers’ needs and aspirations. Such strikes also reflect the anger of the workers towards their leaders.


6) Lightning strike:- without any warning to the management and

Unions go on strike to show the strength of the workers. It is momentary but quite effective. The objective is to express some grievances against the management.


7) General Strike:- The rarest of all forms of effort by all or large sections of organized labor to bring the employer to terms by stopping the essential activities of the society. In a complete general strike (city shutdown) factories will shut down, buses will not ply, police will not provide security. In such cases, almost all unions and political parties support and organize such bandhs.


8) Hunger Strike:- This is a Gandhian non-violent form of resistance used by some determined people who are not necessarily activists. This is also very effective. It can be cloned either by individuals or groups by starving for hours or days.


Strike is by its very nature a test of strength and if it succeeds in harming the management, it does so only at the cost of the workers. But in case of failures, the workers have to lose their jobs. Responsible unions generally go on strike only after careful and thorough consideration of the issue.


Once the strike starts, all efforts are made by the union to keep the factory closed and this is considered as a symbol of unity of the workers. Where the union is strong, the management does not try to open the plant. But in the second case, there is a sit-in by the striking workers to keep the factory closed.


Other forms of strike:


Sit Down Strike:- Here the workers occupy the factory, sit on the expensive machinery. They neither walk nor go outside the factory. Management can do nothing to remove them. sit down strike can cause damage and



Damage plants and machinery. It is largely unknown perhaps because of its illegality and public opposition. Pen down strike is also another form commonly used by executives. In such a situation, the office workers stop writing or doing any work.




A] Token picketing:- involving only a limited number of workers whose function is to advertise the fact that the plant is being struck. Such tactics are used when the union is strong. Where the union is not strong, token strikes are designed to persuade workers not to enter the plant and to persuade customers not to buy the affected plant’s products or to convince them of the righteousness of the workers’ case. There is no violence and hence it is completely legal.


b] Mass picketing:- It may involve thousands of workers who form a barrier around or in front of the affected plant. Its purpose is to prevent strike breakers from entering the field

Gate by both physical force and moral persuasion. Another function is to discipline the strikers, that is, to stand in line. The third task is to raise the morale of the strikers. The massive picket line served as a symbol of both workers’ unity and strength, while the songs, cheers, and seriousness of the picket line could have a rousing effect on workers, at least in the early stages.


A strike can quickly decide whether management or labor is the stronger party. It can also change the material of endurance between the financial resources of the strikes in the test of strength and the financial health of the company. Under these circumstances, the morale of the strikers becomes an important point. The workers suffer deprivation while the management suffers no personal loss.


To maintain the morale, public opinion is also prepared in favor of the strike. It also depends on the industry, gender, age, racial and ethnic background of the workers, their experience with unionization, and the nature of the community.


In general, a strike can end in victory for one side or in a settlement or adjournment for the other. This happens when the union cannot afford the strike and the employer cannot afford further loss of business. It ends even when the public strongly condemns the continuation of the strike by one of the parties. Recently the Resident Doctors (MARD) in Bombay went on an indefinite strike. The public criticized him a lot and did not support him.


Dharna :- Many strike workers sat on dharna in front of the employer’s office with the intention of giving more pressure. perception, purely



Indian tactics are adopted to create more pressure to meet the demands of the striking workers. It is also done to get quick results. The striking workers use this tactic continuously for several days.


Bandh:- It is characterized by closure of shops, markets and from time to time transport facilities are also forced to shut down. Some unions declared a shutdown in the city in support of the striking workers. It is the duty of the Sangh to see that there is no outburst of violence during the bandh. Bandhs are mostly declared by the unions for political reasons.


Gherav:- This is the extreme form of picketing. In this case the group of striking union members stand or sit in front of the office of the concerned authority and do not allow them to go, talk on telephone or do any necessary work. This creates psychological fear in the minds of the officers and they may capitulate. the demands of the employees

can be considered immediately.


The ‘siege’ can also be continued for days. This is the most serious form of coercion on the employer.


Recently, the Vice Chancellor or the University of Bombay was gheraoed by several students to pressurize them to accept their demands related to the examination results.


Ways to Attain Industrial Peace:


The responsibility of nurturing a healthy industrial environment rests with the management, unions and government, unions and government, political parties, community and society should also play a decisive role in improving the existing industrial relations situation in the country. Moral emphasis on the partners in the industry that maintaining cordial relations would be in the interest of all; That if there is any dispute or dispute, it should be settled by mutual negotiation or conciliation or voluntary arbitration.


The management and the unions should, in co-operation, draw up an enlightened and progressive development program covering various aspects of the worker’s life so as to ensure participation and achieve his social and psychological satisfaction. Without them the industry cannot survive. These should aim at providing various fringe and other benefits to the workers and to ensure full and efficient utilization of all available resources – financial, technical, human professional.


Some of the basic causes of industrial conflict can be effectively prevented or at least substantially reduced



Management and Action. Employee communication, grievance procedure and speedy disposal of complaints, joint counseling at various levels of the plant, education programs of workers, since adherence to the code of discipline, helpful attitude of supervisors to workers, problem improvement in working conditions and welfare provision of facilities. Including facilities for transport, education, housing and health services on a wide scale for the workers and their families – all these will go a long way in achieving industrial peace.


In short, industrial unrest is a general state of good health in the country, the causes of which indicate the clinical treatment which should be offered, preventive measures also have an important role to play in ensuring industrial peace.


According to C. W. Doten, “strikes are merely symptoms of more fundamental adjustment, injustice and economic disturbance.” Patterson views a strike as “a shrine”.

Temporary cessation of work by a group of workers to express their grievance or to enforce a demand related to a change in working conditions.

Section 2(q) of the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 defines a strike as “the cessation of work by a group of persons employed in any industry, or a concerted refusal, under a common understanding of several persons, to continue to work or has been employed to accept employment.


Accordingly, the definition of strike assumes three main elements, elements, namely i) plurality of workers ii) refusal to work to cease work and iii) joint or concerted action. “Disposal of work” means that mere absence from work is not sufficient, but that cessation of work or refusal to work must be the result of concerted action on the part of workmen with a view to enforce a demand. Such Stoppage, even for a short period, say two to four hours, would come under the definition of a strike.

Termination of work or refusal to work must be in defiance of the employer’s authority.

Further, the object of association or common understanding of the workers should be to refuse to work or perform normal duties and not to simply fast to press some demands. Mere absence from work does not mean concrete action for phased out work.

More generally, a strike can be viewed in various ways – as an action to determine the psychology of men at work or as an action for an economic cause or designed to accomplish some political end. as an action taken. for any purpose or in




Whatever they are initiated, strikes can be broadly classified into primary and secondary strikes.

Primary attacks are usually directed against the pressure with whom the dispute exists. They can take the form of stay-away strikes, stay-ins, sit-down pens or tools, down strikes; Work slow – To-rule token or protest strike; Lightning or cat-call strike picketing or boycott.

Secondary strikes are strikes in which the pressure is not directed against the primary employer with whom the primary worker has a dispute but against a third person with whom he has a good business relationship that breaks down and causes damage to the primary employer. . Such strikes are popular in the United States of America but not in India as here the third person is not considered to have any authority in relation to the workers’ dispute with the employer.



The trade union acts as a tool to change certain economic and social conditions in the factory. It fights for higher wages, shorter hours for workers, and welfare for waiters. It also seeks to curtail management’s power and social means to achieve its goals, the union should act as an instrument of power.

That is, to use it as an army to bring its opponents to terms


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